John Wiley & Sons Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology Cover Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology goes beyond a mere review of current literature and.. Product #: 978-1-118-94105-8 Regular price: $120.56 $120.56 In Stock

Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology

Nicosia, Cristiano / Stoops, Georges

Cover

1. Edition October 2017
496 Pages, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-118-94105-8
John Wiley & Sons

Buy now

Price: 129,00 €

Price incl. VAT, excl. Shipping

Further versions

epubpdf

Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology goes beyond a mere review of current literature and features the most up to date contributions from numerous scientists working in the field. The book represents a groundbreaking and comprehensive resource covering the plethora of applications of micromorphology in archaeology. Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology offers researchers, students and professionals a systematic tool for the interpretation of thin sections of archaeological contexts.

This important resource is also designed to help stimulate the use of micromorphology in archaeology outside Europe, where the technique is less frequently employed. Moreover, the authors hope to strengthen the proper application of soil micromorphology in archaeology, by illustrating its possibilities and referring in several cases to more specialized publications (for instance in the field of plant remains, pottery and phytoliths). Written for anyone interested in the topic, this important text offers:
* Contributions from most of the world's leading authorities on soil micromorphology
* A series of chapters on the major topics selected among the most recurrent in literature about archaeological soil micromorphology
* Systematic descriptions of all important micromorphological features
* Special analytical tools employed on thin sections, such as SEM/EDS, image analysis, fluorescence microscopy, mass spectrometry, among others
* Numerous cross-references
* 400 illustrated full-colour plates

The resource provides the most current and essential information for archaeologists, geoarchaeologists, soil scientists and sedimentologists. Comprehensive in scope, Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology offers professionals and students a much-needed tool for the interpretation of thin sections of archaeological contexts.

Contributors xiii

Referees xvii

Abbreviations xix

Introduction 1
Georges Stoops and Cristiano Nicosia

I.1 Aims and Structure of the Book 1

I.2 Definition and History of Soil Micromorphology 1

I.3 Micromorphology and Archaeology 2

I.4 Use of Micromorphology in Geoarchaeology 2

I.5 Techniques 4

I.6 Concluding

Remarks 5

References 5

Part I: Inclusions in Archaeological Soils and Sediments 9

1 Bone and Other Skeletal Tissues 11
Ximena S. Villagran, Dirk J. Huisman, Susan M. Mentzer, Christopher E. Miller and Miranda M. Jans

1.1 Introduction 11

1.2 Micromorphology 11

1.3 Taphonomy of Bone 20

1.4 Guidelines for Micromorphological Analysis 32

References 33

2 Avian Eggshell 39
Matthew G. Canti

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Biological Characteristics 39

2.3 Optical and Morphological Properties 39

2.4 Examples 39

2.5 Conclusions 39

References 41

3 Mollusc Shell 43
Matthew G. Canti

3.1 Biological Characteristics 43

3.2 Optical and Morphological Properties 43

3.3 Examples 43

3.4 Conclusions 46

References 46

4 Biospheroids Produced by Earthworms 47
Matthew G. Canti

4.1 Introduction 47

4.2 Morphological and Optical Characteristics 47

4.3 Preservation Potential 47

4.4 Archaeological

Examples 47

4.5 Arion Granules 49

References 49

5 Faecal Spherulites 51
Matthew G. Canti and Jacques Élie Brochier

5.1 Introduction 51

5.2 Biological Characteristics 51

5.3 Optical Characteristics 51

5.4 Preservation Potential 53

5.5 Archaeological

Examples 53

References 54

6 Excrements of Herbivores 55
David Brönnimann, Kristin Ismail-Meyer, Philippe Rentzel, Christine Pümpin and Lenka Lisá

6.1 Introduction 55

6.2 Micromorphology 55

6.3 Taphonomy 60

References 63

7 Excrements of Omnivores and Carnivores 67
David Brönnimann, Christine Pümpin, Kristin Ismail-Meyer, Philippe Rentzel and Natalia Égüez

7.1 Introduction 67

7.2 Excrements of Omnivores 67

7.3 Excrements of Carnivores 69

7.4 Human Excrements 75

7.5 Future

Research 77

References 78

8 Guano 83
Panagiotis Karkanas

8.1 Introduction 83

8.2 Micromorphology 83

8.3 Archaeological Implications 86

8.4 Future Prospects 87

References 87

9 Ova of Intestinal Parasites 91
Christine Pümpin, Matthieu Le Bailly and Sandra Pichler

9.1 Introduction 91

9.2 Characteristics of Specific Parasite Eggs 91

9.3 Limitations of the Study of Helminth Eggs in Micromorphological Thin Sections 94

9.4 Conclusion 96

References 96

10 Earth Construction Materials 99
David E. Friesem, Julia Wattez and Marylise Onfray

10.1 Introduction 99

10.2 Mud

Bricks 99

10.3 Cob 102

10.4 Wattle and Daub 104

10.5 Conclusion 106

References 107

11 Laterite as Construction Material 111
Georges Stoops

References 112

12 Turf as Construction Material 113
Dirk J. Huisman and Karen B. Milek

12.1 Introduction 113

12.2 Micromorphology 114

References 118

13 Plant Remains 121
Kristin Ismail-Meyer

13.1 Introduction 121

13.2 Micromorphology 122

13.3 Future Prospects 130

References 133

14 Chaff 137
Cristiano Nicosia and Matthew G. Canti

14.1 Introduction 137

14.2 Micromorphology 137

14.3 Conclusion 139

References 139

15 Charred Plant Remains 141
Matthew G. Canti

References 142

16 Coal 143
Matthew G. Canti

16.1 Introduction 143

16.2 Types of Coal (after Read 1971) 143

16.3 Optical and Morphological Properties 143

16.4 Alteration of Coal by Burning 144

16.5 Archaeological Examples 144

16.6 Conclusions 145

References 145

17 Plant Ash 147
Natthew G. Canti and Jacques Élie Brochier

17.1 Introduction 147

17.2 Micromorphology 147

17.3 Ash Taphonomy 152

References 153

18 Opal Phytoliths 155
Luc Vrydaghs, Yannick Devos and Ákos PetQ

18.1 Introduction 155

18.2 Micromorphology 155

18.3 Brief

Review of Previous Micromorphological Studies Reporting Phytoliths 157

18.4 Deposition and Accumulation in Archaeological Units 157

References 160

19 Siliceous Microfossils from Single-Celled Organisms: Diatoms and Chrysophycean Stomatocysts 165
Elie Verleyen, Koen Sabbe, Wim Vyverman and Cristiano Nicosia

19.1 Introduction 165

19.2 Habitat Preferences of Diatoms and Chrysophycean Cysts 165

19.3 Identification of Siliceous Microfossils produced by Single-Celled Organisms 165

19.4 Siliceous Microfossils from Single-Celled Organisms in Archaeological Soil Micromorphology 168

References 168

20 Opal Sponge Spicules 171
Luc Vrydaghs

20.1 Introduction 171

20.2 Micromorphology 171

References 172

21 Burnt Soils and Sediments 173
Astrid Röpke and Carlo Dietl

21.1 Introduction 173

21.2 Physical,Chemical, Mineralogical and Micromorphological Changes 173

21.3 Experiments at Different Temperature Regimes 175

21.4 Conclusion 177

References 178

22 Burnt Carbonates 181
Matthew G. Canti

22.1 Introduction 181

22.2 Thermal Diagenesis of Carbonate Materials 181

22.3 Carbonate Materials from Different Temperature Regimes 181

22.4 Archaeological Examples 183

22.5 Conclusions 183

References 188

23 Calcareous Mortars, Plasters and Floors 189
Georges Stoops, Matthew G. Canti and Selim Kapur

23.1 Introduction 189

23.2 Micromorphology 189

23.3 Alteration of Mortars and Plasters 196

23.4 Conclusion 197

References 197

24 Gypsic Mortars and Plasters 201
Georges Stoops, Alexander Tsatskin and Matthew G. Canti

24.1 Introduction 201

24.2 Micromorphology 201

24.3 Alteration 203

24.4 Conclusion 203

References 204

25 Ceramic Materials 205
Lara Maritan

25.1 Introduction 205

25.2 Micromorphology 205

25.3 Conclusion 210

References 210

26 Metals and Metalworking Residues 213
Ivana Angelini, Gilberto Artioli and Cristiano Nicosia

26.1 Introduction 213

26.2 Micromorphology 214

26.3 Conclusions 220

References 221

27 Lithic Artefacts 223
Diego E. Angelucci

27.1 Introduction 223

27.2 Micromorphology 224

27.3 Discussion 226

References 229

Part II Current Topics in Archaeological Soil and Sediment Micromorphology 231

28 Soils Disturbed by Vegetation Clearance and Tillage 233
Judit Deák, Anne Gebhardt, Helen Lewis, Maria Raimonda Usai, and Heejin Lee

28.1 Introduction 233

28.2 Micromorphological Features related to Vegetation Clearance by Fire 235

28.3 Micromorphological Features Indicative of Bare Surfaces 238

28.4 Micromorphology of Structural and Textural Features Revealing the use of Implements 247

28.5 Final Remarks 259

References 259

29 Animal Gathering Enclosures 265
Ruth Shahack-Gross

29.1 Introduction 265

29.2 Organic-Rich Dung Deposits 267

29.3 Organic-Poor Dung Deposits 270

29.4 Conclusion 275

References 279

30 Trampling, Poaching and the Effect of Traffic 281
Philippe Rentzel, Cristiano Nicosia, Anne Gebhardt, David Brönnimann, Christine Pümpin and Kristin Ismail-Meyer

30.1 Introduction 281

30.2 Trampling 281

30.3 Poaching 286

30.4 Traffic 287

30.5 Experimentally Trampled Sediments and Surfaces 287

30.6 Conclusion 293

References 295

31 Combustion Features 299
Carolina Mallol, Susan M. Mentzer and Christopher E. Miller

31.1 Introduction 299

31.2 Classification of Combustion Features 300

31.3 Analytical Strategy 300

31.4 Common Microscopic Products of Combustion 300

31.5 Stratigraphy, Fabric and Classification of Intact Combustion Structures 301

31.6 Stratigraphy and Fabric of Physically Reworked Combustion Structures 315

31.7 Microscopic Evidence for Chemical Diagenesis of Intact and Reworked Combustion Structures 320

31.8 Synthesis 322

31.9 Conclusion 324

References 326

32 European Dark Earth 331
Cristiano Nicosia, Yannick Devos, and Richard I. Macphail

32.1 Introduction 331

32.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedures 331

32.3 Features Associated with Natural Formation Processes 332

32.4 Features Associated with Human Activities 336

32.5 Concluding Remarks 339

References 340

33 Amazonian Dark Earths 345
Manuel Arroyo-Kalin

33.1 Introduction 345

33.2 Sampling Considerations 347

33.3 Soil Micromorphology of ADEs 348

34.4 Conclusions 352

References 354

34 Cave and Rock Shelter Sediments 359
Carolina Mallol and Paul Goldberg

34.1 Introduction 359

34.2 Common Microfabrics from Rock Shelter and Cave Sites 360

34.3 Conclusion 375

References 377

Part III Additional Techniques 383

35 Sampling for Soil Micromorphology 385
Georges Stoops and Cristiano Nicosia

35.1 Introduction 385

35.2 Sampling Strategy 385

35.3 Taking Samples in the Field 386

35.4 Labelling 389

35.5 Transport and Preservation 390

References 391

36 Fluorescence Microscopy 393
Georges Stoops

36.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 393

36.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 393

36.3 Applications in Archaeology 395

36.4 Concluding

Remarks 396

References 396

37 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) 399
Lisa-Marie Shillito

37.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 399

37.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 399

37.3 Archaeological Applications 401

References 401

38 Isotope Mass Spectrometry (On Microdrilled Powders) 403
Susan M. Mentzer

38.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 403

38.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 404

38.3 Archaeological Applications 405

38.4 Concluding

Remarks 408

References 408

39 FTIR Microscopy 411
Francesco Berna

39.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 411

39.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 411

39.3 Archaeological Applications 412

References 414

40 X-ray Microdiffraction 417
Christoph Berthold and Susan M. Mentzer

40.1 Fundamentals of X-ray Diffraction 417

40.2 XRD Instrumentation 417

40.3 Output and Analysis 421

40.4 Applications to Archaeological Micromorphology Samples 422

40.5 Concluding

Remarks 427

References 427

41 Micro XRF 431
Susan M. Mentzer

41.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 431

41.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 432

41.3 Archaeological Applications 435

41.4 Concluding

Remarks 438

References 438

42 Micro-CT Scanning 441
Dominique J.M. Ngan-Tillard and Dirk J. Huisman

42.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 441

42.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedures 442

42.3 Archaeological Applications 444

42.4 Concluding Remarks 446

References 447

43 Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) Techniques 451
Clare A. Wilson

43.1 Principles of the Techniques 451

43.2 Sample Preparation and Analysis 451

43.3 Archaeological Applications 453

References 457

44 Reflected Light 461
Bertrand Ligouis

44.1 Principles of the Analytical Method 461

44.2 Sampling and Analytical Procedure 461

44.3 Archaeological Applications 465

References 469

Index 471
Dr. Crisiano Nicosia, Centre de Recherches en Archéologie et Patrimoine, Universitè Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium Em. Prof. Dr. Georges Stoops, Vakgroep Geologie, Universiteit Gent, Belgium