John Wiley & Sons Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology Cover This book deals with multigigawatt, ultrashort pulse power system design, beginning with the design .. Product #: 978-1-118-62839-3 Regular price: $139.25 $139.25 Auf Lager

Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology

Lehr, Jane / Ron, Pralhad

Cover

1. Auflage August 2017
664 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-118-62839-3
John Wiley & Sons

Kurzbeschreibung

This book deals with multigigawatt, ultrashort pulse power system design, beginning with the design of individual components such as impulse generators/pulse forming lines/closing & opening switches/capacitor banks. This cannot be achieved without knowledge of techniques of electrical breakdown in different mediums, voltage & current measurement and EMI/EMC.

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Examines the foundation of pulse power technology in detail to optimize the technology in modern engineering settings

Pulsed power technologies could be an answer to many cutting-edge applications. The challenge is in how to develop this high-power/high-energy technology to fit current market demands of low-energy consuming applications. This book provides a comprehensive look at pulsed power technology and shows how it can be improved upon for the world of today and tomorrow.

Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology focuses on the design and construction of the building blocks as well as their optimum assembly for synergetic high performance of the overall pulsed power system. Filled with numerous design examples throughout, the book offers chapter coverage on various subjects such as: Marx generators and Marx-like circuits; pulse transformers; pulse-forming lines; closing switches; opening switches; multi-gigawatt to multi-terawatt systems; energy storage in capacitor banks; electrical breakdown in gases; electrical breakdown in solids, liquids and vacuum; pulsed voltage and current measurements; electromagnetic interference and noise suppression; and EM topology for interference control. In addition, the book:
* Acts as a reference for practicing engineers as well as a teaching text
* Features relevant design equations derived from the fundamental concepts in a single reference
* Contains lucid presentations of the mechanisms of electrical breakdown in gaseous, liquid, solid and vacuum dielectrics
* Provides extensive illustrations and references

Foundations of Pulsed Power Technology will be an invaluable companion for professionals working in the fields of relativistic electron beams, intense bursts of light and heavy ions, flash X-ray systems, pulsed high magnetic fields, ultra-wide band electromagnetics, nuclear electromagnetic pulse simulation, high density fusion plasma, and high energy- rate metal forming techniques.

Preface xvii

About the Authors xxi

Acknowledgements xxiii

Introduction xxv

1 Marx Generators and Marx-Like Circuits 1

1.1 Operational Principles of Simple Marxes 1

1.1.1 Marx Charge Cycle 3

1.1.2 Marx Erection 4

1.1.3 Marx Discharge Cycle 6

1.1.4 Load Effects on the Marx Discharge 10

1.2 Impulse Generators 15

1.2.1 Exact Solutions 15

1.2.2 Approximate Solutions 18

1.2.3 Distributed Front Resistors 19

1.3 Effects of Stray Capacitance on Marx Operation 19

1.3.1 Voltage Division by Stray Capacitance 20

1.3.2 Exploiting Stray Capacitance: The Wave Erection Marx 22

1.3.3 The Effects of Interstage Coupling Capacitance 23

1.4 Enhanced Triggering Techniques 26

1.4.1 Capacitive Back-Coupling 26

1.4.2 Resistive Back-Coupling 27

1.4.3 Capacitive and Resistively Coupled Marx 28

1.4.4 The Maxwell Marx 30

1.5 Examples of Complex Marx Generators 31

1.5.1 Hermes I and II 31

1.5.2 PBFA and Z 32

1.5.3 Aurora 33

1.6 Marx Generator Variations 33

1.6.1 Marx/PFN with Resistive Load 35

1.6.2 Helical Line Marx Generator 38

1.7 Other Design Considerations 39

1.7.1 Charging Voltage and Number of Stages 39

1.7.2 Insulation System 40

1.7.3 Marx Capacitors 41

1.7.4 Marx Spark Gaps 41

1.7.5 Marx Resistors 42

1.7.6 Marx Initiation 42

1.7.7 Repetitive Operation 44

1.7.8 Circuit Modeling 45

1.8 Marx-Like Voltage-Multiplying Circuits 45

1.8.1 The Spiral Generator 46

1.8.2 Time Isolation Line Voltage Multiplier 48

1.8.3 The LC Inversion Generator 49

1.9 Design Examples 54

2 Pulse Transformers 63

2.1 Tesla Transformers 63

2.1.1 Equivalent Circuit and Design Equations 64

2.1.2 Double Resonance and Waveforms 65

2.1.3 Off Resonance and Waveforms 66

2.1.4 Triple Resonance and Waveforms 67

2.1.5 No Load and Waveforms 68

2.1.6 Construction and Configurations 69

2.2 Transmission Line Transformers 71

2.2.1 Tapered Transmission Line 71

2.3 Magnetic Induction 79

2.3.1 Linear Pulse Transformers 81

2.3.2 Induction Cells 81

2.3.3 Linear Transformer Drivers 83

2.4 Design Examples 90

3 Pulse Forming Lines 97

3.1 Transmission Lines 97

3.1.1 General Transmission Line Relations 99

3.1.2 The Transmission Line Pulser 101

3.2 Coaxial Pulse Forming Lines 102

3.2.1 Basic Design Relations 102

3.2.2 Optimum Impedance for Maximum Voltage 104

3.2.3 Optimum Impedance for Maximum Energy Store 105

3.3 Blumlein PFL 105

3.3.1 Transient Voltages and Output Waveforms 107

3.3.2 Coaxial Blumleins 109

3.3.3 Stacked Blumlein 111

3.4 Radial Lines 113

3.5 Helical Lines 116

3.6 PFL Performance Parameters 117

3.6.1 Electrical Breakdown 118

3.6.2 Dielectric Strength 119

3.6.3 Dielectric Constant 126

3.6.4 Self-Discharge Time Constant 126

3.6.5 PFL Switching 127

3.7 Pulse Compression 128

3.7.1 Intermediate Storage Capacitance 129

3.7.2 Voltage Ramps and Double-Pulse Switching 129

3.7.3 Pulse Compression on Z 131

3.8 Design Examples 134

4 Closing Switches 147

4.1 Spark Gap Switches 148

4.1.1 Electrode Geometries 150

4.1.2 Equivalent Circuit of a Spark Gap 154

4.1.3 Spark Gap Characteristics 158

4.1.4 Current Sharing in Spark Gaps 172

4.1.5 Triggered Spark Gaps 177

4.1.6 Specialized Spark Gap Geometries 195

4.1.7 Materials Used in Spark Gaps 201

4.2 Gas Discharge Switches 204

4.2.1 The Pseudospark Switch 204

4.2.2 Thyratrons 209

4.2.3 Ignitrons 213

4.2.4 Krytrons 214

4.2.5 Radioisotope-Aided Miniature Spark Gap 216

4.3 Solid Dielectric Switches 216

4.4 Magnetic Switches 217

4.4.1 The Hysteresis Curve 218

4.4.2 Magnetic Core Size 220

4.5 Solid-State Switches 221

4.5.1 Thyristor-Based Switches 223

4.5.2 Transistor-Based Switches 230

4.6 Design Examples 231

5 Opening Switches 251

5.1 Typical Circuits 251

5.2 Equivalent Circuit 253

5.3 Opening Switch Parameters 254

5.3.1 Conduction Time 255

5.3.2 Trigger Source for Closure 255

5.3.3 Trigger Source for Opening 256

5.3.4 Opening Time 256

5.3.5 Dielectric Strength Recovery Rate 256

5.4 Opening Switch Configurations 256

5.4.1 Exploding Fuse 257

5.4.2 Electron Beam-Controlled Switch 267

5.4.3 Vacuum Arc Switch 280

5.4.4 Explosive Switch 284

5.4.5 Explosive Plasma Switch 286

5.4.6 Plasma Erosion Switch 286

5.4.7 Dense Plasma Focus 287

5.4.8 Plasma Implosion Switch 289

5.4.9 Reflex Switch 290

5.4.10 Crossed Field Tube 291

5.4.11 Miscellaneous 293

5.5 Design Example 294

6 Multigigawatt to Multiterawatt Systems 303

6.1 Capacitive Storage 305

6.1.1 Primary Capacitor Storage 305

6.1.2 Primary-Intermediate Capacitor Storage 306

6.1.3 Primary-Intermediate-Fast Capacitor Storage 307

6.1.3.1 Fast Marx Generator 308

6.1.4 Parallel Operation of Marx Generators 308

6.1.5 Pulse Forming Line Requirements for Optimum Performance 309

6.2 Inductive Storage Systems 311

6.2.1 Primary Inductor Storage 311

6.2.2 Cascaded Inductor Storage 311

6.3 Magnetic Pulse Compression 313

