John Wiley & Sons Integration of Renewable Sources of Energy Cover The latest tools and techniques for addressing the challenges of 21st century power generation, rene.. Product #: 978-1-119-13736-8 Regular price: $126.17 $126.17 Auf Lager

Integration of Renewable Sources of Energy

Farret, Felix A. / Simões, M. Godoy

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2. Auflage Oktober 2017
600 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-13736-8
John Wiley & Sons

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The latest tools and techniques for addressing the challenges of 21st century power generation, renewable sources and distribution systems

Renewable energy technologies and systems are advancing by leaps and bounds, and it's only a matter of time before renewables replace fossil fuel and nuclear energy sources. Written for practicing engineers, researchers and students alike, this book discusses state-of-the art mathematical and engineering tools for the modeling, simulation and control of renewable and mixed energy systems and related power electronics. Computational methods for multi-domain modeling of integrated energy systems and the solution of power electronics engineering problems are described in detail.

Chapters follow a consistent format, featuring a brief introduction to the theoretical background, a description of problems to be solved, as well as objectives to be achieved. Multiple block diagrams, electrical circuits, and mathematical analysis and/or computer code are provided throughout. And each chapter concludes with discussions of lessons learned, recommendations for further studies, and suggestions for experimental work.

Key topics covered in detail include:
* Integration of the most usual sources of electrical power and related thermal systems
* Equations for energy systems and power electronics focusing on state-space and power circuit oriented simulations
* MATLAB® and Simulink® models and functions and their interactions with real-world implementations using microprocessors and microcontrollers
* Numerical integration techniques, transfer-function modeling, harmonic analysis, and power quality performance assessment
* MATLAB®/Simulink®, Power Systems Toolbox, and PSIM for the simulation of power electronic circuits, including for renewable energy sources such as wind and solar sources

Written by distinguished experts in the field, Integration of Renewable Sources of Energy, 2nd Edition is a valuable working resource for practicing engineers interested in power electronics, power systems, power quality, and alternative or renewable energy. It is also a valuable text/reference for undergraduate and graduate electrical engineering students.

Foreword for the First Edition xix

Foreword for the Second Edition xxi

Preface for the First Edition xxiii

Preface for the Second Edition xxvii

Acknowledgements xxxi

1 Alternative Sources of Energy 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Renewable Sources of Energy 2

1.3 Renewable Energy versus Alternative Energy 4

1.4 Planning and Development of Integrated Energy 10

1.4.1 Grid?]Supplied Electricity 10

1.4.2 Load 11

1.4.3 Distributed Generation 12

1.5 Renewable Energy Economics 13

1.5.1 Calculation of Electricity Generation Costs 14

1.5.1.1 Existing Plants 14

1.5.1.2 New Plants 15

1.5.1.3 Investment Costs 15

1.5.1.4 Capital Recovery Factor 16

1.6 European Targets for Renewable Powers 16

1.6.1 Demand?]Side Management Options 17

1.6.2 Supply?]Side Management Options 19

1.7 Integrating Renewable Energy Sources 21

1.7.1 Integration of Renewable Energy in the United States 23

1.7.2 Energy Recovery Time 24

1.7.3 Sustainability 26

1.8 Modern Electronic Controls for Power Systems 29

1.9 Issues Related to Alternative Sources of Energy 31

References 35

2 Principles of Thermodynamics 37

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 State of a Thermodynamic System 38

2.2.1 Heating Value 46

2.2.2 First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and Thermal Efficiency 48

2.3 Fundamental Laws and Principles 49

2.3.1 Example of Efficiency in a Power Plant 51

2.3.2 Practical Problems Associated with Carnot Cycle Plant 54

2.3.3 Rankine Cycle for Power Plants 55

2.3.4 Brayton Cycle for Power Plants 58

2.3.5 Geothermal Energy 60

2.3.6 Kalina Cycle 61

2.3.7 Energy, Power, and System Balance 62

2.4 Examples of Energy Balance 66

2.4.1 Simple Residential Energy Balance 66

2.4.2 Refrigerator Energy Balance 67

2.4.3 Energy Balance for a Water Heater 68

2.4.4 Rock Bed Energy Balance 70

2.4.5 Array of Solar Collectors 70

2.4.6 Heat Pump 71

2.4.7 Heat Transfer Analysis 72

2.4.8 Simple Steam Power Turbine Analysis 73

2.5 Planet Earth: A Closed But Not Isolated System 77

References 79

3 Hydroelectric Power Plants 81

3.1 Introduction 81

3.2 Determination of the Available Power 82

3.3 Expedient Topographical and Hydrological Measurements 84

3.3.1 Simple Measurement of Elevation 84

3.3.2 Global Positioning Systems for Elevation Measurement 85

3.3.3 Pipe Losses 86

3.3.4 Expedient Measurements of Stream Water Flow 87

3.3.4.1 Measurement Using a Float 87

3.3.4.2 Measurement Using a Rectangular Spillway 88

3.3.4.3 Measurement Using a Triangular Spillway 89

3.3.4.4 Measurement Based on the Dilution of Salt in the Water 89

3.3.5 Civil Works 92

3.4 Hydropower Generator Set 93

3.4.1 Regulation Systems 93

3.4.2 Butterfly Valves 93

3.5 Waterwheels 93

3.6 Turbines 96

3.6.1 Pelton Turbine 97

3.6.2 Francis Turbine 99

3.6.3 Michell-Banki Turbine 102

3.6.4 Kaplan or Hydraulic Propeller Turbine 103

3.6.5 Deriaz Turbines 105

3.6.6 Water Pumps Working as Turbines 106

3.6.7 Specification of Hydro Turbines 107

References 109

4 Wind Power Plants 111

4.1 Introduction 111

4.2 Appropriate Location 112

4.2.1 Evaluation of Wind Intensity 112

4.2.1.1 Meteorological Mapping 116

4.2.1.2 Weibull Probability Distribution 118

4.2.1.3 Analysis of Wind Speed by Visualization 121

4.2.1.4 Technique of the Balloon 123

4.2.2 Topography 124

4.2.3 Purpose of the Energy Generated 124

4.2.4 Accessibility 124

4.3 Wind Power 125

4.3.1 Wind Power Corrections 126

4.3.2 Wind Distribution 128

4.4 General Classification of Wind Turbines 129

4.4.1 Rotor Turbines 131

4.4.2 Multiple?]Blade Turbines 131

4.4.3 Drag Turbines (Savonius) 132

4.4.4 Lifting Turbines 133

4.4.4.1 Starting System 134

4.4.4.2 Rotor 134

4.4.4.3 Lifting 134

4.4.4.4 Speed Multipliers 134

4.4.4.5 Braking System 135

4.4.4.6 Generation System 135

4.4.4.7 Horizontal?] and Vertical?]Axis Turbines 135

4.4.5 Magnus Turbines 136

4.4.6 System TARP-WARP 136

4.4.7 Accessories 139

4.5 Generators and Speed Control Used in Wind Power Energy 140

4.6 Analysis of Small Generating Systems 143

4.6.1 Maximization of Cp 145

References 148

5 Thermosolar Power Plants 151

5.1 Introduction 151

5.2 Water Heating by Solar Energy 152

5.3 Heat Transfer Calculation of Thermally Isolated Reservoirs 155

5.3.1 Steady?]State Thermal Calculations 155

5.3.2 Transient?]State Thermal Calculations 156

5.3.3 Practical Approximate Measurements of the Thermal Constants R and C in Water Reservoirs 158

5.4 Heating Domestic Water 159

5.5 Thermosolar Energy 160

5.5.1 Parabolic Trough 161

5.5.2 Parabolic Dish 163

5.5.3 Solar Power Tower 164

5.5.4 Production of Hydrogen 166

5.6 Economics Analysis of Thermosolar Energy 168

References 170

6 Photovoltaic Power Plants 173

6.1 Introduction 173

6.2 Solar Energy 174

6.3 Conversion of Electricity by Photovoltaic Effect 176

6.3.1 Photovoltaic Cells 177

6.4 Equivalent Models for Photovoltaic Panels 178

6.4.1 Dark?]Current Electric Parameters of a Photovoltaic Panel 179

6.4.1.1 Measurement of Ilambda 180

6.4.1.2 Measurement of Rp 180

6.4.1.3 Measurement of Id 181

6.4.1.4 Measurement of eta 182

6.4.1.5 Measurement of Is 183

6.4.1.6 Measurement of Rs 183

