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Drug Delivery

The importance of drug delivery to chemists, medicinal and otherwise, has increased since the advent of integrated drug discovery processes. Physicochemical and biological barriers, pathways for drug delivery, formulation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic issues, metabolism, and cell culture models used in studying drug delivery are just some of the topics that make drug delivery an exciting field for researchers.

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Yolk-Shell Porous Microspheres of Calcium Phosphate Prepared by Using Calcium L-Lactate and Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate Disodium Salt: Application in Protein/Drug Delivery

Yolk-shell porous microspheres: Yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate were prepared by using calcium L-lactate pentahydrate and adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method (see figure). The as-prepared yolk-shell porous microspheres have a high protein/drug loading capacity, sustained release behavior, favorable pH-responsive release and high biocompatibility. Thus, they are promising for applications in various biomedical fields such as protein/drug delivery.

Chem. Eur. J., May 15, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201406547

Bum Jin Kim, Hogyun Cheong, Byeong Hee Hwang, Hyung Joon Cha
Mussel-Inspired Protein Nanoparticles Containing Iron(III)–DOPA Complexes for pH-Responsive Drug Delivery [Communication]

Mussel-Inspired Protein Nanoparticles Containing Iron(III)–DOPA Complexes for pH-Responsive Drug Delivery

Mussel-inspired protein nanoparticles that are capable of pH-responsive drug release were obtained by exploiting the pH-dependent changes in the stoichiometry of iron(III)–DOPA complexes. Such doxorubicin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles were synthesized through a co-electrospraying process and shown to release doxorubicin at acidic pH values. DOPA=3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., May 12, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201501748

Biao Kang, Patricia Okwieka, Susanne Schöttler, Svenja Winzen, Jens Langhanki, Kristin Mohr, Till Opatz, Volker Mailänder, Katharina Landfester, Frederik R. Wurm
Carbohydrate-Based Nanocarriers Exhibiting Specific Cell Targeting with Minimum Influence from the Protein Corona [Communication]

Carbohydrate-Based Nanocarriers Exhibiting Specific Cell Targeting with Minimum Influence from the Protein Corona

Stealth nanocariers: The blood plasma interactions and targeting properties of PEGylated and mannose-functionalized hydroxyethyl starch (HES) nanocarriers were investigated. They exhibit colloidal stability in human plasma, low protein adsorption, a distinct protein pattern, and highly specific cellular uptake into dendritic cells both before and after contact with human plasma.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., May 4, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201502398

Stefania R. Cicco, Danilo Vona, Elvira De Giglio, Stefania Cometa, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte, Fabio Palumbo, Roberta Ragni, Gianluca M. Farinola
Chemically Modified Diatoms Biosilica for Bone Cell Growth with Combined Drug-Delivery and Antioxidant Properties [Full Paper]

Chemically Modified Diatoms Biosilica for Bone Cell Growth with Combined Drug-Delivery and Antioxidant Properties

Them bones gonna rise again: Covalent functionalization of nanostructured silica shells from diatoms with TEMPO radical endows biosilica with both drug-delivery properties and antioxidant activity. The resulting functional biosilica is demonstrated to be a suitable substrate for bone cell growth.

ChemPlusChem, March 4, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/cplu.201402398

Chung S. Wong, Sascha Hoogendoorn, Gijs A. van der Marel, Herman S. Overkleeft, Jeroen D. C. Codée
Targeted Delivery of Fluorescent High-Mannose-Type Oligosaccharide Cathepsin Inhibitor Conjugates [Full Paper]

Targeted Delivery of Fluorescent High-Mannose-Type Oligosaccharide Cathepsin Inhibitor Conjugates

Manno, manno! Fluorescent glycoconjugates composed of a peptide epoxysuccinate coupled via a BODIPY dye to oligomannosides (see figure) show mannose-receptor-dependent uptake and ensuing cathepsin inhibition in live dendritic cells. The size of the mannose oligosaccharides proved to influence the amount of inhibition.

ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 06, 928-937

Orit Redy-Keisar, Shiran Ferber, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro, Doron Shabat
NIR Fluorogenic Dye as a Modular Platform for Prodrug Assembly: Real-Time in vivo Monitoring of Drug Release [Full Paper]

NIR Fluorogenic Dye as a Modular Platform for Prodrug Assembly: Real-Time in vivo Monitoring of Drug Release

Drug release quantified: We have developed a new modular approach for the preparation of theranostic prodrugs with a turn-ON near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence mode of action. The prodrugs release their chemotherapeutic cargo and an active cyanine fluorophore upon reaction with a specific analyte. The release of the drug can be monitored through the produced NIR fluorescence.

ChemMedChem 2015, 10, No. 06, 999-1007

Lina Weinschenk, Tristan Gollnest, Dominique Schols, Jan Balzarini, Chris Meier
Bis(benzoyloxybenzyl)-DiPPro Nucleoside Diphosphates of Anti-HIV Active Nucleoside Analogues [Full Paper]

Bis(benzoyloxybenzyl)-DiPPro Nucleoside Diphosphates of Anti-HIV Active Nucleoside Analogues

Fine-tuning stability: Bis(benzoyloxybenzyl) groups were used to mask two of the negative charges of nucleoside diphosphates to form DiPPro compounds. Modification by different substituents in the 4-positions had a strong impact on the chemical and enzymatic stability. With strong acceptor substituents, the NDPs were released almost exclusively in PBS or in cell extracts.

ChemMedChem 2015, 10, No. 05, 891-900

Controlling Toxicity of Peptide–Drug Conjugates by Different Chemical Linker Structures

Linked up: The human Y1 receptor preferring peptide [F7,P34]NPY is coupled to methotrexate through different cleavable linker structures for prospective breast cancer therapy. The toxicity of these novel peptide–drug conjugates is clearly dependent on the linkage type and a new linker is identified.

ChemMedChem 2015, 10, No. 05, 804-814

Shuo Fang, Yuge Niu, Wenjun Zhu, Yemin Zhang, Liangli Yu, Xinsong Li
Liposomes Assembled from a Dual Drug-tailed Phospholipid for Cancer Therapy [Full Paper]

Liposomes Assembled from a Dual Drug-tailed Phospholipid for Cancer Therapy

A novel dual drug-tailed phospholipid that can form liposomes as a combination of prodrug and drug carrier is reported. The dual chlorambucil-tailed phospholipid (DCTP), a phospholipid prodrug, undergoes assembly to form a liposome without any additives by the thin lipid film technique. The liposomes had higher cytotoxic effects to cancer cell lines than free DCTP and chlorambucil.

Chem. Asian J. 2015, 10, No. 05, 1232-1238

Alberto Dal Corso, Michele Caruso, Laura Belvisi, Daniela Arosio, Umberto Piarulli, Clara Albanese, Fabio Gasparri, Aurelio Marsiglio, Francesco Sola, Sonia Troiani, Barbara Valsasina, Luca Pignataro, Daniele Donati, Cesare Gennari
Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of RGD Peptidomimetic–Paclitaxel Conjugates Bearing Lysosomally Cleavable Linkers [Full Paper]

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of RGD Peptidomimetic–Paclitaxel Conjugates Bearing Lysosomally Cleavable Linkers

It's all about selectivity: Two RGD peptidomimetic–paclitaxel (PTX) conjugates endowed with peptide linkers were prepared, and their activities as tumor-homing devices were tested in vitro against two cancer cell lines expressing different levels of αvβ3 integrin. One of these conjugates (see scheme; AA: amino acid) was able to kill the αvβ3-expressing tumor cells with remarkably increased selectivity relative to that of the free PTX.

Chem. Eur. J. 2015, 21, No. 18, 6921-6929

Si Yu Tan, Chung Yen Ang, Zhong Luo, Peizhou Li, Kim Truc Nguyen, Yanli Zhao
An iGlu Receptor Antagonist and Its Simultaneous Use with an Anticancer Drug for Cancer Therapy [Full Paper]

An iGlu Receptor Antagonist and Its Simultaneous Use with an Anticancer Drug for Cancer Therapy

Double agent: The simultaneous use of a neuroprotective drug and an anticancer drug delivered by mesoporous silica nanoparticles was investigated for the treatment of metastatic melanoma cancer, resulting in improved targeting and anticancer properties.

Chem. Eur. J. 2015, 21, No. 16, 6123-6131

Ying-Jie Zhu, Feng Chen
pH-Responsive Drug-Delivery Systems [Focus Review]

pH-Responsive Drug-Delivery Systems

Get a response! pH-Responsive drug-delivery systems have promising applications because they are “smart” or “intelligent” in overcoming the shortcomings of conventional drug formulations and are able to deliver drugs in a controlled manner at specific sites and times, which results in high therapeutic efficacy. Recent progress obtained for pH-responsive drug-delivery systems and future perspectives is presented.

Chem. Asian J. 2015, 10, No. 02, 284-305

Targeted Treatment of Cancer with Nanotherapeutics Based on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

Nanotherapeutics are designed and constructed from mesoporous silica nanoparticles for the targeted treatment of cancer based on characteristics of tumor tissues. The picture shows drug delivery triggered by the acidic extracellular environment of cancer, endocytosis of the drug carrier, and intracellular release of cargo drugs.

ChemPlusChem 2015, 80, No. 01, 26-36

Huijie Zhu, Jin Li, Xiao-Bing Zhang, Mao Ye, Weihong Tan
Nucleic Acid Aptamer-Mediated Drug Delivery for Targeted Cancer Therapy [Minireview]

Nucleic Acid Aptamer-Mediated Drug Delivery for Targeted Cancer Therapy

Targeted & Specific: The applications of nucleic acid aptamers in cancer are reviewed. Single-stranded (ss) oligonucleotide (DNA or RNA)-based aptamers conjugated with drugs and nanomaterials are covered in detail, highlighting their therapeutic potential while acknowledging the challenges that remain to be overcome.

ChemMedChem 2015, 10, No. 01, 39-45

Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine

Bringing life from cell death: Stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles can respond to the microenvironment of a particular disease and its cells. Internal triggers as well as external devices permit temporally and spatially controlled drug delivery. The development of well-defined nanomedicines is critical for their behavior in vivo.

ChemMedChem 2015, 10, No. 01, 24-38

Tianmeng Sun, Yu Shrike Zhang, Bo Pang, Dong Choon Hyun, Miaoxin Yang, Younan Xia
Engineered Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy [Review]

Engineered Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy

On the way to nanomedicine: Considerable advances in the development of nanoparticles for cancer therapy have been made in recent years. Nanoparticle-based drug-delivery systems offer advantages with regard to multidrug resistance, systemic delivery, and clearance, and enable for example specific tumor targeting and controlled release of therapeutic agents.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, No. 46, 12320-12364

Pedro M. S. D. Cal, Gonçalo J. L. Bernardes, Pedro M. P. Gois
Cysteine-Selective Reactions for Antibody Conjugation [Highlight]

Cysteine-Selective Reactions for Antibody Conjugation

Moving tracks from maleimide: New site-selective protein modification reactions at cysteine have been developed. Unlike conventional maleimide conjugation, which results in a labile thioether succinimide, the new bioconjugation reactions result in stable conjugates and provide opportunities to develop a new generation of homogeneous, stable, and therapeutically useful conjugates.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, No. 40, 10585-10587

Sandra García-Gallego, Gonçalo J. L. Bernardes
Carbon-Monoxide-Releasing Molecules for the Delivery of Therapeutic CO In Vivo [Minireview]

Carbon-Monoxide-Releasing Molecules for the Delivery of Therapeutic CO In Vivo

On target: Carbon-monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are promising agents for the treatment of several diseases. CORMs are particularly good for enabling CO delivery in a controlled manner without affecting oxygen transport by hemoglobin. Significant progress in the methods for CO detection in live cells and the understanding of the reactivity of CORMs in vivo provides insights into CO biology and the design of safer, and more selective and efficient CORMs for clinical use.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, No. 37, 9712-9721

Sven Kruspe, Florian Mittelberger, Kristina Szameit, Ulrich Hahn
Aptamers as Drug Delivery Vehicles [Review]

Aptamers as Drug Delivery Vehicles

Selective delivery: Active drug targeting enhances the efficacy and specificity of systemic therapeutics. Aptamers, artificial nucleic acid ligands, represent powerful targeting tools that can act as cell-specific drug carriers. The advancements from the past decade have provided various approaches that open new gateways for drug administration in cancer therapy.

ChemMedChem 2014, 9, No. 09, 1998-2011

Dong Choon Hyun, Nathanael S. Levinson, Unyong Jeong, Younan Xia
Emerging Applications of Phase-Change Materials (PCMs): Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks [Review]

Emerging Applications of Phase-Change Materials (PCMs): Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks

PCMs on the rise: As a result of their sharp melting points and large heats of fusion during phase transition, phase-change materials (PCMs) have already found commercial use in thermal management. The vast potential of this class of fascinating materials has recently been tapped in a diverse array of high-tech applications such as controlled release, information storage, sensing/detection, and barcoding.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, No. 15, 3780-3795

Sabrina Nowag, Rainer Haag
pH-Responsive Micro- and Nanocarrier Systems [Highlight]

pH-Responsive Micro- and Nanocarrier Systems

Release on demand: The pH gradients between extra- and intracellular regions can be utilized for the controlled release of drugs and biological cargos from delivery systems. Biocompatible carrier systems with pH-cleavable units must fulfill many other criteria as well, for example, a long blood circulation time. This can be achieved by tailored micro- and nanocarriers based on macromolecular architectures or stable self-assembled systems.

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, No. 01, 49-51

Wei Cao, Yuwei Gu, Myriam Meineck, Huaping Xu
The Combination of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy towards More Efficient Drug Delivery [Focus Review]

The Combination of Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy towards More Efficient Drug Delivery

Missing a piece? We propose the idea of combining regular chemotherapy with radiation therapy to minimize side effects and to increase drug-delivery efficiency. The unfinished puzzle in the picture shows the Aesculapian snake—the symbol of pharmacy and cure—to remind us that there is still a gap between potent chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy. We hope the emerging research area summarized in this Focus Review can function as the connecting pieces to solve the puzzle of an effective and comprehensive treatment.

Chem. Asian J. 2014, 9, No. 01, 48-57

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