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de Nevers, Noel
Physical and Chemical Equilibrium for Chemical Engineers

2. Edition April 2012
112.- Euro
2012. 384 Pages, Hardcover
ISBN 978-0-470-92710-6 - John Wiley & Sons




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Short description
Using the simplest mathematics, this resource accurately and rigorously covers physical and chemical equilibrium in depth. The second edition continues to cover topics found in the first edition, with numerous updates including: changes in naming and notation (this edition uses the more popular Gibbs Energy and Partial Molar Properties), changes in symbols (this edition only uses popular notation), and entirely new problem sets. Finally, the second edition includes an appendix about the Bridgman table and its use.

From the contents
Preface xiii

About the Author xv

Nomenclature xvii

1 Introduction to Equilibrium 1

1.1 Why Study Equilibrium?, 1

1.2 Stability and Equilibrium, 4

1.3 Time Scales and the Approach to Equilibrium, 5

1.4 Looking Ahead, Gibbs Energy, 5

1.5 Units, Conversion Factors, and Notation, 6

1.6 Reality and Equations, 8

1.7 Phases and Phase Diagrams, 8

1.8 The Plan of this Book, 10

1.9 Summary, 10

References, 11

2 Basic Thermodynamics 13

2.1 Conservation and Accounting, 13

2.2 Conservation of Mass, 14

2.3 Conservation of Energy; the First Law of Thermodynamics, 15

2.4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics, 17

2.5 Convenience Properties, 19

2.6 Using the First and Second Laws, 19

2.7 Datums and Reference States, 21

2.8 Measurable and Immeasurable Properties, 22

2.9 Work and Heat, 22

2.10 The Property Equation, 23

2.11 Equations of State (EOS), 24

2.12 Corresponding States, 26

2.13 Departure Functions, 28

2.14 The Properties of Mixtures, 28

2.15 The Combined First and Second Law Statement; Reversible Work, 29

2.16 Summary, 31

References, 33

3 The Simplest Phase Equilibrium Examples and Some Simple Estimating Rules 35

3.1 Some General Statements About Equilibrium, 35

3.2 The Simplest Example of Phase Equilibrium, 37

3.3 The Next Level of Complexity in Phase Equilibrium, 37

3.4 Some Simple Estimating Rules: Raoult's and Henry's "Laws", 39

3.5 The General Two-Phase Equilibrium Calculation, 43

3.6 Some Simple Applications of Raoult's and Henry's Laws, 43

3.7 The Uses and Limits of Raoult's and Henry's Laws, 46

3.8 Summary, 46

References, 48

4 Minimization of Gibbs Energy 49

4.1 The Fundamental Thermodynamic Criterion of Phase and Chemical Equilibrium, 49

4.2 The Criterion of Equilibrium Applied to Two Nonreacting Equilibrium Phases, 51

4.3 The Criterion of Equilibrium Applied to Chemical Reactions, 53

4.4 Simple Gibbs Energy Diagrams, 54

4.5 Le Chatelier's Principle, 58

4.6 Summary, 58

References, 60

5 Vapor Pressure, the Clapeyron Equation, and Single Pure Chemical Species Phase Equilibrium 61

5.1 Measurement of Vapor Pressure, 61

5.2 Reporting Vapor-Pressure Data, 61

5.3 The Clapeyron Equation, 62

5.4 The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation, 63

5.5 The Accentric Factor, 64

5.6 The Antoine Equation and Other Data-Fitting Equations, 66

5.7 Applying the Clapeyron Equation to Other Kinds of Equilibrium, 67

5.8 Extrapolating Vapor-Pressure Curves, 68

5.9 Vapor Pressure of Solids, 69

5.10 Vapor Pressures of Mixtures, 69

5.11 Summary, 69

References, 72

6 Partial Molar Properties 73

6.1 Partial Molar Properties, 73

6.2 The Partial Molar Equation, 74

6.3 Tangent Slopes, 74

6.4 Tangent Intercepts, 77

6.5 The Two Equations for Partial Molar Properties, 78

6.6 Using the Idea of Tangent Intercepts, 79

6.7 Partial Mass Properties, 80

6.8 Heats of Mixing and Partial Molar Enthalpies, 80

6.9 The Gibbs-Duhem Equation and the Counterintuitive Behavior of the Chemical Potential, 82

6.10 Summary, 84

References, 87

7 Fugacity, Ideal Solutions, Activity, Activity Coefficient 89

7.1 Why Fugacity?, 89

7.2 Fugacity Defined, 89

7.3 The Use of the Fugacity, 90

7.4 Pure Substance Fugacities, 90

7.5 Fugacities of Species in Mixtures, 95

7.6 Mixtures of Ideal Gases, 95

7.7 Why Ideal Solutions?, 95

7.8 Ideal Solutions Defined, 96

7.9 Why Activity and Activity Coefficients?, 98

7.10 Activity and Activity Coefficients Defined, 98

7.11 Fugacity Coefficient for Pure Gases and Gas Mixtures, 100

7.12 Estimating Fugacities of Individual Species in Gas Mixtures, 100

7.13 Liquid Fugacities from Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, 104

7.14 Summary, 104

References, 105

8 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) at Low Pressures 107

8.1 Measurement of VLE, 107

8.2 Presenting Experimental VLE Data, 110

8.3 The Mathematical Treatment of Low-Pressure VLE Data, 110

8.4 The Four Most Common Types of Low-Pressure VLE, 112

8.5 Gas-Liquid Equilibrium, Henry's Law Again, 122

8.6 The Effect of Modest Pressures on VLE, 122

8.7 Standard States Again, 124

8.8 Low-Pressure VLE Calculations, 125

8.9 Traditional K-Factor Methods, 132

8.10 More Uses for Raoult's Law, 132

8.11 Summary, 136

References, 143

9 Correlating and Predicting Nonideal VLE 145

9.1 The Most Common Observations of Liquid-Phase Activity Coefficients, 145

9.2 Limits on Activity Coefficient Correlations, the Gibbs-Duhem Equation, 147

9.3 Excess Gibbs Energy and Activity Coefficient Equations, 148

9.4 Activity Coefficients at Infinite Dilution, 150

9.5 Effects of Pressure and Temperature on Liquid-Phase Activity Coefficients, 151

9.6 Ternary and Multispecies VLE, 153

9.7 Vapor-Phase Nonideality, 155

9.8 VLE from EOS, 158

9.9 Solubility Parameter, 158

9.10 The Solubility of Gases in Liquids, Henry's Law Again, 160

9.11 Summary, 163

References, 167

10 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) at High Pressures 169

10.1 Critical Phenomena of Pure Species, 169

10.2 Critical Phenomena of Mixtures, 170

10.3 Estimating High-Pressure VLE, 174

10.4 Computer Solutions, 178

10.5 Summary, 178

References, 179

11 Liquid-Liquid, Liquid-Solid, and Gas-Solid Equilibrium 181

11.1 Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE), 181

11.2 The Experimental Determination of LLE, 181

11.3 The Elementary Theory of LLE, 187

11.4 The Effect of Pressure on LLE, 190

11.5 Effect of Temperature on LLE, 191

11.6 Distribution Coefficients, 194

11.7 Liquid-Solid Equilibrium (LSE), 195

11.8 The Elementary Thermodynamics of LSE, 200

11.9 Gas-Solid Equilibrium (GSE) at Low Pressures, 202

11.10 GSE at High Pressures, 203

11.11 Gas-Solid Adsorption, Vapor-Solid Adsorption, 204

11.12 Summary, 211

References, 215

12 Chemical Equilibrium 217

12.1 Introduction to Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equilibrium, 217

12.2 Formal Description of Chemical Reactions, 217

12.3 Minimizing Gibbs Energy, 218

12.4 Reaction Rates, Energy Barriers, Catalysis, and Equilibrium, 219

12.5 The Basic Thermodynamics of Chemical Reactions and Its Convenient Formulations, 220

12.6 Calculating Equilibrium Constants from Gibbs Energy Tables and then Using Equilibrium Constants to Calculate Equilibrium Concentrations, 223

12.7 More on Standard States, 227

12.8 The Effect of Temperature on Chemical Reaction Equilibrium, 229

12.9 The Effect of Pressure on Chemical Reaction Equilibrium, 234

12.10 The Effect of Nonideal Solution Behavior, 238

12.11 Other Forms of K, 238

12.12 Summary, 239

References, 242

13 Equilibrium in Complex Chemical Reactions 243

13.1 Reactions Involving Ions, 243

13.2 Multiple Reactions, 244

13.3 Reactions with More Than One Phase, 249

13.4 Electrochemical Reactions, 252

13.5 Chemical and Physical Equilibrium in Two Phases, 255

13.6 Summary, 257

References, 262

14 Equilibrium with Gravity or Centrifugal Force, Osmotic Equilibrium, Equilibrium with Surface Tension 265

14.1 Equilibrium with Other Forms of Energy, 265

14.2 Equilibrium in the Presence of Gravity, 266

14.3 Semipermeable Membranes, 269

14.4 Small is Interesting! Equilibrium with Surface Tension, 271

14.5 Summary, 275

References, 278

15 The Phase Rule 279

15.1 How Many Phases Can Coexist in a Given Equilibrium Situation?, 279

15.2 What Does the Phase Rule Tell Us? What Does It Not Tell Us?, 280

15.3 What is a Phase?, 280

15.4 The Phase Rule is Simply Counting Variables, 281

15.5 More On Components, 282

15.6 The Phase Rule for One- and Two-Component Systems, 285

15.7 Harder Phase Rule Problems, 288

15.8 Summary, 288

References, 291

16 Equilibrium in Biochemical Reactions 293

16.1 An Example, the Production of Ethanol from Sugar, 293

16.2 Organic and Biochemical Reactions, 293

16.3 Two More Sweet Examples, 294

16.4 Thermochemical Data for Biochemical Reactions, 295

16.5 Thermodynamic Equilibrium in Large Scale Biochemistry, 296

16.6 Translating between Biochemical and Chemical Engineering Equilibrium Expressions, 296

16.7 Equilibrium in Biochemical Separations, 298

16.8 Summary, 299

References, 300

Appendix A Useful Tables and Charts 303

A.1 Useful Property Data for Corresponding States Estimates, 303

A.2 Vapor-Pressure Equation Constants, 305

A.3 Henry's Law Constants, 306

A.4 Compressibility Factor Chart (z Chart), 307

A.5 Fugacity Coefficient Charts, 307

A.6 Azeotropes, 308

A.7 Van Laar Equation Constants, 312

A.8 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation from the Elements in the Standard States, at T 1/4 298.15 K 1/4 25C, and P 1/4 1.00 bar, 313

A.9 Heat Capacities of Gases in the Ideal Gas State, 317

Appendix B Equilibrium with other Restraints, Other Approaches to Equilibrium 319

Appendix C The Mathematics of Fugacity, Ideal Solutions, Activity and Activity Coefficients 323

C.1 The Fugacity of Pure Substances, 323

C.2 Fugacities of Components of Mixtures, 324

C.3 The Consequences of the Ideal Solution Definition, 326

C.4 The Mathematics of Activity Coefficients, 326

Appendix D Equations of State for Liquids and Solids Well Below their Critical Temperatures 329

D.1 The Taylor Series EOS and Its Short Form, 329

D.2 Effect of Temperature on Density, 330

D.3 Effect of Pressure on Density, 331

D.4 Summary, 332

References, 333

Appendix E Gibbs Energy of Formation Values 335

E.1 Values "From the Elements", 335

E.2 Changes in Enthalpy, Entropy, and Gibbs Energy, 335

E.3 Ions, 337

E.4 Presenting these Data, 337

References, 337

Appendix F Calculation of Fugacities from Pressure-Explicit EOSs 339

F.1 Pressure-Explicit and Volume-Explicit EOSs, 339

F.2 f /P of Pure Species Based on Pressure-Explicit EOSs, 339

F.3 Cubic Equations of State, 340

F.4 fi /Pyi for Individual Species in Mixtures, Based on Pressure-Explicit EOSs, 342

F.5 Mixing Rules for Cubic EOSs, 343

F.6 VLE Calculations with a Cubic EOS, 344

F.7 Summary, 345

References, 346

Appendix G Thermodynamic Property Derivatives and the Bridgman Table 347

References, 350

Appendix H Answers to Selected Problems 351

Index 353

 





 

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