John Wiley & Sons Applied Nanoindentation in Advanced Materials Cover Research in the area of nanoindentation has gained significant momentum in recent years, but there a.. Product #: 978-1-119-08449-5 Regular price: $157.94 $157.94 Auf Lager

Applied Nanoindentation in Advanced Materials

Tiwari, Atul / Natarajan, Sridhar (eds.)

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1. Auflage September 2017
704 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd
Tiwari, Atul / Natarajan, Sridhar (Herausgeber)

ISBN: 978-1-119-08449-5
John Wiley & Sons

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Research in the area of nanoindentation has gained significant momentum in recent years, but there are very few books currently available which can educate researchers on the application aspects of this technique in various areas of materials science.

Applied Nanoindentation in Advanced Materials addresses this need and is a comprehensive, self-contained reference covering applied aspects of nanoindentation in advanced materials. With contributions from leading researchers in the field, this book is divided into three parts. Part one covers innovations and analysis, and parts two and three examine the application and evaluation of soft and ceramic-like materials respectively.

Key features:
* A one stop solution for scholars and researchers to learn applied aspects of nanoindentation
* Contains contributions from leading researchers in the field
* Includes the analysis of key properties that can be studied using the nanoindentation technique
* Covers recent innovations
* Includes worked examples

Applied Nanoindentation in Advanced Materials is an ideal reference for researchers and practitioners working in the areas of nanotechnology and nanomechanics, and is also a useful source of information for graduate students in mechanical and materials engineering, and chemistry. This book also contains a wealth of information for scientists and engineers interested in mathematical modelling and simulations related to nanoindentation testing and analysis.

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxiii

Part I 1

1 Determination of Residual Stresses by Nanoindentation 3
P-L. Larsson

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Theoretical Background 5

1.3 Determination of Residual Stresses 12

1.3.1 Low Hardening Materials and Equi-biaxial Stresses 12

1.3.2 General Residual Stresses 13

1.3.3 Strain-hardening Effects 15

1.3.4 Conclusions and Remarks 15

References 16

2 Nanomechanical Characterization of Carbon Films 19
Ben D. Beake and TomaszW. Liskiewicz

2.1 Introduction 19

2.1.1 Types of DLC Coatings and their Mechanical Properties 19

2.1.2 Carbon Films Processing Methods 20

2.1.3 Residual Stresses in Carbon Films 21

2.1.4 Friction Properties of Carbon Films 22

2.1.5 Multilayering Strategies 23

2.1.6 Applications of Carbon Films 24

2.1.7 Optimization/testing Challenges 24

2.2 Factors Influencing Reliable and Comparable Hardness and Elastic Modulus Determination 24

2.2.1 The International Standard for Depth-sensing Indentation: EN ISO 14577-4 : 2007 24

2.2.2 Challenges in Ultra-thin Films 27

2.2.3 Indenter Geometry 28

2.2.4 Surface Roughness 28

2.3 Deformation in Indentation Contact 30

2.3.1 The Relationship Between H/E and Plastic and ElasticWork in Nanoindentation 30

2.3.2 Variation in H/E and Plasticity Index for Different DLC Films 31

2.3.3 Cracking and Delamination 32

2.3.4 Coatings on Si: Si Phase Transformation 33

2.4 Nano-scratch Testing 34

2.4.1 Scan Speed and Loading Rate 35

2.4.2 Influence of Probe Radius 36

2.4.3 Contact Pressure 36

2.4.4 Role of the Si Substrate in Nano-scratch Testing 38

2.4.5 Failure Behaviour of ta-C on Si 40

2.4.6 Film Stress and Thickness 43

2.4.7 Repetitive Nano-wear by Multi-pass Nano-scratch Tests 44

2.4.8 Load Dependence of Friction 46

2.5 Impact and Fatigue Resistance of DLC Films Using Nano-impact Testing 46

2.5.1 Compositionally Graded a-C and a-C:H Coatings on M42 Tool Steel 49

2.5.2 DLC/Cr Coating on Steel 51

2.5.3 PACVD a-C:H Coatings on M2 Steel 51

2.5.4 DLC Films on Si-film Thickness, Probe Geometry, Impact Force and Interfacial Toughness 52

2.6 Wear Resistance of Amorphous Carbon Films Using Nano-fretting Testing 54

2.6.1 Nano-fretting: State-of-the-art 55

2.6.2 Nano-fretting of Thin DLC Films on Si 55

2.6.3 Nano-fretting of DLC Coatings on Steel 57

2.7 Conclusion 58

References 59

3 Mechanical Evaluation of Nanocoatings under Extreme Environments for Application in Energy Systems 69
E.J. Rubio, G. Martinez, S.K. Gullapalli, M. Noor-A-Alam and C.V. Ramana

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 Thermal Barrier Coatings 70

3.2.1 Nanoindentation Characterization of TBCs 72

3.2.2 Mechanical Properties of Hafnium-based TBCs 74

3.3 Nanoindentation Evaluation of Coatings for Nuclear Power Generation Applications 76

3.3.1 Evaluation ofW-based Materials for Nuclear Application 77

3.4 Conclusions and Outlook 80

Acknowledgments 81

References 81

4 Evaluation of the Nanotribological Properties of Thin Films 83
ShojiroMiyake and MeiWang

4.1 Introduction 83

4.2 Evaluation Methods of Nanotribology 83

4.3 Nanotribology Evaluation Methods and Examples 84

4.3.1 Nanoindentation Evaluation 84

4.3.2 Nanowear and Friction Evaluation 88

4.3.2.1 Nanowear Properties 89

4.3.2.2 Frictional Properties with Different Lubricants 91

4.3.2.3 Nanowear and Frictional Properties, Evaluated with and without

Vibrations 95

4.3.3 Evaluation of the Force Modulation 98

4.3.4 Evaluation of the Mechanical and Other Physical Properties 102

4.4 Conclusions 108

References 108

5 Nanoindentation on Tribological Coatings 111
Francisco J.G. Silva

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 Relevant Properties on Coatings for Tribological Applications 116

5.3 How can Nanoindentation Help Researchers to Characterize Coatings? 116

5.3.1 Thin Coatings Nanoindentation Procedures 118

5.3.2 Hardness Determination 120

5.3.3 Young's Modulus Determination 123

5.3.4 Tensile Properties Determination 124

5.3.5 Fracture Toughness inThin Films 125

5.3.6 Coatings Adhesion Analysis 126

5.3.7 Stiffness and Other Mechanical Properties 127

5.3.8 Simulation and Models Applied to Nanoindentation 128

References 129

6 Nanoindentation of Macro-porous Materials for Elastic Modulus and Hardness Determination 135
Zhangwei Chen

6.1 Introduction 135

6.1.1 Nanoindentation Fundamentals for Dense Materials 135

6.1.2 Introduction to Porous Materials 137

6.1.3 Studies of Elastic Properties of Porous Materials 138

6.2 Nanoindentation of Macro-porous Bulk Ceramics 140

6.3 Nanoindentation of Bone Materials 143

6.4 Nanoindentation of Macro-porous Films 144

6.4.1 Substrate Effect 145

6.4.2 Densification Effect 147

6.4.3 Surface Roughness Effect 149

6.5 Concluding Remarks 151

Acknowledgements 151

References 151

7 Nanoindentation Applied to DC Plasma Nitrided Parts 157
Silvio Francisco Brunatto and CarlosMaurício Lepienski

7.1 Introduction 157

7.2 Basic Aspects of DC Plasma Nitrided Parts 160

7.2.1 The Potential Distribution for an Abnormal Glow Discharge 160

7.2.2 Plasma-surface Interaction in Cathode Surface 161

7.2.3 Electrical Configuration Modes in DC Plasma Nitriding 162

7.3 Basic Aspects of Nanoindentation in Nitrided Surfaces 163

7.4 Examples of Nanoindentation Applied to DC Plasma Nitrided Parts 167

7.4.1 Mechanical Polishing: Nanoindentation in Niobium 169

7.4.2 Surface Roughness: Nanoindentation in DC Plasma Nitrided Parts 170

7.4.2.1 Nanoindentation in DC Plasma Nitrided Niobium 170

7.4.2.2 Nanoindentation in DC Plasma Nitrided Titanium 174

7.4.2.3 Nanoindentation in DC Plasma Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel 175

7.4.3 Nitrogen-concentration Gradients: Nanoindentation in DC Plasma Nitrided Tool Steel 176

7.4.4 Crystallographic Orientation: Nanoindentation in DC Plasma Nitrided Austenitic Stainless Steels 177

7.5 Conclusion 178

Acknowledgements 179

References 179

8 Nanomechanical Properties of Defective Surfaces 183
Oscar Rodríguez de la Fuente

8.1 Introduction 183

8.1.1 The Role of Surface Defects in Plasticity 183

8.1.2 Experimental Techniques for Visualization and Generation of Surface Defects 184

8.1.3 Approaches to Study and Probe Nanomechanical Properties 185

8.2 Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Dislocation Nucleation 186

