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Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization

Anal, Anil Kumar (ed.)

IFST Advances in Food Science

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1. Edition November 2017
592 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd
Anal, Anil Kumar (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-43288-4
John Wiley & Sons

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Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization

An in-depth look at the economic and environmental benefits that food companies can achieve--and the challenges and opportunities they may face--by utilizing food processing by-products

Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization is the first book dedicated to food processing by-products and their utilization in a broad spectrum. It provides a comprehensive overview on food processing by-products and their utilization as source of novel functional ingredients. It discusses food groups, including cereals, pulses, fruits, vegetables, meat, dairy, marine, sugarcane, winery, and plantation by-products; addresses processing challenges relevant to food by-products; and delivers insight into the current state of art and emerging technologies to extract valuable phytochemicals from food processing by-products.

Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization offers in-depth chapter coverage of fruit processing by-products; the application of food by-products in medical and pharmaceutical industries; prebiotics and dietary fibers from food processing by-products; bioactive compounds and their health effects from honey processing industries; advances in milk fractionation for value addition; seafood by-products in applications of biomedicine and cosmeticuals; food industry by-products as nutrient replacements in aquaculture diets and agricultural crops; regulatory and legislative issues for food waste utilization; and much more.
* The first reference text to bring together essential information on the processing technology and incorporation of by-products into various food applications
* Concentrates on the challenges and opportunities for utilizing by-products, including many novel and potential uses for the by-products and waste materials generated by food processing
* Focuses on the nutritional composition and biochemistry of by-products, which are key to establishing their functional health benefits as foods
* Part of the "IFST Advances in Food Science" series, co-published with the Institute of Food Science and Technology (UK)

This bookserves as a comprehensive reference for students, educators, researchers, food processors, and industry personnel looking for up-to-date insight into the field. Additionally, the covered range of techniques for by-product utilization will provide engineers and scientists working in the food industry with a valuable resource for their work.

About the IFST Advances in Food Science Book Series xvii

List of Contributors xix

1 Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization: Introduction 1
Anil Kumar Anal

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Food Processing Wastes and By-Products for Industrial Applications 2

1.3 By-Products from Cereal Processing Industries 2

1.4 Fruits and Vegetables By-Products 3

1.5 By-Products from the Meat and Poultry Processing Industries 5

1.6 Seafood Processing By-Products 6

1.7 By-Products from the Dairy Processing Industries 7

1.8 Conclusion 7

References 7

2 Fruit Processing By-Products: A Rich Source for Bioactive Compounds and Value Added Products 11
Medina-Meza Ilce Gabriela, and Ganjyal Girish

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Phenolic Compounds as Functional foods 12

