John Wiley & Sons Insect Biodiversity Cover Volume One of the thoroughly revised and updated guide to the study of biodiversity in insects The .. Product #: 978-1-118-94553-7 Regular price: $114.02 $114.02 Auf Lager

Insect Biodiversity

Science and Society, Volume 1

Foottit, Robert G. / Adler, Peter H. (eds.)

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2. Auflage Oktober 2017
904 Seiten, Hardcover
Praktikerbuch
Foottit, Robert G. / Adler, Peter H. (Herausgeber)

ISBN: 978-1-118-94553-7
John Wiley & Sons

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Volume One of the thoroughly revised and updated guide to the study of biodiversity in insects

The second edition of Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society brings together in one comprehensive text contributions from leading scientific experts to assess the influence insects have on humankind and the earth's fragile ecosystems. Revised and updated, this new edition includes information on the number of substantial changes to entomology and the study of biodiversity. It includes current research on insect groups, classification, regional diversity, and a wide range of concepts and developing methodologies. The authors examine why insect biodiversity matters and how the rapid evolution of insects is affecting us all.

This book explores the wide variety of insect species and their evolutionary relationships. Case studies offer assessments on how insect biodiversity can help meet the needs of a rapidly expanding human population, and also examine the consequences that an increased loss of insect species will have on the world. This important text:
* Explores the rapidly increasing influence on systematics of genomics and next-generation sequencing
* Includes developments in the use of DNA barcoding in insect systematics and in the broader study of insect biodiversity, including the detection of cryptic species
* Discusses the advances in information science that influence the increased capability to gather, manipulate, and analyze biodiversity information
* Comprises scholarly contributions from leading scientists in the field

Insect Biodiversity: Science and Society highlights the rapid growth of insect biodiversity research and includes an expanded treatment of the topic that addresses the major insect groups, the zoogeographic regions of biodiversity, and the scope of systematics approaches for handling biodiversity data.

1 Introduction 1

2 The Importance of Insects 9

Part I Insect Biodiversity: Regional Examples 45

3 Insect Biodiversity in the Nearctic Region 47

4 Amazonian Rainforests and Their Richness and Abundance of Terrestrial Arthropods on the Edge of Extinction: Abiotic-Biotic Players in the Critical Zone 65