8.2.1 Homogeneous Dislocation Nucleation 186

8.2.2 Heterogeneous Dislocation Nucleation 188

8.3 Surface Steps 190

8.3.1 Studies on Surface Steps 191

8.4 Subsurface Defects 194

8.4.1 Sub-surface Vacancies 195

8.4.2 Sub-surface Impurities and Dislocations 195

8.5 Rough Surfaces 197

8.6 Conclusions 200

Acknowledgements 200

References 200

9 Viscoelastic and Tribological Behavior of Al2O3 Reinforced Toughened Epoxy Hybrid Nanocomposites 205
Mandhakini Mohandas and AlagarMuthukaruppan

9.1 Introduction 205

9.2 Experimental 206

9.2.1 Materials 206

9.2.2 FTIR Analysis 208

9.2.3 Results and Discussion 209

9.2.3.1 Viscoeleastic Properties 210

9.2.3.2 Hardness and Modulus by Nanoindentation 214

9.3 Conclusion 219

References 220

10 Nanoindentation of Hybrid Foams 223
Anne Jung, Zhaoyu Chen and Stefan Diebels

10.1 Introduction 223

10.1.1 Motivation 223

10.1.2 State of the art of Nanoindentation of Metal and Metal Foam 226

10.2 Sample Material and Preparation 230

10.2.1 Al Material and Coating Process 230

10.2.2 Sample Preparation for Nanoindentation 231

10.3 Nanoindentation Experiments 232

10.3.1 Experimental Setup 232

10.3.2 Results and Discussion 232

10.4 Conclusions and Outlook 239

Acknowledgements 240

References 240

11 AFM-based Nanoindentation of Cellulosic Fibers 247
Christian Ganser and Christian Teichert

11.1 Introduction 247

11.2 Experimental 248

11.2.1 AFM Instrumentation 248

11.2.2 AFM-based Nanoindentation 250

11.2.3 Comparison with Results of Classical NI 255

11.2.4 Sample Preparation 256

11.3 Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Fibers 257

11.3.1 Pulp Fibers 257

11.3.2 Swollen Viscose Fibers 259

11.4 Conclusions and Outlook 265

Acknowledgments 265

References 266

12 Evaluation of Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Coatings for Stainless Steel 269
A.Mina, J.C. Caicedo,W. Aperador, M. Mozafari and H.H. Caicedo

12.1 Introduction 269

12.2 Experimental Details 270

12.3 Results and Discussion 271

12.3.1 Crystal Lattice Arrangement of ß-TCP/Ch Coatings 271

12.3.2 Surface Coating Analysis 272

12.3.3 Morphological Analysis of the ß-TCP-Ch Coatings 274

12.3.4 Mechanical Properties 276

12.3.5 Tribological Properties 279

12.3.6 SurfaceWear Analysis 280

12.3.7 Adhesion Behaviour 281

12.4 Conclusions 283

Acknowledgements 283

References 283

13 Nanoindentation in Metallic Glasses 287
Vahid Nekouie, Anish Roy and Vadim V. Silberschmidt

13.1 Introduction 287

13.1.1 Motivation 287

13.1.2 Nanoindentation Studies of Metallic Glasses 288

13.1.2.1 Pile-up and Sink-in 291

13.1.2.2 Indentation Size Effect 293

13.2 Experimental Studies 296

13.2.1 Nano Test Platform III Indentation System 296

13.2.2 Calibration 297

13.2.2.1 Frame Compliance 298

13.2.2.2 Cross-hair Calibration 298

13.2.2.3 Indenter Area Function 298

13.2.3 Experimental Procedure 301

13.2.4 Results and Discussion 301

13.3 Conclusions 307

References 308

Part II 313

14 Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Nanoindentation 315
C.J. Ruestes, E.M. Bringa, Y. Gao and H.M. Urbassek

14.1 Introduction 315

14.2 Methods 316

14.2.1 The Indentation Tip 318

14.2.2 Control Methods Used in Experiment and in MD Simulations 319

14.2.3 Penetration Rate 320

14.3 Interatomic Potentials 321

14.3.1 Elastic Constants 321

14.3.2 Generalized Stacking Fault Energies 322

14.4 Elastic Regime 324

14.5 The Onset of Plasticity 325

14.5.1 Evolution of the Dislocation Network 325

14.5.2 Contact Area and Hardness 327

14.5.3 Indentation Rate Effect 328

14.5.4 Tip Diameter Effect 329

14.6 The Plastic Zone: Dislocation Activity 329

14.6.1 Face-centered Cubic Metals 329

14.6.2 Body-centered Cubic Metals 330

14.6.3 Quantification of Dislocation Length and Density 331

14.6.4 Pile-up 333

14.6.5 Geometrically-necessary Dislocations and the Identification of Intrinsic Length-scales from Hardness Simulations 334

14.7 Outlook 336

Acknowledgements 337

References 337

15 Continuum Modelling and Simulation of Indentation in Transparent Single Crystalline Minerals and Energetic Solids 347
J.D. Clayton, B.B. Aydelotte, R. Becker, C.D. Hilton and J. Knap

15.1 Introduction 347

15.2 Theory: MaterialModelling 349

15.2.1 General Multi-field Continuum Theory 349

15.2.2 Crystal Plasticity Theory 350

15.2.3 Phase FieldTheory for Twinning 351

15.3 Application: Indentation of RDX Single Crystals 352

15.3.1 Review of PriorWork 353

15.3.2 New Results and Analysis 354

15.4 Application: Indentation of Calcite Single Crystals 356

15.4.1 Review of PriorWork 359

15.4.2 New Results and Analysis 361

15.5 Conclusions 364

Acknowledgements 365

References 365

16 NanoindentationModeling: From Finite Element to Atomistic Simulations 369
Daniel Esqué- de los Ojos and Jordi Sort

16.1 Introduction 369

16.2 Scaling and Dimensional Analysis Applied to IndentationModelling 370

16.2.1 Geometrical Similarity of Indenter Tips 370

16.2.2 Dimensional Analysis 371

16.2.3 Dimensional Analysis Applied to Extraction of Mechanical Properties 372

16.3 Finite Element Simulations of Advanced Materials 374

16.3.1 Nanocrystalline Porous Materials and Pressure-sensitive Models 375

16.3.2 Finite Element Simulations of 1D Structures: Nanowires 378

16.3.3 Continuum Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulations: Nanoindentation of Thin Solid Films 380

16.4 Nucleation and Interaction of Dislocations During Single Crystal Nanoindentaion: Atomistic Simulations 383

16.4.1 Dislocation Dynamics Simulations 383

16.4.2 Molecular Dynamics Simulations 385

References 386

17 Nanoindentation in silico of Biological Particles 393
Olga Kononova, Kenneth A. Marx and Valeri Barsegov

17.1 Introduction 393

17.2 ComputationalMethodology of Nanoindentation in silico 395

17.2.1 Molecular Modelling of Biological Particles 395

17.2.2 Coarse-graining: Self-organized Polymer (SOP) Model 396

17.2.3 MultiscaleModeling Primer: SOP Model Parameterization for Microtubule Polymers 398

17.2.4 Using Graphics Processing Units as Performance Accelerators 399

17.2.5 Virtual AFM Experiment: Forced Indentation in silico of Biological Particles 401

17.3 Biological Particles 403

17.3.1 Cylindrical Particles: Microtubule Polymers 403

17.3.2 Spherical Particles: CCMV Shell 404

17.4 Nanoindentation in silico: Probing Reversible Changes in Near-equilibrium Regime 406

17.4.1 Probing Reversible Transitions 406

17.4.2 Studying Near-equilibrium Dynamics 407

17.5 Application of in silico Nanoindentation: Dynamics of Deformation of MT and CCMV 409

17.5.1 Long Polyprotein - Microtubule Protofilament 409

17.5.2 Cylindrical Particle - Microtubule Polymer 411

17.5.3 Spherical Particle - CCMV Protein Shell 416

17.6 Concluding Remarks 421

References 424

18 Modeling and Simulations in Nanoindentation 429
Yi Sun and Fanlin Zeng

18.1 Introduction 429

18.2 Simulations of Nanoindention on Polymers 430

18.2.1 Models and Simulation Methods 430

18.2.2 Load-displacement Responses 431

18.2.3 Hardness and Young's Modulus 433

18.2.4 The Mechanism of Mechanical Behaviours and Properties 437

18.3 Simulations of Nanoindention on Crystals 441

18.3.1 Models and Simulation Methods 442

18.3.2 The Load-displacement Responses 444

18.3.3 Dislocation Nucleation 446

18.3.4 Mechanism of Dislocation Emission 449

18.4 Conclusions 455

Acknowledgments 456

References 456

19 Nanoindentation of Advanced Ceramics: Applications to ZrO2 Materials 459
Joan Josep Roa Rovira, Emilio Jiménez Piqué andMarc J. Anglada Gomila

19.1 Introduction 459

19.2 IndentationMechanics 460

19.2.1 Deformation Mechanics 460

19.2.2 Elastic Contact 461

19.2.3 Elasto/plastic Contact 462

19.3 Fracture Toughness 462

19.4 Coatings 463

19.4.1 Coating Hardness 463

19.4.2 Coating Elastic Modulus 464

19.5 Issues for Reproducible Results 464

19.6 Applications of Nanoindentation to Zirconia 465

19.6.1 Hardness and Elastic Modulus 466

19.6.2 Stress-strain Curve and Phase Transformation 467

19.6.3 Plastic Deformation Mechanisms 468

19.6.4 Mechanical Properties of Damaged Surfaces 468

19.6.5 Relation Between Microstructure and Local Mechanical Properties by

Massive Nanoindentation Cartography 471

19.7 Conclusions 472

Acknowledgements 472

References 473

20 FEM Simulation of Nanoindentation 481
F. Pöhl, W. Theisen and S. Huth

20.1 Introduction 481

20.2 Indentation of Isotropic Materials 482

20.3 Indentation of Thin Films 489

20.4 Indentation of a Hard Phase Embedded in Matrix 490

References 495

21 Investigations Regarding Plastic Flow Behaviour and Failure Analysis on CrAlN Thin Hard Coatings 501
Jan Perne

21.1 Introduction 501

21.2 Description of the Method 501

21.2.1 Flow Curve Determination 502

21.2.1.1 Nanoindentation Step 502

21.2.1.2 Yield Strength Determination 502

21.2.1.3 Flow Curve Determination by Iterative Simulation 503

21.2.1.4 Determination of Strain Rate and Temperature Dependency 503

21.2.2 Failure Criterion Determination with Nano-scratch Analysis 503

21.3 Investigations into the CrAlN Coating System 504

21.3.1 Flow curve dependency on chemical composition and microstructure 504

21.3.2 Strain Rate Dependency of Different CrN-AlN Coating Systems 506

21.3.3 Failure criterion determination on a CrN/AlN nanolaminate 507

21.4 Concluding Remarks 509

References 511

22 Scale Invariant Mechanical Surface Optimization 513
Norbert Schwarzer

22.1 Introduction 513

22.1.1 Interatomic Potential Description of Mechanical Material Behavior 513

22.1.2 The Effective Indenter Concept and Its Extension to Layered Materials 514

22.1.3 About Extensions of the Oliver and Pharr Method 514

22.1.3.1 Making the Classical Oliver and Pharr Method Fit for Time Dependent Mechanical Behavior 515

22.1.4 Introduction to the Physical Scratch and/or Tribological Test and its Analysis 515

22.1.5 Illustrative Hypothetical Example for Optimization Against Dust Impact 515

22.1.6 About the Influence of Intrinsic Stresses 516

22.2 Theory 517

22.2.1 First Principle Based Interatomic Potential Description of Mechanical Material Behavior 517

22.2.2 The Effective Indenter Concept 521

22.2.3 An Oliver and Pharr Method for Time Dependent Layered Materials 522

22.2.4 Theory for the Physical Scratch and/or Tribological Test 533

22.2.5 From Quasi-Static Experiments and Parameters to DynamicWear, Fretting and Tribological Tests 534

22.2.6 Including Biaxial Intrinsic Stresses 537

22.3 The Procedure 540

22.4 Discussion by Means of Examples 544

22.5 Conclusions 555

Acknowledgements 555

Referencess 556

23 Modelling and Simulations of Nanoindentation in Single Crystals 561
Qiang Liu,Murat Demiral, Anish Roy and Vadim V. Silberschmidt

23.1 Introduction 561

23.2 Review of IndentationModelling 564

23.3 Crystal PlasticityModelling of Nanoindentation 565

23.3.1 Indentation of F.C.C. Copper Single Crystal 567

23.3.2 Indentation of B.C.C. Ti-64 569

23.3.3 Indentation of B.C.C. Ti-15-3-3 571

23.4 Conclusions 573

References 574

24 Computer Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Nanoindentation Technique 579
A. Karimzadeh,M.R. Ayatollahi and A. Rahimi

24.1 Introduction 579

24.2 Finite Element Simulation for Nanoindentation 580

24.3 Finite Element Modeling 580

24.3.1 Geometry 580

24.3.2 Material Characteristics 581

24.3.3 Boundary Condition 582

24.3.4 Interaction 582

24.3.5 Meshing 582

24.4 Verification of Finite Element Simulation 583

24.4.1 Nanoindentation Experiment on Al 1100 584

24.4.2 Comparison Between Simulation and Experimental Results for Al 1100 584

24.4.2.1 Load-displacement 584

24.4.2.2 Hardness 588

24.5 Molecular Dynamic Modeling for Nanoindentation 591

24.5.1 Simulation Procedure 592

24.6 Results of Molecular Dynamic Simulation 595

24.7 Conclusions 597

References 597

25 Atomistic Simulations of Adhesion, Indentation andWear at Nanoscale 601
Jun Zhong, Donald J. Siegel, Louis G. Hector, Jr. and James B. Adams

25.1 Introduction 601

25.2 Methodologies 604

25.2.1 Density FunctionalTheory 604

25.2.1.1 The Exchange-correlation Functional 605

25.2.1.2 PlaneWaves and Supercell 606

25.2.2 Pseudopotential Approximation 606

25.2.3 Molecular Dynamics 607

25.2.3.1 Equations of Motion 607

25.2.3.2 Algorithms 608

25.2.3.3 Statistical Ensembles 608

25.2.3.4 Interatomic Potentials 608

25.2.3.5 Ab initio Molecular Dynamics 609

25.2.4 Some Commercial Software 611

25.2.4.1 The VASP 611

25.2.4.2 The LAMMPS 611

25.3 Density Functional Study of Adhesion at the Metal/Ceramic Interfaces 612

25.3.1 Calculations 612

25.3.2 Effect of Surface Energies in theWsep 614

25.3.3 Conclusions 615

25.4 Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Nanoindentation 616

25.4.1 Empirical Modeling 616

25.4.1.1 Modeling Geometry and Simulation Procedures 617

25.4.1.2 Results and discussions 618

25.4.1.3 Conclusions 622

25.4.2 Ab initio Modeling 622

25.4.2.1 Modeling Geometry and Simulation Procedures 622

25.4.2.2 Results and Discussions 624

25.5 Molecular Dynamics Simulations of AdhesiveWear on the Al-substrate 628

25.5.1 Modeling Geometry and Simulation Procedures 629

25.5.2 Results and Discussions 630

25.5.2.1 One CommonWear Sequence 630

25.5.2.2 Thermal Analysis for theWear Sequence 631

25.5.2.3 Wear Rate Analyses 632

25.6 Summary and Prospect 636

Acknowledgments 638

References 638

26 Multiscale Model for Nanoindentation in Polymer and Polymer Nanocomposites 647
Rezwanur Rahman

26.1 Introduction 647

26.2 Modeling Scheme 648

26.2.1 Details of the MD Simulation 649

26.3 Nanoindentation Test 650

26.4 Theoretically and Experimentally Determined Result 651

26.5 Multiscale of Complex Heterogeneous Materials 651

26.5.1 Introduction to Peridynamics 652

26.5.2 Nonlocal Multiscale Modeling using Peridynamics: Linking Macro- to Nano-scales 654

26.6 MultiscaleModeling for Nanoindentation in Epoxy: EPON 862 655

26.7 UnifiedTheory for MultiscaleModeling 658

26.8 Conclusion 658

References 659

Index 663
Dr. Atul Tiwari currently serves as Director, R&D at Pantheon Chemicals in Phoenix, USA. Previously, Dr. Tiwari has served as a research faculty member in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Hawaii, USA. He has achieved double subject majors, in Organic Chemistry as well as Mechanical Engineering. His area of research interest includes the development of smart materials including silicones, graphene and bio-inspired biomaterials for various industrial applications, and he has created several international patented/patents pending technologies that have been transferred to the industries.