6.4 Inductive Voltage Adder 315

6.5 Induction Linac Techniques 317

6.5.1 Magnetic Core Induction Linacs 317

6.5.2 Pulsed Line Induction Linacs 319

6.5.3 Autoaccelerator Induction Linac 322

6.6 Design Examples 323

7 Energy Storage in Capacitor Banks 331

7.1 Basic Equations 331

7.1.1 Case 1: Lossless, Undamped Circuit xi . 0 333

7.1.2 Case 2: Overdamped Circuit xi > 1 334

7.1.3 Case 3: Underdamped Circuit xi

7.1.4 Case 4: Critically Damped Circuit xi . 1 336

7.1.5 Comparison of Circuit Responses 337

7.2 Capacitor Bank Circuit Topology 338

7.2.1 Equivalent Circuit of a Low-Energy Capacitor Bank 339

7.2.2 Equivalent Circuit of a High-Energy Capacitor Bank 340

7.3 Charging Supply 342

7.3.1 Constant Voltage (Resistive) Charging 342

7.3.2 Constant Current Charging 344

7.3.3 Constant Power Charging 345

7.4 Components of a Capacitor Bank 345

7.4.1 Energy Storage Capacitor 346

7.4.2 Trigger Pulse Generator 350

7.4.3 Transmission Lines 352

7.4.4 Power Feed 356

7.5 Safety 357

7.6 Typical Capacitor Bank Configurations 361

7.7 Example Problems 363

8 Electrical Breakdown in Gases 369

8.1 Kinetic Theory of Gases 369

8.1.1 The Kinetic Theory of Neutral Gases 370

8.1.2 The Kinetic Theory of Ionized Gases 377

8.2 Early Experiments in Electrical Breakdown 384

8.2.1 Paschen's Law 384

8.2.2 Townsend's Experiments 385

8.2.3 Paschen's Law Revisited 387

8.2.4 The Electron Avalanche 391

8.3 Mechanisms of Spark Formation 393

8.3.1 The Townsend Discharge 394

8.3.2 Theory of the Streamer Mechanism 400

8.4 The Corona Discharge 413

8.5 Pseudospark Discharges 415

8.5.1 The Prebreakdown Regime 415

8.5.2 Breakdown Regime 416

8.6 Breakdown Behavior of Gaseous SF6 417

8.6.1 Electrode Material 418

8.6.2 Surface Area and Surface Finish 418

8.6.3 Gap Spacing and High Pressures 419

8.6.4 Insulating Spacer 420

8.6.5 Contamination by Conducting Particles 420

8.7 Intershields for Optimal Use of Insulation 421

8.7.1 Cylindrical Geometry 421

8.7.2 Spherical Geometry 426

8.8 Design Examples 427

9 Electrical Breakdown in Solids, Liquids, and Vacuum 439

9.1 Solids 439

9.1.1 Breakdown Mechanisms in Solids 440

9.1.2 Methods of Improving Solid Insulator Performance 449

9.2 Liquids 452

9.2.1 Breakdown Mechanisms in Liquids 452

9.2.2 Mechanisms of Bubble Formation 455

9.2.3 Breakdown Features of Water 457

9.2.4 Methods of Improving Liquid Dielectric Performance 457

9.3 Vacuum 459

9.3.1 Vacuum Breakdown Mechanisms 459

9.3.2 Improving Vacuum Insulation Performance 464

9.3.3 Triple-Point Junction Modifications 467

9.3.4 Vacuum Magnetic Insulation 468

9.3.5 Surface Flashover Across Solids in Vacuum 471

9.4 Composite Dielectrics 479

9.5 Design Examples 481

10 Pulsed Voltage and Current Measurements 493

10.1 Pulsed Voltage Measurement 493

10.1.1 Spark Gaps 493

10.1.2 Crest Voltmeters 496

10.1.3 Voltage Dividers 498

10.1.4 Electro-optical Techniques 511

10.1.5 Reflection Attenuator 518

10.2 Pulsed Current Measurement 519

10.2.1 Current Viewing Resistor 519

10.2.2 Rogowski Coil 523

10.2.3 Inductive (B-dot) Probe 529

10.2.4 Current Transformer 530

10.2.5 Magneto-optic Current Transformer 530

10.3 Design Examples 535

11 Electromagnetic Interference and Noise Suppression 547

11.1 Interference Coupling Modes 547

11.1.1 Coupling in Long Transmission Lines 548

11.1.2 Common Impedance Coupling 550

11.1.3 Coupling of Short Transmission Lines over a Ground Plane 551

11.2 Noise Suppression Techniques 559

11.2.1 Shielded Enclosure 559

11.2.2 Grounding and Ground Loops 566

11.2.3 Power Line Filters 569

11.2.4 Isolation Transformer 571

11.3 Well-Shielded Equipment Topology 572

11.3.1 High-Interference Immunity Measurement System 574

11.3.2 Immunity Technique for Free Field Measurements 575

11.4 Design Examples 575

12 EM Topology for Interference Control 585

12.1 Topological Design 586

12.1.1 Series Decomposition 587

12.1.2 Parallel Decomposition 588

12.2 Shield Penetrations 589

12.3 Shield Apertures 595

12.4 Diffusive Penetration 597
Jane Lehr is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of New Mexico. Prior positions were at Sandia National Laboratories and the Air Force Research Laboratory's Directed Energy Directorate. She is a Fellow of the IEEE, past President of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, and currently serves as their Society Fellow Evaluation Chair.

Pralhad Ron, PhD, is a scientist from the Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC), India. He retired as Head, Accelerator and Pulsed Power Division (APPD) of BARC. He served as Chairman, Steering Committee on Electron Beam Center, Kharghar, New Bombay, and Chairman, Safety Review Committee on Particle Accelerators in India constituted by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB).