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Organic Coatings

Science and Technology

Jones, Frank N. / Nichols, Mark E. / Pappas, S. Peter


4. Edition November 2017
512 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-02689-1
John Wiley & Sons

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The definitive guide to organic coatings, thoroughly revised and updated--now with coverage of a range of topics not covered in previous editions

Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, Fourth Edition offers unparalleled coverageof organic coatings technology and its many applications. Written by three leading industry experts (including a new, internationally-recognized coatings scientist) it presents a systematic survey of the field, revises and updates the material from the previous edition, and features new or additional treatment of such topics as superhydrophobic, ice-phobic, antimicrobial, and self-healing coatings; sustainability, artist paints, and exterior architectural primers. making it even more relevant and useful for scientists and engineers in the field, as well as for students in coatings courses.
The book incorporates up-to-date coverage of recent developments in the field with detailed discussions of the principles underlying the technology and their applications in the development, production, and uses of organic coatings. All chapters in this new edition have been updated to assure consistency and to enable extensive cross-referencing. The material presented is also applicable to the related areas of printing inks and adhesives, as well as areas within the plastics industry.

This new edition
* Completely revises outdated chapters to ensure consistency and to enable extensive cross-referencing
* Correlates the empirical technology of coatings with the underlying science throughout
* Provides expert troubleshooting guidance for coatings scientists and technologists
* Features hundreds of illustrative figures and extensive references to the literature
* A new, internationally-recognized coatings scientist brings fresh perspective to the content.

Providing a broad overview for beginners in the field of organic coatings and a handy reference for seasoned professionals, Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, gives you the information and answers you need, when you need them.

Chapter 1. Introduction to Coatings

1.1. Definitions and Scope

1.2. Types of Coatings

1.3. Composition of Coatings

1.4. Coating History

1.5. Commercial Considerations

Chapter 2. Polymerization and Film Formation

2.1. Polymers

2.1.1. Molecular Weight (MW)

2.1.2. Morphology and Glass Transition Temperature, Tg

2.2. Polymerization

2.2.1. Chain-Growth Polymerization; Living Polymerizations

2.2.2. Step-Growth Polymerization

2.3. Film Formation

2.3.1. Film Formation by Solvent Evaporation from Solutions of Thermoplastic Binders

2.3.2. Film Formation from Solutions of Thermosetting Resins

2.3.3. Film Formation by Coalescence of Polymer Particles

Chapter 3. Flow

3.1. Shear Flow

3.2. Types of Shear Flow

3.3. Determination of Shear Viscosity

3.3.1. Capillary Viscometers

3.3.2. Rheometers

3.3.3. Rotating Disk Viscometers

3.3.4. Bubble Viscometers

3.3.5. Efflux Cups

3.3.6. Paddle Viscometers

3.4. Shear Viscosity of Resin Solutions

3.4.1. Temperature Dependence of Viscosity

3.4.2. Dilute Polymer Solution Viscosity

3.4.3. Concentrated Polymer Solution Viscosity

3.5. Viscosity of Liquids with Dispersed Phases

3.5.1. Thickeners for Latex Coatings

3.6. Other Modes of Flow

3.6.1. Turbulent Flow

3.6.2. Normal Force Flow

3.6.3. Extensional Flow

Chapter 4. Mechanical Properties

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Basic Mechanical Properties

4.2.1 Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)

4.2.2 Viscoelasticity

4.2.3. Dynamic Mechanical Behavior

4.3. Formulation, Process, and Structure Effects

4.4. Fracture Mechanics

4.5. Abrasion, Scratch, and Mar Resistance

4.5.1. Abrasion Resistance

4.5.2. Scratch and Mar Resistance

4.6. Measurement of Mechanical Properties

4.7. Tests of Coatings on Substrates

4.7.1. Field Exposure Tests

4.7.2. Laboratory Simulation Tests

4.7.3. Empirical Tests

Chapter 5. Exterior Durability

5.1. Photoinitiated Oxidative Degradation

5.2. Photostabilization

5.2.1. UV Absorbers and Excited State Quenchers

5.2.2. Antioxidants

5.2.3. Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers

5.2.4. Pigmentation Effects

5.3. Degradation of Chlorinated Resins

5.4. Hydrolytic Degradation

5.5. Other Modes of Failure on Exterior Exposure

5.6. Testing for Exterior Durability

5.6.1. Natural Weathering

5.6.2. Accelerated Outdoor Exposure

5.6.3. Accelerated Laboratory Weathering Devices

5.6.4. Analysis of Coating Changes During Weathering

5.7. Service Life Prediction

Chapter 6. Adhesion

6.1. Mechanisms of Adhesion

6.1.1. Surface Mechanical Effects on Adhesion

6.1.2. Relationships Between Wetting and Adhesion

6.2. Mechanical Stresses and Adhesion

6.3. Adhesion to Metal Surfaces

6.3.1. Conversion Coating and Pretreatment of Metal Substrates

6.4. Characterization of Surfaces

6.5. Organic Chemical Treatment of Substrates to Enhance Adhesion

6.6. Covalent Bonding to Glass and Metal Substrates

6.7. Adhesion to Plastics and to Coatings

6.8. Testing for Adhesion

Chapter 7. Corrosion Protection by Coatings

7.1. Corrosion Basics

7.2. Corrosion of Uncoated Steel

7.3. Corrosion Protection of Metals

7.3.1. Passivation--Anodic Protection

7.3.2. Cathodic Protection

7.3.3. Barrier Protection and Inhibition

7.4. Corrosion Protection by Intact Coatings

7.4.1. Critical Factors

7.4.2. Adhesion for Corrosion Protection

7.4.3. Factors Affecting Oxygen and Water Permeability

7.5. Corrosion Protection by Nonintact Films

7.5.1. Minimizing Growth of Imperfections--Cathodic Delamination

7.5.2. Primers with Passivating Pigments

7.5.3. Cathodic Protection by Zinc-Rich Primers

7.5.4. Smart Corrosion Control Coatings

7.6. Evaluation and Testing

Chapter 8. Acrylic Resins

8.1. Thermoplastic Acrylic Resins

8.2. Thermosetting Acrylic Resins

8.2.1. Hydroxy-Functional Acrylics

8.2.2. Acrylics Having Other Functional Groups

8.3. Water-Reducible Thermosetting Acrylic Resins

Chapter 9. Latexes

9.1. Emulsion Polymerization

9.1.1. Raw Materials for Emulsion Polymerization

9.1.2. Emulsion Polymerization Variables

9.1.3. Sequential Polymerization

9.2. Acrylic Latexes

9.3. Vinyl Ester Latexes

9.4. Thermosetting Latexes

9.4.1. One-Package Thermosetting Latex Coatings that Require Baking for Cure

9.4.2. Two-package (2K) Thermosetting Latex Coatings that do not Require Baking

9.4.3. One-package Thermosetting Latex Coatings that do not Require Baking

Chapter 10. Polyester Resins

10.1. Hydroxy-Terminated Polyesters for Conventional Solids Coatings

10.1.1. Selection of Polyols

10.1.2. Selection of Polyacids

10.2. Polyester Resins for High Solids Coatings

10.3. Carboxylic Acid-Terminated Polyester Resins

10.4. Carbamate-Functional Polyester Resins

10.5. Water-Reducible Polyester Resins

10.6. Polyester Resins for Powder Coatings

Chapter 11. Amino Resins

11.1. Synthesis of Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins

11.1.1. The Methylolation Reaction

11.1.2. The Etherification Reaction

11.1.3. Self-Condensation Reactions

11.2. Types of MF Resins

11.3. MF Polyol Reactions in Coatings

11.3.1. Catalysis of MF-Polyol Reactions

11.3.2. Kinetics and Mechanism of MF-Polyol Co-condensation

11.3.3. Package Stability Considerations

11.3.4. MF Resin Reactions with Carboxylic Acids, Urethanes, Carbamates, and Malonate-Blocked Isocyanates

11.4. Other Amino Resins

11.4.1. Urea-Formaldehyde Resins

11.4.2. Benzoguanamine-Formaldehyde Resins

11.4.3. Glycoluril-Formaldehyde Resins

11.4.4. Poly(meth)acrylamide-Formaldehyde Resins

Chapter 12. Polyurethanes and Polyisocyanates

12.1. Reactions of Isocyanates

12.2. Kinetics of Isocyanate Reactions with Alcohols

12.2.1. Noncatalyzed Reactions

12.2.2. Catalysts

12.2.3. Interrelationships in Catalysis

12.3. Isocyanates Used in Coatings

12.3.1. Aromatic Isocyanates

12.3.2. Aliphatic Isocyanates

12.4. Two Package (2K) Solventborne Urethane Coatings

12.4.1. 2K Polyurea Coatings

12.5. Blocked Isocyanates

12.5.1. Principles of Blocking and Deblocking

12.5.2. Blocking Groups

12.5.3. Catalysis of Blocked Isocyanate Coatings

12.6. Moisture-Curable Urethane Coatings

12.7. Waterborne Polyurethane Coatings

12.7.1. Polyurethane Dispersions

12.7.2. Acrylic/Polyurethane Blends and Hybrid Dispersions Cross-linked PUD/Acrylate Systems

12.7.3. 2K Waterborne Urethanes

12.8. Hydroxy-Terminated Polyurethanes

Chapter 13. Epoxy and Phenolic Resins

13.1. Epoxy Resins

13.1.1. Bisphenol A Epoxy Resins

13.1.2. Other Epoxy Resins

13.2. Amine Cross-linked Epoxy Resins

13.2.1. Pot Life and Cure Time Considerations

13.2.2. Toxicity and Stoichiometric Considerations

13.2.3. Graininess and Blushing

13.2.4. Tg Considerations

13.2.5. Other Formulating Considerations

13.2.6. Waterborne Epoxy-Amine Systems

13.3. Other Cross-Linking Agents for Epoxy Resins

13.3.1. Phenols

13.3.2. Carboxylic Acids and Anhydrides

13.3.3. Hydroxyl Groups

13.3.4. Mercaptans

13.3.5. Homopolymerization

13.4. Water-Reducible Epoxy/Acrylic Graft Copolymers; Epoxy Acrylic Hybrids

13.5. Epoxy Resin Phosphate Esters

13.6. Phenolic Resins

13.6.1. Resole Phenolic Resins

13.6.2. Novolac Phenolic Resins

13.6.3. Ether Derivatives of Phenolic Resins

Chapter 14. Drying Oils

14.1. Compositions of Natural Oils

14.2. Autoxidation and Cross-Linking

14.2.1. Nonconjugated Drying Oils

14.2.2. Catalysis of Autoxidation and Cross-Linking

14.2.3. Conjugated Drying Oils

14.3. Synthetic and Modified Drying Oils

14.3.1. Heat Bodied Oils, Blown Oils, and Dimer Acids

14.3.2. Varnishes

14.3.3. Synthetic Conjugated Oils

14.3.4. Esters of Higher Functionality Polyols

14.3.5. Maleated Oils

14.3.6. Vinyl-Modified Oils

Chapter 15. Alkyd Resins

15.1. Oxidizing Alkyds

15.1.1. Monobasic Acid Selection

15.1.2. Polyol Selection

15.1.3. Dibasic Acid Selection

15.2. High Solids Oxidizing Alkyds

15.3. Water-Borne Oxidizing Alkyds

15.3.1. Water-Reducible Alkyds

15.3.2. Alkyd Emulsions

15.4. Nonoxidizing Alkyds

15.5. Synthetic Procedures for Alkyd Resins

15.5.1. Synthesis from Oils or Fatty Acids

15.5.2. Process Variations

15.6. Modified Alkyds

15.7. Uralkyds and Other Autoxidizable Urethanes

15.7.1. Uralkyds

15.7.2. Autoxidizable Polyurethane Dispersions

15.8. Epoxy Esters

Chapter 16. Silicon Derivatives

16.1. Silicones

16.1.1. Silicone Rubbers and Resins

16.1.2. Modified Silicone Resins

16.1.3. Silicone-Modified Resins

16.2. Reactive Silanes

16.3. Orthosilicates

16.3.1. Sol-Gel Coatings

Chapter 17. Other Resins and Cross-linkers

17.1. Halogenated Polymers

17.1.1. Solution Grade Thermoplastic Vinyl Chloride Copolymers

17.1.2. Vinyl chloride Dispersion Copolymers

17.1.3. Chlorinated Rubber, Chlorinated Ethylene/Vinyl Acetate Copolymer, and Chlorinated Polyethylene

17.1.4. Fluorinated Polymers

17.2. Cellulose Derivatives Soluble in Organic Solvents

17.2.1. Nitrocellulose

17.2.2. Cellulose Acetobutyrate

17.3. Unsaturated Polyester Resins

17.4. (Meth)acrylated Oligomers

17.5. 2-Hydroxyalkylamide Cross-Linkers

17.6. Acetoacetate Cross-Linking Systems

17.7. Polyaziridine Cross-Linkers

17.8. Polycarbodiimide Cross-Linkers

17.9. Polycarbonates

17.10. Non-Isocyanate Two-Package Binders

17.10.1. Carbamate-Aldehyde Chemistry

17.10.2. Michael Addition Chemistry

17.11. Dihydrazides

Chapter 18. Solvents

18.1. Solvent Composition

18.2. Solubility

18.2.1. Solubility Parameters

18.2.2. Three-Dimensional Solubility Parameters

18.2.3. Other Solubility Theories

18.2.4. Practical Considerations

18.3. Solvent Evaporation Rates

18.3.1. Evaporation of Single Solvents

18.3.2. Relative Evaporation Rates

18.3.3. Evaporation of Mixed Solvents

18.3.4. Evaporation of Solvents from Coating Films

18.3.5. Evaporation of Solvents from High Solids Coatings

18.3.6. Volatile Loss from Waterborne Coatings

18.4. Viscosity Effects

18.5. Flammability

18.6. Other Physical Properties

18.7. Toxic Hazards

18.8. Atmospheric Photochemical Effects

18.9. Regulation of Solvent Emission from Coatings

18.9.1. Determination of VOC

18.9.2. Regulations

Chapter 19. Color and Appearance

19.1. Light

19.2. Light-Object Interactions

19.2.1. Surface Reflection

19.2.2. Absorption Effects

19.2.3. Scattering

19.2.4. Multiple Interaction Effects

19.3. Hiding

19.4. Metallic and Interference Colors

19.5. The Observer

19.6. Interactions of Light Source, Object, and Observer

19.7. Color Systems

19.8. Color Mixing

19.9. Color Matching

19.9.1. Information Requirements

19.9.2. Color Matching Procedures

19.9.3. Rendering of Color

19.10. Gloss

19.10.1. Variables in Specular Gloss

19.10.2. Gloss Measurement

Chapter 20. Pigments

20.1. White Pigments

20.1.1. Titanium Dioxide

20.1.2. Other White Pigments

20.2. Color Pigments

20.2.1. Yellow and Orange Pigments

20.2.2. Red Pigments

20.2.3. Blue and Green Pigments

20.2.4. Black Pigments

20.2.5. Effect Pigments: Metallic, Interference, and Cholesteric Pigments

20.3. Inert Pigments

20.4. Functional Pigments

20.5. Nano-Pigments

Chapter 21. Pigment Dispersion

21.1. Dispersion in Organic Media

21.1.1. Wetting

21.1.2. Separation

21.1.3. Stabilization

21.2. Formulation of Nonaqueous Mill Bases

21.2.1. Daniel Flow Point Method

21.2.2. Oil Absorption Values

21.3. Dispersions in Aqueous Media

21.3.1. Stabilization of aqueous dispersions

21.4. Dispersion Equipment and Processes

21.4.1. High-Speed Disk (HSD) Dispersers

21.4.2. Rotor/Stator Mixers

21.4.3. Ball Mills

21.4.4. Media Mills

21.4.5. Three Roll and Two Roll Mills

21.4.6. Extruders

21.4.7. Ultrasound

21.4.8. Stir-in Pigments

21.5. Evaluation of Dispersions

Chapter 22. Effect of Pigments on Coating Properties

22.1. PVC and CPVC

22.1.1. Factors Controlling CPVC

22.1.2. Determination of CPVC

22.1.3. CPVC of Latex Coatings

22.2. Relationships Between Film Properties and PVC

22.2.1. Mechanical Properties

22.2.2. Effects of Porosity

22.2.3. Effects on Curing and Film Formation

Chapter 23. Application Methods

23.1. Brushes, Pads, and Hand Rollers

23.1.1. Brush and Pad Application

23.1.2. Hand Roller Application

23.2. Spray Application

23.2.1. Air Spray Guns

23.2.2. Airless Spray Guns

23.2.3. Electrostatic Spraying

23.2.4. Hot Spray

23.2.5. Supercritical Fluid Spray

23.2.6. Formulation Considerations for Spray-Applied Coatings

22.2.7. Overspray Disposal

23.3. Dip and Flow Coating

23.4. Roll Coating

23.5. Curtain Coating

Chapter 24. Film Defects

24.1. Surface Tension

24.2. Leveling

24.3. Sagging and Drip Marks

24.4. Crawling, Cratering, and Related Defects

24.5. Floating and Flooding; Hammer Finishes

24.6. Wrinkling; Wrinkle Finishes

24.7. Bubbling and Popping

24.8. Foaming

24.9. Dirt

Chapter 25. Solventborne and High Solids Coatings

25.1. Primers

25.1.1. Binders for Primers

25.1.2. Pigmentation of Primers

25.1.3. High Solids Primers

25.2. Top Coats

25.2.1. Binders for Top Coats

25.2.2. Formulating Solventborne Coatings for Lower VOC

Chapter 26. Waterborne Coatings

26.1. Water-Reducible Coatings

26.2. Latex-Based Coatings

26.3. Emulsion Coatings

Chapter 27. Electrodeposition Coatings

27.1. Anionic Electrodeposition Coatings

27.2. Cationic Electrodeposition Coatings

27.3. Effect of Variables on Electrodeposition

27.4. Application of Electrodeposition Coatings

27.5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Electrodeposition

27.6. Autodeposition Coatings

Chapter 28. Powder Coatings

