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Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites

Agarwal, Bhagwan D. / Broutman, Lawrence J. / Chandrashekhara, K.

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4. Edition December 2017
576 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-38998-9
John Wiley & Sons

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Updated and expanded coverage of the latest trends and developments in fiber composite materials, processes, and applications

Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites, Fourth Edition features updated and expanded coverage of all technical aspects of fiber composites, including the latest trends and developments in materials, manufacturing processes, and materials applications, as well as the latest experimental characterization methods.

Fiber reinforced composite materials have become a fundamental part of modern product manufacturing. Routinely used in such high-tech fields as electronics, automobiles, aircraft, and space vehicles, they are also essential to everyday staples of modern life, such as containers, piping, and appliances. Little wonder, when one considers their ease of fabrication, outstanding mechanical properties, design versatility, light weight, corrosion and impact resistance, and excellent fatigue strength. This Fourth Edition of the classic reference--the standard text for composite materials courses, worldwide--offers an unrivalled review of such an important class of engineering materials.

Still the most comprehensive, up-to-date treatment of the mechanics, materials, performance, analysis, fabrication, and characterization of fiber composite materials available, Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites, Fourth Edition features:
* Expanded coverage of materials and manufacturing, with additional information on materials, processes, and material applications
* Updated and expanded information on experimental characterization methods--including many industry specific tests
* Discussions of damage identification techniques using nondestructive evaluation (NDE)
* Coverage of the influence of moisture on performance of polymer matrix composites, stress corrosion of glass fibers and glass reinforced plastics, and damage due to low-velocity impact
* New end-of-chapter problems and exercises with solutions found on an accompanying website
* Computer analysis of laminates

No other reference provides such exhaustive coverage of fiber composites with such clarity and depth. Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites, Fourth Edition is, without a doubt, an indispensable resource for practicing engineers, as well as students of mechanics, mechanical engineering, and aerospace engineering.

Preface xv

About the Companion Website xvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Definition / 1

1.2 Classification / 2

1.3 Particulate Composites / 2

1.4 Fiber-Reinforced Composites / 5

1.5 Applications of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites / 7

Exercise Problems / 15

References / 16

2 Fibers, Matrices, and Fabrication of Composites 17

2.1 Reinforcing Fibers / 17

2.1.1 Glass Fibers / 19

2.1.2 Carbon and Graphite Fibers / 25

2.1.3 Aramid Fibers / 29

2.1.4 Boron Fibers / 30

2.1.5 Other Fibers / 31

2.2 Matrix Materials / 33

2.2.1 Polymers / 33

2.2.2 Metals / 44

2.3 Fabrication of Fiber Composite Products / 45

2.3.1 Fabrication with Thermosetting Resin Matrices / 45

2.3.2 Fabrication with Thermoplastic Resin Matrices / 59

2.3.3 Sandwich Composites / 61

2.3.4 Fabrication with Metal Matrices / 63

2.3.5 Fabrication with Ceramic Matrices / 64

Suggested Reading / 65

3 Micromechanics of Unidirectional Composites 67

3.1 Introduction / 67

3.1.1 Nomenclature / 68

3.1.2 Volume and Weight Fractions / 68

3.2 Longitudinal Loading: Deformation, Modulus, and Strength / 70

3.2.1 Model / 70

3.2.2 Deformation under Small Loads / 71

3.2.3 Load Sharing / 74

3.2.4 Behavior beyond Initial Deformation / 76

3.2.5 Failure Mechanism and Longitudinal Strength / 78

3.2.6 Factors Influencing Longitudinal Strength and Stiffness / 80

3.3 Transverse Loading: Modulus and Strength / 83

3.3.1 Model / 83

3.3.2 Elasticity Methods of Stiffness Prediction / 85

3.3.3 Halpin-Tsai Equations for Transverse Modulus / 86

3.3.4 Transverse Strength / 89

3.4 Shear Modulus / 92

3.5 Poisson's Ratios / 96

3.6 Expansion Coefficients and Transport Properties / 97

3.6.1 Thermal Expansion Coefficients / 97

3.6.2 Moisture Absorption and Expansion Coefficients / 99

3.6.3 Transport Properties / 100

3.7 Failure of Unidirectional Composites / 105

3.7.1 Microscopic Failure Events / 105

3.7.2 Failure under Longitudinal Tensile Loads / 108

3.7.3 Failure under Longitudinal Compressive Loads / 111

3.7.4 Failure under Transverse Tensile Loads / 115

3.7.5 Failure under Transverse Compressive Loads / 116

3.7.6 Failure under In-Plane Shear Loads / 120

3.8 Typical Properties of Unidirectional Fiber Composites / 120

Exercise Problems / 121

References / 126

4 Short-Fiber Composites 129

4.1 Introduction / 129

4.2 Load Transfer to Fibers / 130

4.2.1 Simplified Analysis of Stress Transfer / 130

4.2.2 Stress Distributions from Finite-Element Analysis / 134

4.3 Predicting Modulus and Strength of Short-Fiber Composites / 136

4.3.1 Average Fiber Stress / 136

4.3.2 Longitudinal and Transverse Modulus of Aligned Short-Fiber Composites / 137

4.3.3 Modulus of Randomly Oriented Short-Fiber Composites / 138

4.3.4 Longitudinal Strength of Aligned Short-Fiber Composites / 142

4.3.5 Strength of Randomly Oriented Short-Fiber Composites / 143

4.4 Influence of Matrix Ductility on Properties / 144

Exercise Problems / 148

References / 149

5 Macromechanics Analysis of an Orthotropic Lamina 151

5.1 Introduction / 151

5.1.1 Orthotropic Materials / 151

5.2 Stress-Strain Relations for Unidirectional Composites / 153

5.2.1 Engineering Constants in Longitudinal and Transverse Directions / 153

5.2.2 Off-Axis Engineering Constants / 156

5.2.3 Transformation of Engineering Constants / 158

5.3 Hooke's Law and Stiffness and Compliance Matrices / 167

5.3.1 General Anisotropic Material / 167

5.3.2 Transformation of Stress, Strain, and Elasticity Constants / 169

5.3.3 Stress-Strain Relations for Orthotropic Materials / 169

5.3.4 Transversely Isotropic Material / 170

5.3.5 Isotropic Material / 171

5.3.6 Orthotropic Material under Plane Stress / 172

5.3.7 Compliance Tensor and Compliance Matrix / 173

5.3.8 Relations between Engineering Constants and Elements of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices / 174

5.3.9 Restrictions on Elastic Constants / 177

5.3.10 Transformation of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices / 178

5.3.11 Invariant Forms of Stiffness and Compliance Matrices / 182

5.4 Strengths of an Orthotropic Lamina / 185

5.4.1 Maximum-Stress Theory / 186

5.4.2 Maximum-Strain Theory / 188

5.4.3 Maximum-Work Theory / 190

5.4.4 Importance of Sign on Off-Axis Strength of Composites / 193

Exercise Problems / 196

References / 200

6 Analysis of Laminated Composites 202

6.1 Classical Lamination Theory / 202

6.1.1 Introduction / 202

6.1.2 Laminate Displacements and Strains / 202

6.1.3 Laminate Stresses / 205

6.1.4 Resultant Forces and Moments / 206

6.1.5 Laminate Constitutive Relations / 207

6.2 Laminate Description System / 213

6.3 Design, Construction, and Properties of Laminates / 215

6.3.1 Symmetric Laminates / 215

6.3.2 Unidirectional, Cross-Ply, and Angle-Ply Laminates / 215

6.3.3 Quasi-isotropic Laminates / 216

6.4 Failure of Laminates / 224

6.4.1 Initial Failure / 224

6.4.2 Laminate Analysis after Initial Failure / 228

6.5 Hygrothermal Stresses in Laminates / 238

6.5.1 Concepts of Thermal Stresses / 238

6.5.2 Hygrothermal Stress Calculations / 240

6.6 Laminate Analysis through Computers / 251

Exercise Problems / 255

References / 259

7 Analysis of Laminated Plates and Beams 260

7.1 Introduction / 260

7.2 Governing Equations for Plates / 261

7.2.1 Equilibrium Equations / 261

7.2.2 Equilibrium Equations in Terms of Displacements / 264

7.3 Application of Plate Theory / 266

7.3.1 Bending of Specially Orthotropic Laminates / 266

7.3.2 Buckling / 276

7.3.3 Free Vibrations / 281

7.4 Deformations Due to Transverse Shear / 286

7.4.1 First-Order Shear Deformation Theory / 287

7.4.2 Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theory / 290

7.5 Analysis of Laminated Beams / 293

7.5.1 Governing Equations for Laminated Beams / 293

7.5.2 Application of Beam Theory / 295

Exercise Problems / 299

References / 301

8 Advanced Topics in Fiber Composites 302

8.1 Interlaminar Stresses and Free-Edge Effects / 302

8.1.1 Concepts of Interlaminar Stresses / 302

8.1.2 Determination of Interlaminar Stresses / 304

8.1.3 Effect of Stacking Sequence on Interlaminar Stresses / 306

8.1.4 Approximate Solutions for Interlaminar Stresses / 308

8.1.5 Summary / 312

8.2 Fracture Mechanics of Fiber Composites / 313

8.2.1 Introduction / 313

8.2.2 Fracture Mechanics Concepts and Measures of Fracture Toughness / 315

8.2.3 Fracture Toughness of Composite Laminates / 323

8.2.4 Whitney-Nuismer Failure Criteria for Notched Composites / 327

8.3 Joints for Composite Structures / 332

8.3.1 Adhesively Bonded Joints / 333

8.3.2 Mechanically Fastened Joints / 337

8.3.3 Bonded-Fastened Joints / 339

Exercise Problems / 339

References / 340

9 Performance of Fiber Composites: Fatigue, Impact, and Environmental Effects 345

9.1 Fatigue / 345

9.1.1 Introduction / 345

9.1.2 Fatigue Damage / 346

9.1.3 Factors Influencing Fatigue Behavior / 354

9.1.4 Empirical Relations for Fatigue Damage and Fatigue Life / 361

9.1.5 Fatigue of High-Modulus Fiber-Reinforced Composites / 362

9.1.6 Fatigue of Short-Fiber Composites / 366

9.2 Impact / 371

9.2.1 Introduction and Fracture Process / 371

9.2.2 Energy-Absorbing Mechanisms and Failure Models / 373

9.2.3 Effect of Materials and Testing Variables on Impact Properties / 377

9.2.4 Hybrid Composites and Their Impact Strength / 383

9.2.5 Damage Due to Low-Velocity Impact / 387

9.3 Environmental-Interaction Effects / 391

9.3.1 Fiber Strength / 391

9.3.2 Matrix Effects / 397

Exercise Problems / 405

References / 406

10 Experimental Characterization of Composites 414

10.1 Introduction / 414

10.2 Measurement of Physical Properties / 415

10.2.1 Density / 415

10.2.2 Constituent Weight and Volume Fractions / 415

10.2.3 Void Volume Fraction / 416

10.2.4 Thermal Expansion Coefficients / 417

10.2.5 Moisture Absorption and Diffusivity / 417

10.2.6 Moisture Expansion Coefficients / 418

10.3 Measurement of Mechanical Properties / 419

10.3.1 Properties in Tension / 419

10.3.2 Properties in Compression / 423

10.3.3 In-Plane Shear Properties / 425

10.3.4 Flexural Properties / 433

10.3.5 Interlaminar Shear Strength and Fracture Toughness / 438

10.3.6 In-Plane Fracture Toughness Tests / 442

10.3.7 Impact Tests / 450

10.3.8 Tests for Aerospace Applications / 455

10.4 Damage Identification Using Nondestructive Evaluation

Techniques / 457

10.4.1 Ultrasonics / 457

10.4.2 Acoustic Emission / 460

10.4.3 X-Radiography / 461

10.4.4 Thermography / 463

10.4.5 Laser Shearography / 464

10.5 General Remarks on Characterization / 464

Exercise Problems / 468

References / 470

11 Emerging Composite Materials 475

11.1 Nanocomposites / 475

11.2 Carbon-Carbon Composites / 477

11.3 Biocomposites / 478

11.3.1 Biofibers / 478

11.3.2 Wood-Plastic Composites (WPCs) / 480

11.3.3 Biopolymers / 481

11.4 Composites in "Smart" Structures / 482

11.5 Further Emerging Trends / 483

Suggested Reading / 484

Appendix 1 Matrices and Tensors 488

A1.1 Matrix Definitions / 488

A1.2 Matrix Operations / 493

A1.3 Tensors / 498

References / 509

Appendix 2 Equations of Theory of Elasticity 510

A2.1 Analysis of Strain / 510

A2.2 Analysis of Stress / 514

A2.3 Stress-Strain Relations for Isotropic Materials / 518

References / 520

Appendix 3 Laminate Orientation Code 521

A3.1 Standard Code Elements / 521

A3.2 Positive and Negative Angles / 522

A3.3 Symmetric Laminates / 524

A3.4 Sets / 524

A3.5 Hybrid Laminates / 525

Appendix 4 Properties of Fiber Composites 527

Appendix 5 Computer Programs for Laminate Analysis 532

Appendix 6 Introduction to MATLAB 534

A6.1 Introduction: Getting Started / 534

A6.2 Vectors and Matrices / 537

A6.2.1 Defining Matrices / 537

A6.2.2 Basic Matrix Functions / 537

A6.2.3 Extracting Parts of Matrices / 539

A6.2.4 Basic Matrix Operations / 539

A6.3 Programming in MATLAB / 540

A6.3.1 Logical and Relational Operators / 540

A6.3.2 Loop and Logical Statements / 540

A6.3.3 MATLAB Functions: Saving Programs / 540

A6.3.4 Input/Output Functions / 541

A6.3.5 Controlling the Appearance of Floating Point Number / 541

A6.4 Plotting Tools / 542

A6.4.1 Basic Plot Commands / 542

A6.4.2 Line Styles and Colors / 543

Index 545
Bhagwan D. Agarwal, PhD, is a former Vice President of engineering services at Bodycote Polymer--Broutman Laboratory, and Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Dean of Research and Development at the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.

Lawrence J. Broutman, PhD, is an independent consultant and founder of L.J. Broutman & Associates.

K. Chandrashekhara, PhD, is Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Director of the Composite Manufacturing Laboratory at the Missouri University of Science and Technology.

B. D. Agarwal, Indian Institute of Technology; L. J. Broutman, Illinois Institute of Technology; K. Chandrashekhara, University of Missouri-Rolla