5 Insect Biodiversity in the Afrotropical Region 93

6 Biodiversity of Australasian Insects 111

7 Insect Biodiversity in the Palearctic Region 141

Part II Insect Biodiversity: Taxon Examples 203

8 Biodiversity of Aquatic Insects 205

9 Biodiversity of Diptera 229

10 Biodiversity of Heteroptera 279

11 Biodiversity of Coleoptera 337

12 Biodiversity of Hymenoptera 419

13 Diversity and Significance of Lepidoptera: A Phylogenetic Perspective 463

Part III Insect Biodiversity: Tools and Approaches 497

14 The Science of Insect Taxonomy: Prospects and Needs 499

15 Insect Species - Concepts and Practice 527

16 Molecular Dimensions of Insect Taxonomy in the Genomics Era 547

17 DNA Barcodes and Insect Biodiversity 575

18 Insect Biodiversity Informatics 593

19 Parasitoid Biodiversity and Insect Pest Management 603

20 The Taxonomy of Crop Pests: The Aphids 627

21 Adventive (Non-Native) Insects and the Consequences for Science and Society of Species that Become Invasive 641

22 Biodiversity of Blood-sucking Flies: Implications for Humanity 713

23 Reconciling Ethical and Scientific Issues for Insect Conservation 747

24 Taxonomy and Management of Insect Biodiversity 767

25 Insect Biodiversity - Millions and Millions 783

List of Contributors xix

Foreword, Second Edition xxiii

Preface, First Edition xxvii

Preface, Second Edition xxix

Acknowledgements xxxi

1 Introduction 1
Peter H. Adler and Robert G. Foottit

References 5

2 The Importance of Insects 9
Geoffrey G. E. Scudder

2.1 Diversity 9

2.2 Ecological Role 10

2.3 Effects on Natural Resources, Agriculture, and Human Health 13

2.4 Insects and Advances in Science 14

2.5 Insects and the Public 23

References 25

Part I Insect Biodiversity: Regional Examples 45

3 Insect Biodiversity in the Nearctic Region 47
Hugh V. Danks and Andrew B. T. Smith

3.1 Influence of Insect Biodiversity on Society in the Nearctic Region 49

3.2 Insect Conservation 50

3.3 Species Diversity and the State of Knowledge 53

3.4 Variations in Biodiversity 56

3.5 Conclusions and Needs 58

Acknowledgments 60

References 60

4 Amazonian Rainforests and Their Richness and Abundance of Terrestrial Arthropods on the Edge of Extinction: Abiotic-Biotic Players in the Critical Zone 65
Terry L. Erwin, Laura S. Zamorano and Christy J. Geraci

4.1 The Climatic Setting and Critical Zone Establishment 69

4.2 Characterization of Typical Lowland Rainforest Composition in the Western Basin 71

4.3 Sampling Arthropod Biodiversity in Amazonian Forests 73

4.4 Richness of Various Lineages and Guilds 79

4.5 General Patterns 79

4.6 Morphospecies Richness to Biodiversity 80

4.7 Beetles: Life Attributes Have Led to Contemporary Hyperdiversity 83

4.8 Summary and Guide to Future Research, or "Taking a Small Step into the Biodiversity Vortex" 85

Acknowledgments 86

References 86

5 Insect Biodiversity in the Afrotropical Region 93
Clarke H. Scholtz and Mervyn W. Mansell

5.1 What Do We Know about Afrotropical Insects? 95

5.2 An Information-Management Program 95

5.3 The Role of Insects in Ecosystem Processes and as Indicators of Environmental Quality - Dung Beetles as a Case Study 98

5.4 Africa-Wide Pests and Training Appropriate Taxonomists - Fruit Flies as a Case Study 100

5.5 Sentinel Groups 103

5.6 Conclusions 105

References 107

6 Biodiversity of Australasian Insects 111
Peter S. Cranston

6.1 Australasia - The Locale 111

6.2 Some Highlights of Australasian Insect Biodiversity 112

6.3 Drowning by Numbers? How Many Insect Species are in Australasia? 116

6.4 Australasian Insect Biodiversity - Overview and Special Elements 118

6.5 Threatening Processes to Australasian Insect Biodiversity 123

6.6 Australasian Biodiversity Conservation 127

6.7 Conclusion 129

References 129

7 Insect Biodiversity in the Palearctic Region 141
Boris A. Korotyaev, Alexander S. Konstantinov and Mark G. Volkovitsh

7.1 Preface: Societal Importance of Biodiversity in the Palearctic Region 141

7.2 Introduction 144

7.3 Geographic Position, Climate, and Zonality 144

7.4 General Features of Palearctic Insect Biodiversity 148

7.5 Biodiversity of Some Insect Groups in the Palearctic 153

7.6 Biodiversity of Insect Herbivores 158

7.7 Boundaries and Insect Biodiversity 162

7.8 Local Biodiversity 164

7.9 Insect Biodiversity and Habitats 166

7.10 Insect Biodiversity and the Mountains 169

7.11 Temporal Changes in Insect Biodiversity 171

7.12 Insect Diversity in Major Biogeographical Divisions of the Palearctic 172

Acknowledgments 187

References 189

Part II Insect Biodiversity: Taxon Examples 203

8 Biodiversity of Aquatic Insects 205
John C. Morse

8.1 Overview of Taxa 206

8.2 Species Numbers 212

8.3 Societal Benefits and Risks 214

8.4 Biodiversity Concerns for Aquatic Insects 218

References 220

9 Biodiversity of Diptera 229
Gregory W. Courtney, Thomas Pape, Jeffrey H. Skevington and Bradley J. Sinclair

9.1 Overview of Taxa 239

9.2 Societal Importance 246

9.3 Diptera of Forensic, Medicolegal, and Medical Importance 253

9.4 Diptera as Model Organisms and Research Tools 253

9.5 Diptera in Conservation 254

9.6 Diptera as Part of Our Cultural Legacy 256

References 257

10 Biodiversity of Heteroptera 279
Thomas J. Henry

10.1 Overview of the Heteroptera 280

10.2 The Importance of Heteropteran Biodiversity 311

Acknowledgments 313

References 313

11 Biodiversity of Coleoptera 337
Patrice Bouchard, Andrew B. T. Smith, Hume Douglas, Matthew L. Gimmel, Adam J. Brunke and Kojun Kanda

11.1 Overview of Extant Taxa 344

11.2 Overview of Fossil Taxa 357

11.3 Societal Benefits and Risks 357

11.4 Threatened Beetles 394

11.5 Conclusions 395

Acknowledgments 395

References 395

12 Biodiversity of Hymenoptera 419
John T. Huber

12.1 Evolution and Higher Classification 422

12.2 Numbers of Species and Individuals 426

12.3 Morphological and Biological Diversity 428

12.4 Importance to Humans 430

12.5 Ecological Importance 431

12.6 Conservation 432

12.7 Fossils 432

12.8 Collecting, Preservation, and Study Techniques 433

12.9 Taxonomic Diversity 436

12.10 Summary and Conclusions 445

Acknowledgments 446

References 446

13 Diversity and Significance of Lepidoptera: A Phylogenetic Perspective 463
Paul Z. Goldstein

13.1 Relevance of Lepidoptera: Science 464

13.2 Relevance of Lepidoptera: Society 465

13.3 Diversity and Diversification: A Clarification of Numbers and Challenges 466

13.4 State of Lepidopteran Systematics and Phylogenetics 467

13.5 General Overview 468

13.6 Needs and Challenges for Advancing Lepidopteran Studies 488

Acknowledgments 489

References 489

Part III Insect Biodiversity: Tools and Approaches 497

14 The Science of Insect Taxonomy: Prospects and Needs 499
Quentin D. Wheeler and Kelly B. Miller

14.1 The What and Why of Taxonomy 500

14.2 Insect Taxonomy: Missions and "Big Questions" 509

14.3 Insect Taxonomy's Grand Challenge Questions 510

14.4 Transforming Insect Taxonomy 513

14.5 Insect Taxonomy: Needs and Priorities 514

14.6 Accelerating Descriptive Taxonomy 517

14.7 Beware Sirens of Expediency 521

14.8 Conclusions 522

References 522

15 Insect Species - Concepts and Practice 527
Michael F. Claridge

15.1 Early Species Concepts - Linnaeus 528

15.2 Biological Species Concepts 529

15.3 Phylogenetic Species Concepts 533

15.4 Species Concepts and Speciation - a Digression? 534

15.5 Insect Species - Practical Problems 535

15.6 Conclusions 540

References 540

16 Molecular Dimensions of Insect Taxonomy in the Genomics Era 547
Amanda Roe, Julian Dupuis and Felix Sperling

16.1 Opportunities in Insect Taxonomy 547

16.2 Genomic Methods 553

16.3 General Challenges and Considerations 556

16.4 Conclusions 560

References 561

17 DNA Barcodes and Insect Biodiversity 575
John-James Wilson, Kong-Wah Sing, Robin M. Floyd and Paul D. N. Hebert

17.1 Species Concepts and Recognition 576

17.2 DNA Barcoding Methodology 577

17.3 Basal Hexapod Orders 578

17.4 Archaeognatha (Bristletails) and Zygentoma (Silverfish) 580

17.5 Odonata (Dragonflies) 580

17.6 Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) 580

17.7 Orthoptera (Grasshoppers) 580

17.8 Phasmatodea (Walking Sticks), Embioptera (Webspinners), Grylloblattodea (Icecrawlers), and Mantophasmatodea (Gladiators) 581

17.9 Plecoptera (Stoneflies) and Dermaptera (Earwigs) 581

17.10 Mantodea (Mantids) 581

17.11 Blattodea (Cockroaches) and Isoptera (Termites) 581

17.12 Psocoptera (Booklice) and Phthiraptera (Lice) 581

17.13 Thysanoptera (Thrips) and Hemiptera (True Bugs) 582

17.14 Hymenoptera (Wasps) 582

17.15 Strepsiptera (Twisted-wing Parasites) 582

17.16 Coleoptera (Beetles) 582

17.17 Neuroptera (Lacewings), Megaloptera (Dobsonflies), and Raphidioptera (Snakeflies) 583

17.18 Trichoptera (Caddisflies) 583

17.19 Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths) 583

17.20 Diptera (Flies) 584

17.21 Siphonaptera (Fleas) and Mecoptera (Scorpionflies) 584

17.22 Conclusions 584

Acknowledgments 585

References 585

18 Insect Biodiversity Informatics 593
Norman F. Johnson

18.1 Biodiversity Data 594

18.2 Technical Infrastructure 595

18.3 Standards 597

18.4 Current Status and Impediments to Progress 599

18.5 Prospects 600

Acknowledgments 601

References 601

19 Parasitoid Biodiversity and Insect Pest Management 603
John Heraty

19.1 What Is a Parasitoid? 604

19.2 Biodiversity and Success of Insect Parasitoids 605

19.3 Systematics, Parasitoids, and Pest Management 612

19.4 Summary 617

Acknowledgments 618

References 618

20 The Taxonomy of Crop Pests: The Aphids 627
Gary L. Miller and Robert G. Foottit

20.1 Historical Background 627

20.2 Economic Importance and Early Taxonomy 628

20.3 Early Aphid Studies - A North American Example 628

20.4 Recognizing Aphid Species 631

20.5 The Focus Becomes Finer 632

20.6 Adventive Aphid Species 633

20.7 Conclusions 634

References 634

21 Adventive (Non-Native) Insects and the Consequences for Science and Society of Species that Become Invasive
Alfred G. Wheeler, Jr and E. Richard Hoebeke

21.1 Terminology 642

21.2 Distributional Status: Native or Adventive? 643

21.3 Global Transport: Pathways and Vectors 645

21.4 Early History of Adventive Insects in North America 648

21.5 Numbers, Taxonomic Composition, and Geographic Origins of Adventive Insects 649

21.6 Impact of Adventive Insects 653

21.7 Economic Considerations: Agriculture, Forestry, and Horticulture 658

21.8 Implications for Animal and Human Health 661

21.9 Ecological Impacts 663

21.10 Biological Control 667

21.11 Biological Invasions and Global Climate Change 670

21.12 Systematics, Biodiversity, and Adventive Species 671

21.13 Concluding Thoughts 671

Acknowledgments 674

References 675

22 Biodiversity of Blood-sucking Flies: Implications for Humanity 713
Peter H. Adler

22.1 Numbers and Estimates 714

22.2 Overview of Blood-sucking Flies and Diseases 717

22.3 Rationale for Biodiversity Studies of Blood-sucking Flies 725

22.4 Biodiversity Exploration 727

22.5 Societal Consequences of Disregarding Biodiversity 729

22.6 Present and Future Concerns 730

22.7 Conclusions 733

Acknowledgments 734

References 734

23 Reconciling Ethical and Scientific Issues for Insect Conservation 747
Michael J. Samways

23.1 Valuing Nature 749

23.2 Insects and Ecosystems 755

23.3 Two Challenges 758

23.4 Synthesizing Deeper Values and Practical Issues 759

23.5 Summary 760

Acknowledgments 760

References 760

24 Taxonomy and Management of Insect Biodiversity 767
Ke Chung Kim

24.1 Insect Biodiversity 768

24.2 Biodiversity Loss and Humanity 769

24.3 Biodiversity and Taxonomy 770

24.4 Biodiversity Inventory and Ecology 772

24.5 Backyard Biodiversity and Sustainability 774

24.6 Taxonomic Bottlenecks in Managing Insect Biodiversity 775

24.7 Advancing the Science of Insect Biodiversity 776

References 777

25 Insect Biodiversity - Millions and Millions 783
May Berenbaum

Acknowledgments 789

References 791

Index 793
ROBERT G. FOOTTIT is a research scientist specializing in the taxonomy of aphids and related groups, with the Canadian National Collection of Insects and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. His research interests include the use of morphological and molecular approaches in the study of aphid species and populations.

PETER H. ADLER is a professor of entomology at Clemson University, where he holds a teaching and research appointment, specializing in the behavior, ecology, genetics, and systematics of insects, particularly butterflies and medically important flies.