6.4.2 Power, Utilization, and Efficiency of a PV Cell 183

6.5 Solar Cell Output Characteristics 188

6.5.1 Dependence of a PV Cell Characteristic on Temperature and PV Cells 190

6.5.2 Model of a PV Panel Consisting of n Cells in Series 193

6.5.3 Model of a PV Panel Consisting of n Cells in Parallel 195

6.6 Photovoltaic Systems 196

6.6.1 Irradiance Area 197

6.6.2 Solar Modules and Panels 198

6.6.3 Aluminum Structures 198

6.6.4 Load Controller 200

6.6.5 Battery Bank 200

6.6.6 Array Orientation 200

6.7 Applications of Photovoltaic Solar Energy 201

6.7.1 Residential and Public Illumination 201

6.7.2 Stroboscopic Signaling 202

6.7.3 Electric Fence 203

6.7.4 Telecommunications 203

6.7.5 Water Supply and Micro?]irrigation Systems 203

6.7.6 Control of Plagues and Conservation of Food and Medicine 205

6.7.7 Hydrogen and Oxygen Generation by Electrolysis 206

6.7.8 Electric Power Supply 208

6.7.9 Security Video Cameras and Alarm Systems 209

6.8 Economics and Analysis of Solar Energy 209

References 214

7 Power Plants with Fuel Cells 217

7.1 Introduction 217

7.2 The Fuel Cell 218

7.3 Commercial Technologies for the Generation of Electricity 220

7.4 Practical Issues Related to Fuel Cell Stacking 231

7.4.1 Low?] and High?]Temperature Fuel Cells 231

7.4.2 Commercial and Manufacturing Issues 232

7.5 Constructional Features of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 233

7.6 Constructional Features of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 236

7.7 Reformers, Electrolyzer Systems, and Related Precautions 237

7.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Fuel Cells 238

7.9 Fuel Cell Equivalent Circuit 239

7.10 Water, Air, and Heat Management 246

7.10.1 Fuel Cells and Their Thermal Energy Evaluation 247

7.11 Experimental Evaluation of the Fuel Cell Equivalent Model Parameters 250

7.11.1 Determination of FC Parameters 253

7.12 Aspects of Hydrogen as Fuel 256

7.13 Load Curve Peak Shaving with Fuel Cells 258

7.13.1 Maximal Load Curve Flatness at Constant Output Power 258

7.14 Future Trends 260

References 263

8 Biomass?]Powered Microplants 267

8.1 Introduction 267

8.2 Fuel from Biomass 272

8.3 Biogas 274

8.4 Biomass for Biogas 275

8.5 Biological Formation of Biogas 277

8.6 Factors Affecting Biodigestion 277

8.7 Characteristics of Biodigesters 279

8.8 Construction of a Biodigester 281

8.8.1 Typical Size for a Biodigester 282

8.9 Generation of Electricity Using Biogas 282

References

286

9 Microturbines 289

9.1 Introduction 289

9.2 Principles of Operation 291

9.3 Microturbine Fuel 293

9.4 Control of Microturbine 294

9.4.1 Mechanical?]Side Structure 295

9.4.2 Electrical?]Side Structure 297

9.4.3 Control?]Side Structure 298

9.5 Efficiency and Power of Microturbines 303

9.6 Site Assessment for Installation of Microturbines 305

References 307

10 Earth Core and Solar Heated Geothermal Energy Plants 311

10.1 Introduction 311

10.2 Earth Core Geothermal as a Source of Energy 313

10.2.1 Earth Core Geothermal Economics 314

10.2.2 Examples of Earth Core Geothermal Electricity 316

10.3 Solar Heat Stored Underground as a Source of Energy 317

10.3.1 Heat Exchange with Nature 319

10.3.2 Heat Exchange with Surface Water 322

10.3.3 Heat Exchange with Circulating Fluid 322

10.4 Solar Geothermal Heat Exchangers 323

10.4.1 Horizontal Serpentines 324

10.4.2 Vertical Serpentines 326

10.4.3 Mixed Serpentines 326

10.4.4 Pressurized Serpentines Heat Pump 326

10.5 Heat Exchange with a Room 328

References 329

11 Thermocouple, Sea Waves, Tide, MHD, and Piezoelectric Power Plants 331

11.1 Introduction 331

11.2 Thermocouple Electric Power Generation 331

11.2.1 Thermocouples 332

11.2.2 Power Conversion Using Thermocouples 334

11.2.3 Principle of Semiconductor Thermocouples 336

11.2.4 A Stack of Semiconductor Thermocouples 338

11.2.5 A Plate of Semiconductor Thermocouples 338

11.2.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Semiconductor Thermocouples 339

11.3 Power Plants with Ocean Waves 339

11.3.1 Sea Wave Energy Extraction Technology 341

11.3.2 Energy Content in Sea Waves 344

11.4 Tide?] Based Small Power Plants 345

11.5 Small Central Magnetohydrodynamic 347

11.6 Small Piezoelectric Power Plant 349

11.6.1 Piezoelectric Energy Conversion 350

11.6.2 Piezoelectric?]Based Energy Applications 352

References 352

12 Induction Generators 357

12.1 Introduction 357

12.2 Principles of Operation 358

12.3 Representation of Steady?]State Operation 360

12.4 Power and Losses Generated 362

12.5 Self?] Excited Induction Generator 364

12.6 Magnetizing Curves and Self?]Excitation 368

12.7 Mathematical Description of the Self?]Excitation Process 369

12.8 Grid?] Connected and Stand?]Alone Operations 372

12.9 Speed and Voltage Control 374

12.9.1 Frequency, Speed, and Voltage Controls 376

12.9.2 The Danish Concept: Two Generators on the Same Shaft 383

12.9.3 Variable?]Speed Grid Connection 384

12.9.4 Control by the Load versus Control by the Source 385

12.10 Economics Considerations 387

References 389

13 Permanent Magnet Generators 393

13.1 Introduction 393

13.1.1 PMSG Radial Flux Machines 394

13.1.2 Axial Flux Machines 394

13.1.3 Operating Principle of the PMSG 395

13.2 Permanent Magnets Used for PMSGs 397

13.3 Modeling a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine 398

13.3.1 Simplified Model of a PMSG 402

13.4 Core Types of a PMSG 407

13.5 PSIM Simulation of the PMSG 408

13.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of the PMSG 408

References 411

14 Storage Systems 413

14.1 Introduction 413

14.2 Energy Storage Parameters 416

14.3 Lead-Acid Batteries 419

14.3.1 Constructional Features 421

14.3.2 Battery Charge-Discharge Cycles 422

14.3.3 Operating Limits and Parameters 424

14.3.4 Maintenance of Lead-Acid Batteries 426

14.3.5 Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for DG Applications 427

14.4 Ultracapacitors (Supercapacitors) 429

14.4.1 Double?]Layer Effect 430

14.4.2 High?]Energy Ultracapacitors 432

14.4.3 Applications of Ultracapacitors 433

14.5 Flywheels 435

14.5.1 Advanced Performance of Flywheels 436

14.5.2 Applications of Flywheels 437

14.5.3 Design Strategies 439

14.6 Superconducting Magnetic Storage System 441

14.6.1 SMES System Capabilities 443

14.6.2 Developments in SMES Systems 444

14.7 Pumped Hydroelectric Storage 446

14.7.1 Storage Capabilities of Pumped Systems 447

14.8 Compressed Air Energy Storage 449

14.9 Heat Storage 451

14.10 Hydrogen Storage 452

14.11 Energy Storage as an Economic Resource 453

References 457

15 Integration of Alternative Sources of Energy 461

15.1 Introduction 461

15.2 Principles of Power Interconnection 462

15.2.1 Converting Technologies 462

15.2.2 Power Converters for Power Injection into the Grid 464

15.2.3 Power Flow 466

15.3 Instantaneous Active and Reactive Power Control Approach 470

15.4 Integration of Multiple Renewable Energy Sources 473

15.4.1 DC?]Link Integration 475

15.4.2 AC?]Link Integration 477

15.4.3 HFAC?]Link Integration 478

15.5 Islanding and Interconnection Control 481

15.6 DG PLL with Clarke and Park Transformations 490

15.6.1 Clarke Transformation for AC?]Link Integration 490

15.6.2 Blondel or Park Transformation for AC?]Link Integration 492

15.7 DG Control and Power Injection 494

References 500

16 Distributed Generation 503

16.1 Introduction 503

16.2 The Purpose of Distributed Generation 506

16.2.1 Modularity 507

16.2.2 Efficiency 507

16.2.3 Low or No Emissions 507

16.2.4 Security 507

16.2.5 Load Management 508

16.3 Sizing and Siting of Distributed Generation 510

16.4 Demand?]Side Management 511

16.5 Optimal Location of Distributed Energy Sources 512

16.5.1 DG Influence on Power and Energy Losses 514

16.5.2 Estimation of DG Influence on Power Losses of Sub?]transmission Systems 518

16.5.3 Equivalent of Sub?]transmission Systems Using Experimental Design 521

16.6 Algorithm of Multicriterial Analysis 523

16.6.1 Voltage Quality in DG Systems 525

References 530

17 Interconnection of Alternative Energy Sources with the Grid 533
Benjamin Kroposki, Thomas Basso, Richard Deblasio, and N. Richard Friedman

17.1 Introduction 533

17.2 Interconnection Technologies 536

17.2.1 Synchronous Interconnection 536

17.2.2 Induction Interconnection 537

17.2.3 Inverter Interconnection 538

17.3 Standards and Codes for Interconnection 539

17.3.1 IEEE 1547 539

17.3.2 National Electrical Code 540

17.3.2.1 NFPA 70: National Electrical Code 540

17.3.2.2 NFPA 853: Standard for the Installation of Stationary Fuel Cell Power Plants 541

17.3.3 UL Standards 541

17.3.3.1 UL 1741: Inverters, Converters, and Controllers for Use in Independent Power Systems 541

17.3.3.2 UL 1008: Transfer Switch Equipment 541

17.3.3.3 UL 2200: Standard for Safety for Stationary Engine Generator Assemblies 543

17.4 Interconnection Considerations 543

17.4.1 Voltage Regulation 543

17.4.2 Integration with Area EPS Grounding 544

17.4.3 Synchronization 544

17.4.4 Isolation 545

17.4.5 Response to Voltage Disturbance 545

17.4.6 Response to Frequency Disturbance 546

17.4.7 Disconnection for Faults 548

17.4.8 Loss of Synchronism 549

17.4.9 Feeder Reclosing Coordination 549

17.4.10 Dc Injection 550

17.4.11 Voltage Flicker 550

17.4.12 Harmonics 551

17.4.13 Unintentional Islanding Protection 553

17.5 Interconnection Examples for Alternative Energy Sources 553

17.5.1 Synchronous Generator for Peak Demand Reduction 555

17.5.2 Small Grid?]Connected PV System 555

References 557

18 Micropower System Modeling with HOMER 559
Tom Lambert, Paul Gilman, and Peter Lilienthal

18.1 Introduction 559

18.2 Simulation 561

18.3 Optimization 566

18.4 Sensitivity Analysis 569

18.4.1 Dealing with Uncertainty 570

18.4.2 Sensitivity Analyses on Hourly Data Sets 573

18.5 Physical Modeling 574

18.5.1 Loads 574

18.5.1.1 Primary Load 575

18.5.1.2 Deferrable Load 575

18.5.1.3 Thermal Load 576

18.5.2 Resources 577

18.5.2.1 Solar Resource 577

18.5.2.2 Wind Resource 577

18.5.2.3 Hydro Resource 578

18.5.2.4 Biomass Resource 578

18.5.3 Components 579

18.5.3.1 PV Array 580

18.5.3.2 Wind Turbine 581

18.5.3.3 Hydro Turbine 582

18.5.3.4 Generators 583

18.5.3.5 Battery Bank 585

18.5.3.6 Grid 589

18.5.3.7 Boiler 591

18.5.3.8 Converter 591

18.5.3.9 Electrolyzer 592

18.5.3.10 Hydrogen Tank 592

18.5.4 System Dispatch 592

18.5.4.1 Operating Reserve 593

18.5.4.2 Control of Dispatchable System Components 594

18.5.4.3 Dispatch Strategy 597

18.5.4.4 Load Priority 598

18.6 Economic Modeling 598

References 601

Appendix A Diesel Power Plants 603

A.1 Introduction 603

A.2 The

Diesel Engine 604

A.3 Main Components of a Diesel Engine 604

A.3.1 Fixed Parts 605

A.3.2 Moving Parts 605

A.3.3 Auxiliary Systems 605

A.4 Terminology of Diesel Engines 606

A.4.1 The Diesel Cycle 606

A.4.2 Combustion Process 608

A.4.2.1 Four?]Stroke Diesel Engine 609

A.5 Cycle of the Diesel Engine 609

A.5.1 Relative Diesel Engine Cycle Losses 610

A.5.2 Classification of the Diesel Engine 610

A.6 Types of Fuel Injection Pumps 611

A.7 Electrical Conditions of Generators Driven by Diesel Engines 612

References 614

Appendix B The Stirling Engine 615

B.1 Introduction 615

B.2 The Stirling Cycle 616

B.3 Displacer?]Type Stirling Engine 619

B.4 Two?]Piston Stirling Engine 621

References 623

Index 625
Felix A. Farret, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Processing Energy, at the FederalUniversity of Santa Maria, Brazil. He is the Coordinator of the Center of Excellence in Energy and Power Systems (CEESP) at Federal University of Santa Maria. He has been involved with R&D for industrial electronics and alternative energy sources for more than four decades.

M. Godoy Simões, PhD, IEEE Fellow, is a Professor in the Electrical Engineering Department at Colorado School of Mines. Dr. Sim??es pioneered the application of neural networks and fuzzylogic in power electronics, motor drives and renewable energy systems.

F. A. Farret, Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil