|Hodek, Ivo / Honek, A. / van Emden, Helmut F. (Hrsg.)|
Ecology and Behaviour of the Ladybird Beetles (Coccinellidae)
2. Auflage April 2012
2012. 600 Seiten, Hardcover
ISBN 978-1-4051-8422-9 - John Wiley & Sons
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Ladybirds are probably the best known predators of aphids and coccids in the world, though this greatly underestimates the diversity of their biology. Maximising their impact on their prey is an important element in modern conservation biological control of indigenous natural enemies in contrast to the classical approach of releasing alien species.
Ivo Hodek is one of the most internationally respected experts on coccinellids who has researched these insects for his entire career. He has now brought together 14 scientists of international standing to author 12 chapters, making this book the definitive treatment of coccinellid biology and ecology.
This volume covers the rapid scientific developments of recent years in the understanding of coccinellid phylogeny, the semiochemicals influencing their behaviour and of molecular genetics. Recent insights in relation to intraguild predation and the assessment of the predatory impact of coccinellids are also covered.
Other special features of the volume are the extensive references covering the literature from both East and West and a taxonomic glossary of the up-to-date nomenclature for species of coccinellids as well as of other organisms mentioned in the text.
While aimed at researchers, university teachers and agricultural entomologists, the book is readable and appropriate for others who just have a liking for these interesting and attractive insects.
Aus dem Inhalt
1 Phylogeny by I. Kovar (Czech Rep.).
Phylogenetic relations of the subfamilies of Coccinellidae are rather complicated and are now a matter of intensive study. Most recent opinions are summarised..
2 Variability and Genetic Studies by M. E. N. Majerus & A. Honek (UK & Czech Rep.).
This chapter considers the range of phenotypic variation exhibited by ladybirds. Particular attention is paid to the mechanistic and evolutionary causes of colour pattern polymorphisms. The chapter also considers chromosomal variation, sex determination and recent advances in the molecular genetics of coccinellids..
3 Life History and Development by A. Honek & O. Nedved (Czech Rep.).
The factors (temperature, food, population density) that influence the rate of development of the four developmental stages (egg, larva, pupa, adult) are discussed. The population rate of increase is calculated from data for fecundity, rate of development and survival..
4 Distribution in Habitats by A. Honek & I. Hodek (Czech Rep.).
Firstly the impact of factors affecting the distribution of coccinellids in habitats (such as abundance of prey, microclimate, host plants) are analysed, and then examples of communities are given for forests and hedgerows, orchards, and several kinds of fields crops..
5 Food Relationships by I. Hodek & E. W. Evans (Czech Rep. & USA).
Although some coccinellids are phyto- or mycetophagous, most species feed on insects, often important agricultural pests, such as aphids, psyllids, aleyrodids and coccids, or even mites. Several aspects of food ecology are dealt with: mainly food specificity with special emphasis on the prey that enable successful development of larvae and reproduction. Discussion includes the tendency to feed on several kinds of complementary foods. Both the causes and consequences of diet choice are explored. Several features of foraging behaviour, important for understanding ladybird impact on pests, are analysed..
6 Dormancy (Diapause) by I. Hodek (Czech Rep.).
Coccinellids spend a great part of their adult life in a condition of lowered metabolic rate - hibernation or aestivation diapause. Survival during this long (often 9 month) period without food significantly affects the success of post-diapause population development. The chapter elaborates all aspects of dormancy, such as the regulation of its onset and termination by endogenous processes and environmental signals, changes in behaviour and physiological state. Specific features are dealt with in relation to the 15 most common ladybird species.
7 Intraguild Relations by E. Lucas (Canada).
Temporal and spatial distribution of aphids promote interactions between different natural enemies of aphids. Intraguild relations (IGR) are a recent concept, but constitute one of the main forces influencing the structure and dynamics of aphidophagous guilds. Several questions are discussed: Can IGP disrupt or enhance the impact of coccinellids on aphids? How can sublethal effects and defensive mechanisms modify the behaviour of coccinellids? How do ants, tending aphids, modulate the relation between aphids and coccinellids?.
8 Natural Enemies of Coccinellidae by P. Ceryngier & M. E. N. Majerus (Poland & UK).
Predators, parasites, parasitoids and pathogenic micro-organisms attacking coccinellids are considered. Information on the biology and ecology of these organisms, their geographical distribution, recorded coccinellid prey/host ranges, and effects on coccinellid individuals (mortality, fecundity, behaviour) and populations (numbers) is provided as well as coccinellid defences against them described. The importance of individual groups of these enemies and their impact on the numbers of particular developmental stages of coccinellids is also discussed..
9 Role of Semiochemicals by J. Pettersson (Sweden).
Semiochemicals and aposematism are mechanisms for survival and protection. Characteristic aposematic chemistry of coccinellids is discussed as a basis for other semiochemical-based mechanisms. Aggregation and mating, orientation to habitats and to prey are considered in so far as they are mediated by semiochemicals. Ecological plasticity/adaptivity of these phenomena is discussed..
10 Impact of Coccinellids in Natural Control by I. Hodek & A. Honek (Czech Rep.).
Principles of the role of ladybirds in natural regulation of aphid populations are enumerated and attempts at modelling this process described..
11 Coccinellids in Biological Control: Utilization and Evaluation by J. J. Obrycki & J. P. Michaud (USA).
The history of coccinellid introductions in "classical" programmes is summarised in the first section, along with a discussion of factors that appear to correlate with their efficacy in particular ecological contexts. Risks inherent to introductions of predatory coccinellids are also discussed against the backdrop of the particular example of Harmonia axyridis in North America which has emerged as an invasive species. The second section deals with approaches for practical augmentation of coccinellid populations in both open and closed systems. The third section summarises research on cultural approaches for the conservation of coccinellid populations in agricultural ecosystems. Methods suitable for evaluating the impact of coccinellid predation on prey populatios are reviewed in the fourth section..
12 Desirable Trends in Future Studies by H. F. van Emden & I. Hodek (UK & Czech Rep.).
The chapter will be based on ideas arrived at by the authors of chapters 1-11.