2.2.1 Phenolic Acids 12

2.2.2 Flavonoids 13

2.2.3 Tannins 14

2.2.4 Stilbenes and Lignans 15

2.3 Fruit By-Products Sources 15

2.3.1 Agro-Industrial By-Products 15

2.4 Dietary Fibers-Rich By-Products 18

2.4.1 Hemicelluloses 19

2.4.2 Pectins 19

2.5 Value-Added Products from Fruit By-Products 19

2.5.1 Meat Products 19

2.5.2 Dairy Products 20

2.5.3 Baking Products 20

2.5.4 Ready-To-Eat Products 20

2.6 Future Perspectives 21

References 21

3 Utilization of Waste from Tropical Fruits 27
H.K. Sharma and Mandeep Kaur

3.1 Introduction 27

3.1.1 Waste Utilization and Challenges 28

3.2 Pineapple 29

3.2.1 Bioethanol 30

3.2.2 Biogas 31

3.2.3 Bromelain 31

3.2.4 Cellulase 32

3.2.5 Citric Acid 33

3.2.6 Extruded Product 33

3.2.7 Jam 34

3.2.8 Lactic Acid 34

3.2.9 Animal Feed 34

3.3 Guava 35

3.3.1 Pectin 36

3.3.2 Juice Fortified with Dietary Fibre 37

3.3.3 Alcoholic Fermentation 37

3.3.4 Use in Bakery Industry 38

3.3.5 Single Cell Protein 38

3.3.6 Lycopene 38

3.3.7 Utilization as Feed 39

3.4 Papaya 40

3.4.1 Papaya Seeds as Antioxidants 41

3.4.2 Extraction of Papain 42

3.4.3 Extraction of Oil from Seeds 43

3.4.4 Alcohol and Vinegar 43

3.4.5 Utilization of Seed Flour for Food Enrichment 43

3.4.6 Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) 44

3.4.7 Single Cell Protein 44

3.5 Summary and Future Trends 45

References 45

4 Valorization of Vegetable Wastes 53
Taslima Ayesha Aktar Nasrin and Md. Abdul Matin

4.1 Introduction 53

4.2 Losses of Vegetables from Production to Consumption 54

4.3 Extent of Vegetable Losses 54

4.4 Reasons and Overall Prevention of Vegetable Wastes 55

4.4.1 Production Exceeds Demand 56

4.4.2 Premature Harvesting 56

4.4.3 Strict Quality Standards 56

4.4.4 Poor Storage Facilities 57

4.4.5 Unsafe Vegetables 57

4.4.6 Throwing Rather than Using or Re-using 57

4.4.7 Lack of Processing Facilities 57

4.4.8 Wide Range of Products/Brands 58

4.4.9 Inadequate Market Systems 58

4.4.10 Abundance and Consumer Attitudes 58

4.5 Loss Quantification of Some Important Vegetables after Harvest 59

4.5.1 Cabbage 59

4.5.2 Cauliflower 59

4.5.3 Broccoli 59

4.5.4 Sweet Corn 59

4.5.5 Carrots 60

4.5.6 Beetroot 60

4.5.7 Lettuce 60

4.5.8 Capsicums 60

4.5.9 Beans 60

4.6 Utilization of Vegetable Wastes 61

4.6.1 Utilization of Wastes by Priority Basis 61

4.6.2 Vegetable Demand should be Increased 62

4.6.3 Vegetables for Better Health 62

4.6.4 Bio Gas and Electricity Generation from Vegetable Wastes 63

4.6.5 Bioactive Compounds Extraction from Vegetable Wastes 64

4.6.6 Increment of Bioactive Compounds in Vegetables 66

4.6.7 Bioactive Compounds Affected by Stimulators 67

4.6.8 Extraction Techniques of Bioactive Compounds 70

4.6.9 Dietary Fibres from Vegetable Waste 73

4.6.10 Resistant Starch from Vegetable Waste 75

4.6.11 Vegetable Waste as Vermicomposting Agent 76

4.6.12 Biofuel and Biochar from Vegetable Waste 76

4.6.13 Fish Food from Vegetable Waste 77

4.6.14 Aquaponic using Vegetable Waste 78

4.6.15 Waste as Animal Feed 78

4.6.16 Activated Carbon from Vegetable Waste 80

4.6.17 Biodegradable Plastic 80

4.6.18 Vegetable Wastes as Substrates in Citric Acid Production 80

4.7 Conclusion 81

References 81

5 Application of Food By-Products in Medical and Pharmaceutical Industries 89
Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Manisha Singh, and Anil Kumar Anal

5.1 Introduction 89

5.2 Agroindustry By-Products and Potential Recovery of Bioactive Compounds 90

5.2.1 Fruits 90

5.2.2 Vegetables 94

5.3 By-Products from Animal Origin 96

5.3.1 By-Products from Meat Processing 96

5.3.2 Fish and Seafood Processing 99

5.4 Conclusion 103

References 103

6 Dietary Fibers, Dietary Peptides and Dietary Essential Fatty Acids from Food Processing By-Products 111
Seema Medhe, Manisha Anand, and Anil Kumar Anal

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 Dietary Fiber from Food Processing By-Products 112

6.2.1 Structural Features of Dietary Fiber 112

6.2.2 Technological Functionality of Dietary Fiber 113

6.2.3 Health Benefits of Dietary Fibers 114

6.2.4 Dietary Fiber from Fruits and Vegetables 115

6.2.5 Dietary Fiber from Legumes 116

6.2.6 Dietary Fiber from Cereals 117

6.2.7 Coffee, Tea and Cocoa 118

6.2.8 Spices 119

6.2.9 Utilization of Dietary Fiber in Different Food Industries 119

6.3 Dietary Proteins and Peptides from Food Processing By-Products 120

6.3.1 Oil Seed Processing By-Products Valorization to Produce Proteins 120

6.3.2 Proteins from Dairy Waste 123

6.3.3 Proteins from Sugar Industry Waste 124

6.3.4 Proteins from Marine Waste 124

6.3.5 Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine By-Products 125

6.3.6 Peptides from Meat and Meat Processing Waste 125

6.4 Dietary Essential Fatty Acids 126

6.4.1 Health Benefits of Omega Fatty Acids 127

6.4.2 Essential Fatty Acids from Marine Waste 127

6.4.3 Methods of Extraction of Omega Fatty Acid 127

References 129

7 Prebiotics and Dietary Fibers from Food Processing By-Products 137
Santad Wichienchot and Wan Rosli Bin Wan Ishak

7.1 Introduction 137

7.2 Oligosaccharides from Food Processing By-Products 140

7.2.1 Pectic Oligosaccharide (POS) 140

7.2.2 Xylo-Oligosaccharide (XOS) 143

7.2.3 Chito-Oligosaccharide (COS) 146

7.2.4 Inulin and Fructo-Oligosaccharide (FOS) 148

7.2.5 Soybean Oligosaccharide (SOS) 151

7.3 Polysaccharides from Food Processing and Agricultural By-Products 155

7.3.1 ß-Glucans 155

7.3.2 Non-Starch Dietary Fibers 158

7.3.3 Resistant Starch 162

7.4 Conclusion 164

References 165

8 Utilization of By-Products from Food Processing as Biofertilizers and Biopesticides 175
Avishek Datta, Hayat Ullah, and Zannatul Ferdous

8.1 Introduction 175

8.2 Concept of Food Processing By-Products 176

8.2.1 Existing Methods of By-Product/Wastes Management Practiced by Food Industries 177

8.3 Plant-Based Food By-Products and their Importance as Biofertilizers 178

8.3.1 Sugarcane By-Products 178

8.3.2 Utilization of Oilseed Processing By-Products as Biofertilizer 179

8.3.3 Food Processing Industrial Sludge as Sources of Biofertilizers 182

8.3.4 Rice Straw and Rice Bran 182

8.3.5 Coffee Processing By-Products 183

8.3.6 Tea Processing Wastes 183

8.3.7 Turmeric Solid Waste 184

8.3.8 Cassava Processing By-Product as Biofertilizers 184

8.4 Importance of Plant-Based Food Processing By-Products as Biopesticides 185

8.4.1 Maize Gluten Meal 185

8.4.2 Cuphea Oil 185

8.4.3 Jatropha Oil 186

8.4.4 Olive Compounds 186

8.4.5 Plant Extracts Classified as Minimal Risk Pesticides 187

8.4.6 Rotenone as Biopesticide 187

8.5 Concluding Remarks 187

References 188

9 Banana Peels and their Prospects for Industrial Utilization 195
Prerna Khawas, Arup Jyoti Das, and Sankar Chandra Deka

9.1 Introduction 195

9.2 Chemical Properties and Bioactive Compounds Present in Banana Peel 196

9.2.1 Nutrients 196

9.2.2 Phytochemicals and Antioxidants 197

9.2.3 Flavonoids and Polyphenols 197

9.2.4 Micronutrient 198

9.2.5 Bioactive Components 199

9.3 Utilization of Banana Peel 199

9.3.1 Yellow Noodles 199

9.3.2 Dietary Fibre Concentrate 199

9.3.3 alpha-amylase 199

9.3.4 Xylose 200

9.3.5 Lipase 200

9.3.6 Wine Vinegar 200

9.3.7 Wine 201

9.3.8 Feed 201

9.3.9 Sustainability 201

9.3.10 Bioethanol 202

9.3.11 Alkali 202

9.3.12 Biogas 203

9.4 Conclusion 203

References 203

10 Utilization of Carrot Pomace 207
H.K. Sharma and Navneet Kumar

10.1 Introduction 207

10.1.1 Carrot 208

10.1.2 Processing of Carrot 208

10.1.3 Carrot By-Products 212

10.1.4 Carrot Pomace 212

10.2 Value-Added Products from Carrot Pomace Powder 216

10.2.1 Biscuits 216

10.2.2 Cookies 216

10.2.3 Wheat Rolls 217

10.2.4 Wheat Bread 217

10.2.5 Fish Sausage 218

10.2.6 Extrudates 218

10.2.7 Fiber 222

10.2.8 Bio-ethanol 222

10.2.9 Functional Components 222

10.2.10 Citric Acid Production 223

10.2.11 Animal Feed 223

10.2.12 Composting and Biogas 224

10.3 Nutritional, Functional and Medicinal Value of Carrot and Carrot By-Products 224

References 225

11 Processing and Utilization of Soy Food By-Products 231
M.K. Tripathi and Rahul Shrivastava

11.1 Introduction 231

11.1.1 Soybean: Global Scenario and its Future 232

11.1.2 Post-Production Management of Soyabean 235

11.1.3 Soybeans Product History 237

11.1.4 Nutrient Composition Soyabean 239

11.2 Soy Products and Human Diet 242

11.2.1 Nutritionally Balanced Diets 242

11.2.2 Lipid Metabolism 245

11.2.3 Glucose Tolerance 245

11.2.4 Caloric Reduction 245

11.2.5 Zinc Bioavailability 246

11.2.6 Iron Bioavailability 246

11.3 Functionality of Soyabean in Various Food Products 247

11.3.1 Fermented Products 247

11.3.2 Dairy Type Products 248

11.3.3 Cereal-Based Products 248

11.3.4 Meat and Seafood Products 249

11.3.5 Beverages 249

11.3.6 Daily Intake 249

11.3.7 Soybean in Meals 250

11.4 Processing and Soyabean Composition 250

11.4.1 Proteins 250

11.4.2 Soybean Processing and Trypsin Inhibitors 250

11.4.3 Soybean Processing and Phytic Acid Composition 252

11.4.4 Soybean Processing and Saponins Composition 252

11.4.5 Soybean Processing and Isoflavones 253

11.5 Raw Soy and Soybean Inhibitors in Digestive Enzymes of the Pancreas 254

11.6 Soybean Inhibitors and Inactivation of Digestive Enzymes 255

11.7 Beneficial Effects of Soy-Containing Diets 255

11.7.1 Cholesterol-Lowering 255

11.7.2 Soybean Bowman Birk Inhibitor as an Anticarcinogen 255

11.7.3 Soybean Lectins 256

11.8 Traditional Soy-Foods 257

11.8.1 Tofu 257

11.8.2 Soy Milk 257

11.8.3 Green Vegetable Soybeans 257

11.8.4 Tempeh 257

11.8.5 Miso 258

11.8.6 Soy Sauce 258

11.8.7 Natto 258

11.8.8 Okara 258

11.8.9 Soy Sprouts 258

11.8.10 Soybean Oil 258

11.8.11 Second-Generation Soy-Foods 259

11.8.12 Soy Nuts 259

11.8.13 Meat Alternatives 259

11.8.14 Cheese Alternatives 259

11.8.15 Soymilk Yogurt 259

11.8.16 Non-Dairy Frozen Desserts 259

11.9 Source of Various Enzymes having Industrial Significance 260

11.9.1 Cellulases 260

11.9.2 alpha- and ß-Amylases 260

11.9.3 Proteases 260

11.9.4 Phytases 260

11.9.5 Transglutaminases 261

11.9.6 Ureases 261

11.9.7 Peroxidases 261

11.9.8 alpha-Galactosidases 261

11.10 Major Soybean By-Products 262

11.10.1 Okara and its Uses 262

11.10.2 Livestock Fodder 262

11.10.3 Organic Compost 262

11.10.4 Pet Food 262

11.10.5 Soysage 262

11.10.6 Baked Goods 263

11.10.7 Okara Tempeh 263

11.10.8 Okara Party Mix 263

11.10.9 Soysage Paté 263

11.10.10 Okara and Vegetable Saute 263

11.10.11 Okara Burgers 263

11.10.12 Okara Onchom 263

11.10.13 Other Food Uses 264

11.11 Tofu Whey and its Uses 264

11.11.1 Natural Organic Soap 265

11.11.2 Livestock Fodder 265

11.11.3 Organic Fertilizer 265

11.11.4 Fuel Alcohol 265

11.11.5 Soymilk Curds 265

11.11.6 Soybean Hulls or Seed Coats 266

11.12 Applications of important soybean products 266

11.12.1 Okara as Source of Dietary Fiber in Functional Food Development 266

11.12.2 Okara as Source of Protein in Functional Food Development 266

11.12.3 Production of Natural Cellulose Fibers from Soybean Straw 267

11.12.4 Recovery of Phytosterols from Waste Residue of Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate 267

11.12.5 Production of alpha-Galactosidase from Soybean Vinasse 268

11.12.6 Production of Bio-Ethanol from Soybean Molasses 268

11.12.7 Production of Citric Acid from Okara 269

11.12.8 Antioxidant Extraction from Soybean By-Products 269

References 270

12 Value-Added By-Products from Rice Processing Industries 277
Kittima Triratanasirichai, Manisha Singh, and Anil Kumar Anal

12.1 Introduction 277

12.2 Rice Bran 279

12.2.1 Protein and Peptide 279

12.2.2 Protein Extraction Method 280

12.2.3 Gamma-Oryzanol (gamma-Oryzanol) and Wax 284

12.3 Rice Hull and Rice Bran Fiber 286

12.4 Conclusions 287

References 287

13 Bioprocessing of Beverage Industry Waste for Value Addition 295
Surangna Jain and Anil Kumar Anal

13.1 Introduction 295

13.2 Coffee 295

13.2.1 Coffee Processing 295

13.2.2 By-Products and Wastes from Coffee Processing 296

13.2.3 Utilization of Coffee By-Products and Wastes 296

13.3 Tea 298

13.3.1 Processing and Production of Tea 298

13.3.2 Tea By-Products and Wastes and their Utilization 298

13.4 Fruit Juice and Soft Drinks 299

13.5 Alcoholic Beverages 299

13.5.1 Beer Production 299

13.5.2 By-Products and Wastes from the Brewing Industry and their Utilization 300

13.5.3 Wine Production 302

13.5.4 Brandy 304

13.6 Conclusion 304

References 305

14 Bioactive Compounds and their Health Effects from Honey Processing Industries 309
Zjahra Vianita Nugraheni and Taslim Ersam

14.1 Introduction 309

14.2 Biological Applications of Honey 313

14.2.1 Antibacterial Effects 313

14.2.2 Antioxidant Effects 314

14.2.3 Antiviral Effects 316

14.2.4 Anti-inflammatory Effects 316

14.3 Conclusion 317

References 318

15 Advances in Milk Fractionation for Value Addition 323
Juan M. Gonzalez, Deepak Bhopatkar, and Dattatreya Banavara

15.1 Dairy Ingredient Development 323

15.2 Milk Proteins 324

15.3 Milk Proteins Classification 325

15.3.1 Caseins 326

15.3.2 Whey Proteins 326

15.3.3 Milk Fat Globule Membrane Proteins 327

15.3.4 Milk Protein Fractionation Technologies 327

15.3.5 Milk Protein Ingredients 328

15.3.6 Milk Protein Hydrolysates 331

15.4 Milk Fats 334

15.4.1 Milk Fat Classification 334

15.4.2 Milk Fat Ingredients 334

15.5 Milk Carbohydrates 342

15.5.1 Lactose 342

15.5.2 Enzymatic and Chemical Modification 344

15.6 Milk Oligosaccharides 347

15.6.1 Oligosaccharide Processing 349

15.7 Future Outlook 349

References 349

16 Bioprocessing of Chicken Meat and Egg Processing Industries' Waste to Value-Added Proteins and Peptides 367
Surangna Jain, Damodar Dhakal, and Anil Kumar Anal

16.1 Introduction 367

16.2 By-Products and Wastes Generated During Chicken Meat and Egg Processing 369

16.2.1 Feather 370

16.2.2 Skin 371

16.2.3 Bones 371

16.2.4 Trachea 371

16.2.5 Blood 371

16.2.6 Feet 371

16.2.7 Eggshell and Eggshell Membrane 372

16.3 Proteins and Peptides derived from Chicken Processing By-Products and Waste 372

16.3.1 Collagen 372

16.3.2 Gelatin 374

16.3.3 Keratin 376

16.3.4 Plasma Proteins 378

16.3.5 Bioactive Peptides 380

16.4 Valorization of Egg Waste 387

16.5 Conclusion 388

References 388

17 Bioprocessing of Beef and Pork Meat Processing Industries, 'Waste to Value-Add' 395
Damodar Dhakal, Sajal Man Shrestha, and Anil Kumar Anal

17.1 Introduction 395

17.2 Different By-Products and Waste coming from Beef and Pork Meat Processing Industries 396

17.2.1 Skin 397

17.2.2 Bones 398

17.2.3 Hides and Hooves 398

17.2.4 Horn 399

17.2.5 Blood 400

17.2.6 Lard 400

17.2.7 Viscera 401

17.3 Valorization of Beef and Pork Meat Processing Waste 401

17.3.1 Collagen 401

17.3.2 Gelatin 402

17.3.3 Blood Products 403

17.3.4 Bioactive Peptides 404

17.3.5 Biodiesel 405

17.3.6 Keratin 407

17.4 Conclusion 411

References 411

18 Aquaculture and Marine Products Contribution for Healthcare Application 417
Maushmi S. Kumar

18.1 Introduction 417

18.2 Various Classes of Freshwater and Marine Products and their Healthcare Application 418

18.2.1 Proteins and Peptides 418

18.2.2 Marine Enzymes 420

18.2.3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids 421

18.2.4 Seafood Processing By-Products 422

18.3 Recent Patents in Healthcare Applications 426

18.3.1 Chitin and Chitosan 426

18.3.2 Phycocolloids 428

18.3.3 Carotenoids 428

18.4 Conclusion 430

References 431

19 Seafood By-Products in Applications of Biomedicine and Cosmeticuals 437
Ngo Dang Nghia

19.1 Introduction 437

19.1.1 Global Fishery Production 438

19.1.2 Important Species 438

19.1.3 Seafood By-Products 439

19.2 Seafood By-Products and Biomedicine 442

19.2.1 Fish Protein Hydrolysate 443

19.2.2 Carotenoprotein 445

19.2.3 Bioactive Peptides 447

19.2.4 Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) 448

19.2.5 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids 450

19.2.6 Chitin/Chitosan 452

19.2.7 Collagen, Gelatin 454

19.3 Marine Cosmeticuals 457

19.3.1 Cosmetics and Cosmeceuticals 457

19.3.2 Skin Care 458

19.3.3 Bioactive Compounds from Seafood By-Products for Skin Care 459

19.4 Conclusions 461

References 461

20 Food Industry By-Products as Protein Replacement in Aquaculture Diets of Tilapia and Catfish 471
Gabriel Arome Ataguba, Manoj Tukaram Kamble, and Krishna R. Salin

20.1 Introduction 471

20.1.1 Overview of Aquaculture 471

20.1.2 Use of Fishmeal 472

20.1.3 Siluridae 473

20.1.4 Cichlidae 473

20.1.5 Food Industry By-Products 474

20.2 Alternatives to Fishmeal in Catfish Diets 475

20.2.1 Ingredients of Plant Origin 475

20.2.2 Ingredients of Animal Origin 480

20.2.3 Other By-Products and Immuno-Modulation 482

20.3 Alternatives to Fishmeal in Tilapia Diets 482

20.3.1 Plant By-Product Protein Source 482

20.3.2 Animal By-Product Protein Source 486

20.3.3 Other By-Product Protein Source 490

References 491

21 Value-Added By-Products from Sugar Processing Industries 509
Ali Akbar and Imran Ali

21.1 Introduction 509

21.2 Pulp and Paper Production 512

21.2.1 Pulp Production 512

21.2.2 Paper Production from Bagasse Pulp 513

21.3 Agglomerated Products Production from Bagasse 513

21.3.1 Particle Board Production 514

21.3.2 Fiber Board Production 514

21.4 Alcohols 515

21.4.1 Production of Alcohol 515

21.4.2 Substrate Preparation 515

21.4.3 Preparation and Inoculation of Yeast 516

21.4.4 The Process of Fermentation 516

21.4.5 Alcohol Purification 516

21.4.6 Kinds of Alcohols Obtained from Sugar Industries 517

21.5 Animal Feed 519

21.5.1 Animal Feed from Beet Sugar Industries 519

21.5.2 Animals Feed from Cane Sugar Industries 520

21.6 Acids 521

21.7 Pectins 522

21.8 Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals 522

21.9 Anti-Desiccants 523

21.10 Biodegradable Plastics and Biopolymers 523

21.11 Food Products, Flavorings and Aromas 524

21.12 Char and Biofertilizers 525

21.13 Waste Water Treatment and Environmental Bioremediation 526

21.14 Energy and Biogas from Sugar Industries 527

21.15 Sprays and Colors 527

21.16 Solvents 528

21.17 Bio-Filters 528

21.18 Microbial Substrates 528

21.19 Summary and Future Prospects 528

References 529

22 Regulatory and Legislative Issues for Food Waste Utilization 535
Lavaraj Devkota, Didier Montet, and Anil Kumar Anal

22.1 Introduction 535

22.2 Possible Mitigation Measures for Food Processing Wastes 536

22.2.1 Composting and Land Spreading of Food Processing Waste 536

22.2.2 Feeding Food Processing Waste to Livestock 537

22.2.3 Utilization of Food Processing Waste as Feed/Food Supplement through Value Addition or Modification in Processing Method 537

22.2.4 Food Processing Source Reduction and Waste Management 538

22.3 Impact of Waste Disposal on Environment and Human Health 539

22.4 Need of Legislative and Regulatory Guidelines 539

22.5 Concept of Policies, Legislations, Code of Conduct and Regulations for Food Waste Utilization 540

22.6 Prevailing Legislation and Regulatory Guidelines for Food Waste Utilization 541

22.6.1 European Union 541

22.6.2 The USA 543

22.6.3 Asian Region 544

22.7 Possible Amendments and Scope for the Development of New Regulations on Food Waste Utilization 544

22.8 Use of Recent Advancements in Food Waste Utilization 545

22.9 Conclusion 546

References 546

Index 549
About the Editor
Anil Kumar Anal, is Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Food, Agriculture and Bioresources, School of Environment, Resources and Development, at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand