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Counselling Psychology

A Textbook for Study and Practice

Murphy, David (ed.)

BPS Textbooks in Psychology (Series Nr. 1)

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1. Edition September 2017
496 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd
Murphy, David (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-10685-2
John Wiley & Sons

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A complete introduction to the theory and practice of contemporary counselling psychology

An excellent resource for students at undergraduate or graduate level, Counselling Psychology: A Textbook for Study and Practice provides valuable insights into the key issues associated with theory and practice in this field. The contributors represent a diverse array of approaches, reflecting the rich diversity within the area, and care is taken to avoid favouring any one approach. The book begins with an overview of the historical and philosophical foundations of counselling psychology, before taking a detailed look at major therapeutic approaches and exploring issues associated with specific client populations, ethics, research design, and more. In particular, the text seeks to explain how counselling psychology differs from and informs other areas of contemporary applied psychology. The result is an engaging balance of the personal and academically rigorous, presented in a highly accessible format.

* An authoritative introduction to and key issues involved with the theory and practice of counselling psychology for students and practitioners at all levels

* Considers all major approaches to psychotherapy including existential, person-centered experiential, psychodynamic, and cognitive-behavioural

* Explores issues commonly encountered when working with specific client groups including children, people with intellectual disabilities, and emergency trauma victims

About the Contributors xix

Foreword xxvii

PART 1 Introduction and Foundations 1

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to the Textbook on Counselling Psychology 3
David Murphy

CHAPTER 2 A History of British Counselling Psychology 8
Alan Frankland

Introduction 9

A Founding Figure 10

The Institutional History 11

And How Has It Grown Since? 15

And Now? 16

CHAPTER 3 Counselling Psychology: Assumptions, Challenges, and Aspirations 22
Stephen Joseph

Introduction 23

The Assumptions of Counselling Psychology in Relation to the Medical Ideology 24

Challenges to Counselling Psychology 28

Looking to the Future of Counselling Psychology 31

Conclusion 33

CHAPTER 4 Philosophical Issues in Counselling Psychology 36
Simon du Plock

A Personal Perspective 37

So What Do We Mean When We Use the Word "Philosophy"? 38

The Relationship between Philosophy and Therapy 40

The Place of Philosophy in Counselling Psychology 41

A Philosophically Informed Knowledge Base for Counselling Psychology 43

A Philosophical Rather Than a Medical Perspective on What it Means to Be Well 45

A Philosophical Perspective on Movement and Exercise 47

Conclusion 49

PART 2 Approaches to Counselling Psychology 53

CHAPTER 5 Existential Counselling Psychology 55
Elaine Kasket

Introduction 56

Ontological Assumptions: Image of the Person 57

Epistemologies: The Ways of Knowing within Existential Therapy 58

Guiding Principles: Core Theoretical Assumptions 59

Nature and Understanding of Psychological Distress 61

The Role and Place of the Therapeutic Relationship 62

Therapist, Client, and Relational Contributions to Effective Existential Therapy 63

Contemporary Adaptations, Developments, and Extensions of the Existential Approach 65

Future Orientations 68

Conclusion 69

CHAPTER 6 Person-Centred Experiential Counselling Psychology 72
David Murphy

Introduction 73

Ontological Assumptions: Image of the Person 74

Epistemology: Ways of Knowing 75

Guiding Principles and Core Assumptions 75

Nature and Understanding of Psychological Distress 77

The Role and Place of the Therapeutic Relationship 79

Therapist, Client, and Relational Contributions to Effective Person-Centred Experiential Counselling Psychology 80

Adaptations, Developments, and Extensions of Original Approach 81

Future Orientations 84

Conclusion 84

CHAPTER 7 Psychodynamic Counselling Psychology 88
Andrea Halewood

Introduction 89

Ontological Assumptions: Image of the Person 89

Epistemologies: The Ways of Knowing 90

Guiding Principles: Core Theoretical Assumptions 91

Nature and Understanding of Psychological Distress 92

The Role and Place of the Therapeutic Relationship 93

Therapist, Client, and Relational Contributions to Effective Psychodynamic Therapy 94

Contemporary Adaptations, Developments, Extensions 95

Future Orientations 99

Conclusion 100

CHAPTER 8 Cognitive-Behavioural Counselling Psychology 104
Windy Dryden

Introduction 105

Ontological Assumptions: Image of the Person 105

Epistemologies: The Ways of Knowing 106

Guiding Principles: Core Theoretical Assumptions 107

Nature and Understanding of Psychological Distress 108

The Role and Place of the Therapeutic Relationship 110

Therapist, Client, and Relational Contributions to

Effective Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy 111

Contemporary Adaptations, Developments, Extensions 113

Future Orientations 116

Conclusion 117

CHAPTER 9 Transpersonal Counselling Psychology 120
John Rowan

Introduction 121

Ontological Assumptions: Image of the Person 121

Epistemologies: Ways of Knowing in Transpersonal Counselling Psychology 122

Guiding Principles and Core Theoretical Assumptions 123

Nature and Understanding of Psychological Distress 124

The Role and Place of the Therapeutic Relationship 125

Therapist, Client, and Relational Contributions to Effective Transpersonal Counselling Psychology 127

Contemporary Adaptations, Developments, Extensions 129

Future Orientations 131

Conclusion 131

CHAPTER 10 Pluralistic Counselling Psychology 134
Terry Hanley, Laura Anne Winter, John McLeod, and Mick Cooper

Introduction 135

Ontological Assumptions: Image of the Person 136

Epistemologies: Ways of Knowing 136

Guiding Principles: Core Theoretical Assumptions 137

Nature and Understanding of Psychological Distress 138

The Role and Place of the Therapeutic Relationship 139

Therapist, Client, and Relational Contributions to Effective Pluralistic Counselling Psychology 140

Contemporary Adaptations, Developments, Extensions 141

Future Orientations 145

Conclusion 146

CHAPTER 11 Psychotherapy Integration for Counselling Psychology 150
Michael J. Lambert and John C. Norcross

Introduction 151

Varieties of Integration 152

Ontological Assumptions: Image of the Person 155

Epistemologies: Ways of Knowing 155

Guiding Principles and Core Theoretical Assumptions 156

Nature and Understanding of Psychological Distress 158

The Role and Place of the Therapeutic Relationship 159

Therapist, Client, and Relational Contributions to Effective Counselling Psychology 161

Contemporary Adaptations, Developments, Extensions 162

Conclusions and Future Directions 164

PART 3 Working with Client Groups 169

CHAPTER 12 Counselling Psychology for Children and Young People 171
Terry Hanley, Jasmina Frzina, and Nafeesa Nizami

Introduction 172

Background and Scope of Work for Counselling Psychologists Working with Children and Young People 172

Guiding Principles for Practitioners 174

Conceptualizing Distress for this Group 176

Common Issues 177

Review of Evidence-based Methods 178

Legal and Ethical Issues and Relevant Frameworks for Reference 179

Conclusion 182

CHAPTER 13 Counselling Psychologists Working with People with Special Needs and Disabilities 185
Anne Emerson

Introduction 186

Models of Disability 187

Guiding Principles for Practitioners 187

Conceptualizing Distress 191

Counselling Psychology Approaches for SND 194

Conclusion 196

CHAPTER 14 Counselling Psychology for Clients with Asperger Syndrome 200
Anja Rutten

Introduction 201

Autism and Asperger Syndrome 201

Diagnostic Labels 202

Considering Autism as Counselling Psychologists 202

Is Autism a Disability? 203

Person-First Language or Not? 204

Autistic People's Distress 204

Therapeutic Work with Clients with Asperger Syndrome 205

Experiences of Therapy 207

Conclusion 209

CHAPTER 15 Counselling Psychology for Trauma in Emergency Services Occupations 214
Noreen Tehrani

Introduction 215

The Nature of Traumatic Exposure in Organizations 215

The Impact of Trauma on Emergency Service Personnel 217

High Risk Roles and Duty of Care 218

Early Trauma Interventions 220

Trauma Therapy 222

Conclusion 226

PART 4 Socio-cultural Issues 229

CHAPTER 16 Sexualities in Counselling Psychology 231
Eric E. Arnold and Melanie E. Brewster

Introduction 232

Diverse Sexual Practices 232

Unpacking the Alphabet Soup: LGB Identities 233

Identity Intersectionality in a Multicultural World 235

Minority Stress and Marginalization 238

Identity Development 238

Experiences in School and Work 239

Intimacy and Families 240

Physical Health in LGB Communities 241

Mental Health 242

CHAPTER 17 Social Class in Counselling Psychology 249
William Ming Liu and Alex J. Colbow

Introduction 250

Social Class and Psychological Distress 251

Counselling Psychology as a Transmitter of Classism 253

What Students and Clinicians Can Do 256

Upward Mobility Bias 258

Conclusion 260

CHAPTER 18 Issues of Race and Ethnicity in Counselling Psychology 265
Ohemaa Nkansa-Dwamena

Introduction 266

Dialogue and Narrative: How Does Counselling

Think About Race and Ethnicity? 267

Privilege, Prejudice, Bias, and Race 269

Challenging Stereotypes 270

Clinical Practice: How Do We Engage with Race and Ethnicity? 271

Working Across the Lifespan: History in Race and Ethnicity 274

Conclusion 278

CHAPTER 19 Gender in Counselling Psychology 281
Meg-John Barker and Christina Richards

Introduction 282

Understanding Gender 283

Counselling Psychology with Cisgender Women and Men 286

Counselling Psychology with Trans Men and Women 288

Counselling Psychology with Nonbinary People 290

Conclusion 293

PART 5 Professional Issues 297

CHAPTER 20 Developing Ethical Awareness Whilst Training to Be a Counselling Psychologist 299
Pam James

Introduction 300

Question 1: What is Working Ethically? 300

Question 2: Why is it Necessary to Have Codes of Practice and What Are They? 302

Question 3: What is the Specific Nature of Counselling Psychology Training? 304

Question 4: Does the Way of Working Ethically Change from Pre- to Postqualification? 306

General Learning Points for the Development of a Personal Ethical Awareness 312

Conclusion 312

CHAPTER 21 Practice Ethics for Counselling Psychology 315
Dee Danchev

Introduction 316

Trust 316

Codes, Principles, and Virtues 317

Dilemmas and Structures for Solving Dilemmas 318

Are There Ethical Differences Among Therapeutic Orientations? 322

Responsibility 322

Online Counselling 323

What Are Unethical Actions? 325

Practice Supervision 325

CHAPTER 22 The Politics of Counselling Psychology 330
Colin Feltham and Richard House

Introduction 331

Politics and Counselling Psychologists 331

Alignment with Marginalized and Oppressed Groups 334

Professional Politics 336

Wider Applications of Counselling Psychology Theory, and Crossovers 339

CHAPTER 23 Supervision in Counselling Psychology 346
Mary Creaner and Ladislav Timulak

Introduction 347

Defining Supervision in Counselling Psychology 347

The Relationship in Counselling Psychology Supervision 349

Models of Supervision in Counselling Psychology 351

Supervision Competencies 352

Supervision Training for Counselling Psychologists 353

Multicultural and Diversity Issues in Supervision 354

Posttraining Supervision in Counselling Psychology 354

Future Directions for Supervision in Counselling Psychology 355

CHAPTER 24 Training in Counselling Psychology 361

Ewan Gillon, Ladislav Timulak, and Mary Creaner

Introduction 362

The Structure of Counselling Psychology Training in the UK 362

The Organization of Counselling Psychology Training in the UK 364

Training Standards in Counselling Psychology Internationally 369

Developing the Training Agenda in the UK 372

Conclusion 373

PART 6 Research in Counselling Psychology 377

CHAPTER 25 Research Ethics in Counselling Psychology 379
Dee Danchev

Introduction 380

Historical Context 380

The Ethics of the Researcher and Their Positioning 381

The Participant's Perspective 383

The Use of Incentives 384

Informed Consent 385

Deception 387

Anonymity 387

Online Research 388

Research Method, Analysis, and Reporting Findings 388

Aftercare of Participants 389

Dissemination and the Research Afterlife 389

Researcher Self-care 390

Conclusion 391

CHAPTER 26 An Introduction to Qualitative Research in Counselling Psychology 394
John McLeod

Introduction 395

Epistemologies: Ways of Knowing 395

Guiding Principles 397

What Questions Can Be Asked in Qualitative Psychological Research? 398

Key Research Methods 399

Sampling 400

Approaches to Analysing Data 402

Conclusion 405

CHAPTER 27 An Introduction to Quantitative Research in Counselling Psychology 408
Duncan Cramer

Introduction 409

Why Use Quantitative Research Methods? 409

Guiding Principles and Core Methodological Assumptions 411

Major Types of Experimental Designs 412

Questions That Can Be Asked in Quantitative Psychological Research 413

Key Research Methods 414

Sampling 416

Sample Research Study Example 420

Conclusion 422

CHAPTER 28 Hermeneutic Single Case Efficacy Design for Counselling Psychology 425
Robert Elliott and Mark Widdowson

Introduction 426

Epistemologies: Ways of Knowing 426

Guiding Principles and Assumptions 428

Research Questions Addressed 429

Key Research Methods 430

Sampling 432

Approaches to Analysing Data 432

HSCED Examples 434

Conclusion: Strengths and Limitations of HSCED 435

CHAPTER 29 Theory-Building Case Studies for Counselling Psychology 439
William B. Stiles

Introduction 440

How Theory-building Research Works 440

How to Do Theory-building Case Studies 445

Conclusion 451

Index 453
David Murphy PhD, CPsychol, AFBPsS, is a Full Member of the British Psychological Society Division of Counselling Psychology, a person-centred experiential psychotherapist on the BPS Register of Psychologists Specialising in Psychotherapy and has a particular interest in the field of counselling and education and the effects of psychological trauma. He is the Course Director for the Master's program in Person-Centred Experiential Counselling and Psychotherapy at the University of Nottingham, UK. He previously held the position of Honorary Psychologist in Psychotherapy at the Centre for Trauma, Resilience and Growth, Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust.