# Predictive Control in Process Engineering

## From the Basics to the Applications

1. Auflage September 2011

XXIX, 600 Seiten, Hardcover

409 Abbildungen (15 Farbabbildungen)

55 Tabellen*Praktikerbuch*

**978-3-527-31492-8**

### Kurzbeschreibung

Describing the principles and applications in a simple and lively manner, this practical book includes many examples and several industrial case studies covering a wide variety of application areas.

Describing the principles and applications of single input, single output and multivariable predictive control in a simple and lively manner, this practical book discusses topics such as the handling of on-off control, nonlinearities and numerical problems. It gives guidelines and methods for reducing the computational demand for real-time applications. With its many examples and several case studies (incl. injection molding machine and waste water treatment) and industrial applications (stripping column, distillation column, furnace) this is invaluable reading for students and engineers who would wish to understand and apply predictive control in a wide variety of process engineering application areas.

Notation and Abbreviations

INTRODUCTION TO PREDICTIVE CONTROL

Preview of Predictive Control

Manipulated, Reference, and Controlled Signals

Cost Function of Predictive Control

Reference Signal and Disturbance Preview, Receding Horizon, One-Step-Ahead, and Long-Range Optimal Control

Free and Forced Responses of the Predicted Controlled Variable

Minimization of the Cost Function

Simple Tuning Rules of Predictive Control

Control of Different Linear SISO Processes

Control of Different Linear MIMO Processes

Control of Nonlinear Processes

Control under Constraints

Robustness

Summary

LINEAR SISO MODEL DESCRIPTIONS

Nonparametric System Description

Pulse-Transfer Function Model

Discrete-Time State Space Model

Summary

PREDICTIVE ON-OFF CONTROL

Classical On-Off Control by Means of Relay Characteristics

Predictive Set Point Control

Predictive Start-Up Control at a Reference Signal Change

Predictive Gap Control

Case Study: Temperature Control of an Electrical Heat Exchanger

Summary

GENERALIZED PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF LINEAR SISO PROCESSES

Control Algorithm without Constraints

Linear Polynomial Form of Unconstrained GPC

Tuning the Controller Parameters

Blocking and Coincidence Points Techniques

Measured Disturbance Feed-Forward Compensation

Control Algorithm with Constraints

Extended GPC with Terminal Methods

Summary

PREDICTIVE PID CONTROL ALGORITHMS

Predictive PI(D) Control Structure

Predictive PI Control Algorithm

Predictive PID Control Algorithm

Equivalence between the Predictive PI(D) Algorithm and the Generalized Predictive Control Algorithm

Tuning of Predictive PI(D) Algorithms

Robustifying Effects Applied for Predictive PI(D) Control Algorithms

Summary

PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF MULTIVARIABLE PROCESSES

Model Descriptions

Predictive Equations

The Control Algorithm

Polynomial Form of the Controller (without Matrix Inversion)

Pairing of the Controlled and the Manipulated Variables

Scaling of the Controlled and the Manipulated Variables

Tuning

Decoupling Control

Case Study: Control of a Distillation Column

Summary

ESTIMATION OF THE PREDICTIVE EQUATIONS

LS Parameter Estimation

More-Steps-Ahead Prediction Based on the Estimated Process Model

Long-Range Optimal Single-Process Model Identification

Multi-Step-Ahead Predictive Equation Identification

Comparison of the Long-Range Optimal Identification Algorithms

Case Study: Level Control in a Two-Tank Plant

Summary

MULTIMODEL AND MULTICONTROLLER APPROACHES

Nonlinear Process Models

Predictive Equations

The Control Algorithm

Case Study

Summary

GPC OF NONLINEAR SISO PROCESSES

Nonlinear Process Models

Predictive Equations for the Nonparametric and Parametric Hammerstein and Volterra Models

Control Based on Nonparametric and Parametric Hammerstein and Volterra Models

Control Based on Linearized Models

Control Based on Nonlinear Free and Linearized Forced Responses

Case Study: Level Control of a Two-Tank Plant

Summary

PREDICTIVE FUNCTIONAL CONTROL

Control Strategy and Controller Parameters for a Constant Set Point

PFC for Aperiodic Processes

PFC with Disturbance Feed-Forward

PFC with Constraints

Nonlinear PFC for Processes with Signal-Dependent Parameters

Case Study: Temperature Control of a Hot Air Blower

Summary

CASE STUDIES

Predictive Temperature Control of an Injection Molding Machine

Wastewater Quality Control of an Intermittently Operated Plant

Wastewater Quality Control with Pre-Denitrification

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

Concentration Control and Pressure Minimization of a Petrochemical Distillation Column

Concentration Control and Reducing Steam Consumption in a Stripping Column

Temperature and Combustion Control of a Gas-Heated Furnace for Chemical Gasoline

PRACTICAL ASPECTS AND FUTURE TRENDS

Classification of a Predictive Control Project

Project Implementation

Implementation of a Predictive Controller

Future Trends

Summary

Ruth Bars graduated at the Electrical Engineering Faculty of the Budapest University of Technology, Hungary, where she has gained also her Ph.D. degree. Currently she is associate professor at the Department of Automation and Applied Informatics at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Her research interests are in predictive control and in developing new ways of control education. He was involved in IFAC International Federation of Automatic Control as Technical and Coordinating Committee chair.

Ulrich Schmitz studied chemical engineering and plant design at the Cologne University of Applied Sciences. Prior to this he was working as an operator in a petrochemical plant. From 2001 till 2005 he was a scientific assistant at the Cologne University of Applied Sciences and took part in a cooperative doctoral project between the Universities in Cologne and Budapest. In 2007 he received his Ph.D. from the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Since 2005 he has been working as an APC technologist for Shell Deutschland Oil at the Rhineland Refinery in Germany.