28.1. Binders for Thermosetting Powder Coatings

28.1.1. Epoxy Binders

28.1.2. Hybrid Binders

28.1.3. Polyester Binders

28.1.4. Acrylic Binders

28.1.5. Silicon-Containing Binders

28.1.6. UV Cure and Hot Press Powder Coatings

28.2. Binders for Thermoplastic Powder Coatings

28.3. Formulation of Thermosetting Powder Coatings

28.3.1. Low Gloss Powder Coatings

28.4. Manufacture of Powder Coatings

28.4.1. Production

28.4.2. Quality Control

28.5. Application Methods

28.5.1. Electrostatic Spray Application

28.5.2. Other Application Methods

28.6. Advantages and Limitations

Chapter 29. Radiation Cure Coatings

29.1. UV Curing

29.1.1. Absorption - the Primary Process

29.2. Free Radical Initiated UV Cure

29.2.1. Unimolecular (Type I or PI1) Photoinitiators

29.2.2. Bimolecular (Type II or PI2) Photoinitiators

29.2.3. Macromolecular Photoinitiators

29.2.4. Oxygen Inhibition

29.2.5. Vehicles for Free Radical Initiated UV Cure

29.2.6. Waterborne UV Cure Coatings

29.3. Cationic UV Cure

29.3.1. Vehicles for Cationic UV Cure

29.4. Hybrid Free Radical/Cationic Polymerization

29.5. Effects of Pigmentation

29.6. Electron Beam Cure Coatings

29.7. Dual UV/Thermal Cure

29.8, Selected Applications

29.9. Advantages, Disadvantages and Selected Advances

Chapter 30. Product Coatings for Metal Substrates

30.1. OEM Automotive Coatings

30.1.1. Automotive Paint Process

30.1.2. Electrodeposition Coating Formulation

30.1.3. Automotive Primers

30.1.4. Automotive Basecoats

30.1.5. Automotive Clearcoats

30.1.6. Factory Repair Procedures

30.2. Appliance Coatings

30.3. Container Coatings

30.3.1. Interior Can Linings

30.3.2. Exterior Can Coatings

30.4. Coil Coating

30.4.1. Advantages and Limitations of Coil Coating

30.5. Coatings for Aircraft

Chapter 31. Product Coatings for Nonmetallic Substrates

31.1. Coatings for Wood

31.1.1. Coatings for Wood Furniture

31.1.2. Waterborne Wood Finishes

31.1.3. UV-Cured Furniture Finishes

31.1.4. Panel, Siding and Flooring Finishes

31.2. Coating of Plastics

31.2.1. In-Mold Coating

31.2.2. Post-Mold Coating

Chapter 32. Architectural Coatings

32.1. Exterior House Paints and Primers

32.2. Flat and Semigloss Interior Paints

32.3. Gloss Enamels

32.3.1. Alkyd Gloss Enamels

32.3.2. Latex Gloss Enamels

Chapter 33. Special Purpose Coatings

33.1. Maintenance Paints

33.1.1. Barrier Coating Systems

33.1.2. Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers

33.1.3. Systems with Passivating Pigment Containing Primers

33.1.4. Overcoating Existing Industrial Maintenance Paints

33.2. Marine Coatings

33.2.1. Above the Water Line and Interior

33.2.2. At and Below the Water Line

33.2.3. Other Types of Marine Coatings

33.3. Automobile Refinish Paints

33.4. Traffic Striping Paints

Chapter 34. Functional Coatings

34.1. Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Coatings

34.2. Ice-phobic Coatings

34.3. Self-Healing Coatings

34.4. Environmentally Sensing Coatings

34.5. Antimicrobial Coatings
Frank N. Jones is a consultant and an Emeritus Professor at Eastern Michigan University, where he was Director, of the National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center in Coatings. Previously he was Professor and Chair of the Department of Polymers and Coatings at North Dakota State University.

Mark E. Nichols is currently Technical Leader, Paint and Corrosion Research at the Ford Motor Company and the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Coatings Technology and Research. He is the recipient of the Industry Excellence Award from the ACA as well as a Roon Award.

Socrates Peter Pappas is formerly an industry Consultant, Corporate Scientist at Kodak Polychrome Graphics and Scientific Fellow at Loctite Corporation. He was also an Assistant Professor at Emory University and a Professor at North Dakota State University in the Departments of Chemistry as well as Polymers and Coatings.

F. N. Jones, Eastern Michigan University; S. P. Pappas, Polychrome Corporation