The possibility of direct introduction of a new functionality (or a new C–C bond) via direct C–H bond transformation is a highly attractive strategy in covalent synthesis. The range of substrates is virtually unlimited, including hydrocarbons, complex organic compounds of small molecular weight, and synthetic and biological polymers. Below is a list of recent articles on this topic. For a review, see
Double activation: Challenging C−H/C−C functionalizations were achieved through the use of cobalt catalysis under exceedingly mild reaction conditions. This method leads to the formation of Z alkenes with unique chemo- and diastereoselectivity.
Daniel Zell, Qingqing Bu, Milica Feldt, Lutz Ackermann
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., May 04, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201601778. Read article
Shuai-Shuai Li, Hui Lin, Chen-Fei Liu, Ying-Qi Xia, Xiao-Mei Zhang, Lin Dong
Adv. Synth. Catal., May 3, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adsc.201600112. Read article.
A Cu-catalyzed three-component reaction of cyanamides, amines, and diaryliodoniums is established for the synthesis of guanidines under mild reaction conditions. Guanidines are easily prepared in high yields with broad functional group compatibility. Moreover, C–H activation of the arenes is also realized to make guanidines directly through a one-pot, two-step reaction from cyanamides and amines.
Jihui Li, Hongxing Wang, Yifeng Hou, Weiguang Yu, Shuying Xu, Yucang Zhang
Eur. J. Org. Chem., April 27, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201600332. Read article.
We describe herein the first regioselective C-2 direct alkenylation of the valuable 3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine promoted by microwave-assisted Pd/Cu co-catalysis. The reaction is compatible with a wide range of functional groups. The relevance of this method is demonstrated by its application to the synthesis of fluorescent 2-vinyl- and 2-alkynylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridines.
Tom Baladi, Anton Granzhan, Sandrine Piguel
Eur. J. Org. Chem., April 26, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201600166. Read article.
Synthetic protocols for copper-catalyzed carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bond formation through reactions between tosylhydrazones and different coupling partners such as 1,3-azoles, alkynes, and heteroatoms are presented. Intra- and intermolecular and cascade versions of this method are discussed. The reactions proceed through important intermediates arising from carbene migratory insertion.
Amol P. Jadhav, Devalina Ray, V. U. Bhaskara Rao, Ravi P. Singh
Eur. J. Org. Chem., April 26, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201600074. Read article.
A Sc(OTf)3-catalyzed formal intermolecular [3+2] cycloaddition reaction of alkynylcyclopropane ketones with electron-rich aromatic aldehydes has been developed to yield 2,5-trans-tetrahydrofuran skeletons diastereoselectively, an outcome that is quite different to the reactions of most donor–acceptor cyclopropanes.
Chi Zhang, Muyun Xu, Jun Ren, Zhongwen Wang
Eur. J. Org. Chem., April 24, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201600233. Read article.
Dian-Bing Zhou, Guan-Wu Wang
Adv. Synth. Catal., April 19, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adsc.201501112. Read article.
Shang-Shi Zhang, Xu-Ge Liu, Shi-Yong Chen, Dong-Hang Tan, Chun-Yong Jiang, Jia-Qiang Wu, Qingjiang Li, Honggen Wang
Adv. Synth. Catal., April 15, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adsc.201600025. Read article.
Huan Sun, Yi Zhang, Ping Chen, Yun-Dong Wu, Xinhao Zhang, Yong Huang
Adv. Synth. Catal., April 13, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adsc.201600015. Read article.
Organocatalysts have been successfully used for C(sp3)–H functionalization reactions including redox-neutral processes. In this account, we present a tentative summary of organo- and organometallic-catalytic internal redox cascade reactions with respect to the mechanism, the reactivity of hydrogen donors and acceptors, and the migration modes of hydrogen.
Su Jin Kwon, Dae Young Kim
The Chemical Record, April 07, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600003. Read article
The direct addition of C–H bonds to unsaturated bonds represents a greener alternative to the classical nucleophilic addition using organometallic reagents and has profound synthetic potential because it offers a more straightforward and economical route to many useful compounds without the pre-generation of organometallic reagents from stoichiometric halides. In this account, we demonstrate our contributions to the direct insertion of aromatic C–H bonds into polar C=C, C=N, and C=O bonds via directing-group-assisted and transition-metal-catalyzed tandem reactions.
Xian-Ying Shi, Wen-Jing Han, Chao-Jun Li
The Chemical Record, April 05, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500250. Read article
All positions in carbohydrates have been functionalized through C–H bond cleavage, hence paving the way for easy access to complex modified sugars or natural products. This review presents the methods available for C–H functionalization in carbohydrate chemistry and gives an overview position-by-position.
Tobias Gylling Frihed, Mikael Bols, Christian Marcus Pedersen
Eur. J. Org. Chem., March 21, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201600121. Read article.
C3 but no PO: The study of Pd-catalyzed arylation, alkoxylation, and acyloxylation reactions at the C3 position of l-pipecolinic acid derivatives to afford cis-disubstituted piperidines as single stereoisomers was performed. To demonstrate the utility of the reaction, compound 10, an analogue of (−)-3S-3-PPP (9) that is used as a neuroleptic drug for the treatment of schizophrenia, was synthesized featuring the arylation and radical decarboxylation reactions as key steps.
Qun-Ying Yu, Hong-Ming Zhong, Wen-Wu Sun, Shi-Jin Zhang, Pei Cao, Xiao-Ping Dong, Hong-Bo Qin, Ji-Kai Liu, Bin Wu
Asian J. Org. Chem., March 15, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ajoc.201600072. Read article
This microreview presents work surrounding the development and study of Tp-supported platinum group metal complexes for stoichiometric and catalytic C–H bond activation. From κ2- and κ3-coordination modes to increased sterics to electronic parameters, Tp and related ligands have played an important role in the observed reactivity of Ru, Rh and Pt-mediated C–H bond activation reactions.
Bradley A. McKeown, John P. Lee, Jiajun Mei, Thomas R. Cundari, T. Brent Gunnoe
Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., February 12, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201501470. Read article.
The IrIII complex [TpMe2Ir(C6H5)2(N2)] [TpMe2 = hydridotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate] reacts with different olefins to yield organometallic compounds that derive from allylic C–H activations in processes that also generate organic coupling products that involve the vinylic positions of the olefin.
Crispín Cristóbal, Laura L. Santos, Rubén Gutiérrez-González, Eleuterio Alvarez, Margarita Paneque, Manuel L. Poveda
Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., January 19, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201501253. Read article.
Two in one: The Ir–imine-functionalized protic N-heterocyclic carbene (pNHC) complex was obtained through a chelate-assisted C2-H bond activation in the cationic Nimidazole-Ir complex. New homo- and heterodinuclear complexes could be prepared by in situ deprotonation of either the neutral Nimidazole-Ir complex or the Ir pNHC complex followed by addition of metal precursors (see scheme).
Fan He, Marcel Wesolek, Andreas A. Danopoulos, Pierre Braunstein
Chem. Eur. J., January 15, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504030. Read article.
Ligands of tomorrow: Chiral spirocyclic sultams are rapidly assembled in a [3+2] annulation from N-sulfonyl ketimines and alkynes. The transformation is catalyzed by rhodium complexes equipped with the atropchiral biaryl Cpx ligand, and provides the sultams in excellent yields and high enantioselectivities.
Manh V. Pham, Nicolai Cramer
Chem. Eur. J., January 11, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504998. Read article.
Chains linked: Through the interplay of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging and density functional theory calculations, the stepwise homocoupling of alkyl chains on Cu(110) is demonstrated, proceeding from the intact chain, via the dehydrogenative intermediates, to the final coupling products.
Liangliang Cai, Qiang Sun, Chi Zhang, Yuanqi Ding, Wei Xu
Chem. Eur. J., January 8, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504152. Read article.
Access the inaccessible: A copper-catalyzed 8-amide chelation-induced remote C-H amination of quinolines has been developed (see scheme). This direct amination with readily available azodicarboxylates proceeded with perfect C5-regioselectivity offering amino-substituted 8-aminoquinolines in high yields (up to 96 %).
Harekrishna Sahoo, Mallu Kesava Reddy, Isai Ramakrishna, Mahiuddin Baidya
Chem. Eur. J., January 7, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504207. Read article.
Origin of the activation: The inner surface structures of the pore wall in mesoporous α-Fe2O3 are mainly comprised of turbostratic ribbons and K crystal faces. They show excellent catalytic performance for methane activation, during which the C-H bonds are converted into C-O bonds in an O2 atmosphere at 140 °C (see figure).
Bing Dong, Zhen Han, Yongbo Zhang, Youyi Yu, Aiguo Kong, Yongkui Shan
Chem. Eur. J., January 7, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201503183. Read article.
A blockbuster catalyst: Well-defined ruthenium(II) phosphinous acid (PA) complexes were identified as powerful catalysts for highly selective C-H arylations with ample scope, which enabled low catalyst loadings and gave step-economical access to blockbuster drugs. Mechanistic studies were supportive of a PA-assisted C-H activation.
Daniel Zell, Svenja Warratz, Dmitri Gelman, Simon J. Garden, Lutz Ackermann
Chem. Eur. J., December 22, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504851. Read article.
Alkynes on a gold Tr(i)p! Various peptides and one model protein were functionalized with ethynyl moieties at their tryptophan residues using Waser’s reagent, TIPS-EBX, under gold(I) catalysis (see scheme; TIPS=triisopropylsilyl). The reaction proceeded in a regio- and chemoselective manner leading to C2 substitution at the tryptophan residues only. Subsequently, the terminal alkyne was used to label one of the model peptides with a fluorophore by means of copper-catalyzed click chemistry.
Morten Borre Hansen, František Hubálek, Troels Skrydstrup, Thomas Hoeg-Jensen
Chem. Eur. J., December 22, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504462. Read article.
Rhoad to alkaloids! A Rh-catalyzed intramolecular C-H bond activation/annulation of aldehydes and alkyne–amines provides a novel efficient method for the synthesis of various protoberberine salts and natural products in high yield under mild reaction conditions.
Jayachandran Jayakumar, Chien-Hong Cheng
Chem. Eur. J., December 22, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504378. Read article.
In two shakes: Oxidative annulation by double C-H activation/alkyne insertion reaction was achieved by a nickel/NHC system. A Ni0/NiII catalytic cycle is proposed as the main catalytic cycle. The alkyne plays a double role as a two-component coupling partner and as a hydrogen acceptor.
Luis C. Misal Castro, Atsushi Obata, Yoshinori Aihara, Naoto Chatani
Chem. Eur. J., December 21, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504596. Read article.
Influential solvent: Efficient access to atropo-enantioenriched biaryl moieties through asymmetric direct C-H activation, by using enantiopure sulfoxide as both the directing group and chiral auxiliary, is reported (see scheme). The key role of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropanol (HFIP) solvent is investigated.
Quentin Dherbassy, Geoffrey Schwertz, Matthieu Chessé, Chinmoy Kumar Hazra, Joanna Wencel-Delord, Françoise Colobert
Chem. Eur. J., December 18, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201503650. Read article.
The crucial role of gold in the transformation of ethane to ethene and dihydrogen is observed in the reaction between C2H6 and Au2VO3+ clusters with closed-shell electronic structures. The first C-H activation is initiated by gold rather than an oxygen species. The Au-Au dimer formed during the reactions plays important roles in converting ethane into ethene and making dihydrogen energetically more favorable.
Ya-Ke Li, Zi-Yu Li, Yan-Xia Zhao, Qing-Yu Liu, Jing-Heng Meng, Sheng-Gui He
Chem. Eur. J., December 17, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201503676. Read article.
Three is a magic number: On treatment of triazoles with [Rh2(C7H15CO2)4], the rhodium catalyst plays three roles, denitrogenation, C-H bond activation, and stereoselective cyclization, providing a new method for heterocycle synthesis. Intramolecular C-H bond insertion takes place at the benzylic position to give pyrrolidines and related heterocycles in good yields.
Masato Senoo, Ayana Furukawa, Takeshi Hata, Hirokazu Urabe
Chem. Eur. J., December 14, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201503823. Read article.
DDAism: Dehydrogenative cycloadditions have attracted significant attention in synthetic chemistry. This Minireview highlights the recent efforts towards the development of dehydro or dehydrogenative Diels–Alder reactions to construct diverse aromatic compounds by a concerted pathway or a stepwise process.
Wenbo Li, Liejin Zhou, Junliang Zhang
Chem. Eur. J., November 24, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201503571. Read article.
A directed heterogeneous C-H activation/halogenation reaction catalyzed by readily synthesized Pd@MOF nanocatalysts was developed (see scheme). The heterogeneous Pd catalysts used were a novel and environmentally benign Fe-based metal–organic framework (MOF) (Pd@MIL-88B-NH2(Fe)) and the previously developed Pd@MIL-101-NH2(Cr). Very high conversions and selectivities were achieved under very mild reaction conditions and in short reaction times.
Vlad Pascanu, Fabian Carson, Marta Vico Solano, Jie Su, Xiaodong Zou, Magnus J. Johansson, Belén Martín-Matute
Chem. Eur. J., October 20, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201502918. Read article.