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Drug Delivery

The importance of drug delivery to chemists, medicinal and otherwise, has increased since the advent of integrated drug discovery processes. Physicochemical and biological barriers, pathways for drug delivery, formulation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic issues, metabolism, and cell culture models used in studying drug delivery are just some of the topics that make drug delivery an exciting field for researchers.

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Synthesis of Degradable Poly[(Ethylene Glycol)-co-(Glycolic Acid)] via the Post-Polymerization Oxyfunctionalization of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)

Synthesis of Degradable Poly[(Ethylene Glycol)‐co‐(Glycolic Acid)] via the Post‐Polymerization Oxyfunctionalization of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)

To enhance the limited degradability of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a straightforward method of synthesizing poly[(ethylene glycol)-co-(glycolic acid)] is described. Hydrolytically labile ester groups are directly incorporated into the polymer backbone via a ruthenium catalyzed C–H oxyfunctionalization reaction with minimal molecular-weight reduction under some conditions. The method should facilitate access to a variety of degradable PEG platforms.

[Communication]
Di Liu, Christopher W. Bielawski
Macromol. Rapid Commun., July 27, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/marc.201600336. Read article

Gold-Nanosponge-Based Multistimuli-Responsive Drug Vehicles for Targeted Chemo-Photothermal Therapy

Gold‐Nanosponge‐Based Multistimuli‐Responsive Drug Vehicles for Targeted Chemo‐Photothermal Therapy

Gold-nanosponge-based multistimuli-responsive drug vehicles are constructed for combined chemo-photothermal therapy with pinpointed drug delivery and release capabilities and minimized nonspecific systemic spread of drugs, remarkably enhancing the therapeutic efficiency while minimizing acute side effects.

[Communication]
Tingting Zheng, Guangfang Grace Li, Fei Zhou, Rong Wu, Jun-Jie Zhu, Hui Wang
Adv. Mater., July 27, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201602486. Read article

Simultaneously Photo-Cleavable and Activatable Prodrug-Backboned Block Copolymer Micelles for Precise Anticancer Drug Delivery

Simultaneously Photo‐Cleavable and Activatable Prodrug‐Backboned Block Copolymer Micelles for Precise Anticancer Drug Delivery

A simultaneously photo-cleavable and activatable prodrug-backboned block copolymer (BCP) micelle strategy is demonstrated. Without light treatment, the micelles stay silent and inactivated, being biocompatible to normal tissues. Concurrent chain cleavage of BCP micelles and the activation of Pt(IV) prodrug could be temporally and spatially triggered by UV or even visible light for precise anticancer drug delivery.

[Communication]
Dongfang Zhou, Jinshan Guo, Gloria B. Kim, Jizhen Li, Xuesi Chen, Jian Yang, Yubin Huang
Adv. Healthcare Mater., July 27, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201600470. Read article

pH-Triggered Sustained Drug Delivery from a Polymer Micelle having the β-Thiopropionate Linkage

pH‐Triggered Sustained Drug Delivery from a Polymer Micelle having the β‐Thiopropionate Linkage

An effective design for pH-responsive polymeric micelle is demonstrated and utilized as a nanocontainer for intracellular sustained drug delivery in cancer cells. The strategy relies on slow hydrolysis of the as yet unexplored β-thiopropionate linkage connecting the hydrophobic chains to the polymer backbone.

[Communication]
Prithankar Pramanik, Debdatta Halder, Siddhartha Sankar Jana, Suhrit Ghosh
Macromol. Rapid Commun., July 22, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/marc.201600260. Read article

A Biodegradable and Amphiphilic Linear-Dendritic Copolymer as a Drug Carrier Platform for Intracellular Drug Delivery

A Biodegradable and Amphiphilic Linear‐Dendritic Copolymer as a Drug Carrier Platform for Intracellular Drug Delivery

A biodegradable linear-dendritic copolymer as a drug delivery platform is synthesized successfully. The polymer drug delivery system is internalized effectively by cancer cells and releases DOX rapidly at endosomal pH.

[Full Paper]
Haibo Wang, Yan Wu, Gongyan Liu, Zongliang Du, Xu Cheng
Macromol. Chem. Phys., July 21, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/macp.201600269. Read article

Localized Excitation of Neural Activity via Rapid Magnetothermal Drug Release

Localized Excitation of Neural Activity via Rapid Magnetothermal Drug Release

Localized heating of magnetic nanoparticles by an alternating magnetic field can trigger the release of a chemical payload from their surfaces by breaking a thermally labile bond within ≈12 s, offering a tool for noninvasive chemical neuromodulation. As a demonstration, neurons expressing a cation channel TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid cation channel subfamily member 1) are actuated by the local release of allyl isothyocyanate, a TRPV1 agonist.

[Full Paper]
Gabriela Romero, Michael G. Christiansen, Ligia Stocche Barbosa, Francisco Garcia, Polina Anikeeva
Adv. Funct. Mater., July 20, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602189. Read article

Magnetic Mesoporous Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery with Improved Therapeutic Efficacy

Magnetic Mesoporous Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery with Improved Therapeutic Efficacy

A new versatile and simple procedure to grow magnetic mesoporous nanorods is proposed, that produces magnetic drug nanocarriers with excellent drug-loading and improved therapeutic efficacy. The nanostructures exhibit low toxicity but, when loaded with a carcinogenic drug, induce cell death as a combination of both mechanically and drug-induced death, making them excellent candidates for drug delivery.

[Full Paper]
Albert Serrà, Núria Gimeno, Elvira Gómez, Margarita Mora, Maria Lluïsa Sagristá, Elisa Vallés
Adv. Funct. Mater., July 18, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601473. Read article

Renal Clearable Organic Nanocarriers for Bioimaging and Drug Delivery

Renal Clearable Organic Nanocarriers for Bioimaging and Drug Delivery

Renally cleared zwitterionic nanocarriers (H-Dots) are composed of ε-polylysine backbone for charge variations, near-infrared fluorophores for bioimaging, and β-cyclodextrins for potential drug delivery. H-Dots show ideal systemic circulation and rapid distribution and excrete from normal tissue/organ via renal excretion after complete targeting to the tumor site without nonspecific uptake by the immune system.

[Communication]
Homan Kang, Julien Gravier, Kai Bao, Hideyuki Wada, Jeong Heon Lee, Yoonji Baek, Georges El Fakhri, Sylvain Gioux, Brian P. Rubin, Jean-Luc Coll, Hak Soo Choi
Adv. Mater., July 14, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201601101. Read article

MicroRNA-Responsive Drug Release System for Selective Fluorescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy In Vivo

MicroRNA‐Responsive Drug Release System for Selective Fluorescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy In Vivo

MicroRNA-responsive drug release system based on the chlorin e6 conjugated peptide nucleic acid (Ce6-PNA) and the dextran coated reduced graphene oxide nanocolloid (Dex-RGON) is developed exploiting oncogenic microRNA-21 as an internal stimulus for initiating drug release in cancer treatment. The platform shows sequence-specific fluorescence in response to overexpressed microRNA-21 in cancer cells and selective cytotoxic effect for tumor growth inhibition in vivo.

[Full Paper]
Ji-Seon Lee, Seongchan Kim, Hee-Kyung Na, Dal-Hee Min
Adv. Healthcare Mater., July 07, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201600328. Read article

Endocytosis Mechanism of Nano Metal-Organic Frameworks for Drug Delivery

Endocytosis Mechanism of Nano Metal‐Organic Frameworks for Drug Delivery

The study of the uptake mechanisms and final fate of a promising metal-organic framework (MOF) is a crucial step for optimizing these materials for drug delivery applications. UiO-66 particles of 260 nm are able to partially bypass the acidic degradation in the lysosomes whereas particles of 150 nm are destroyed in this compartment.

[Full Paper]
Claudia Orellana-Tavra, Sergio A. Mercado, David Fairen-Jimenez
Adv. Healthcare Mater., July 06, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201600296. Read article

Molybdenum Disulfide-Based Tubular Microengines: Toward Biomedical Applications

Molybdenum Disulfide‐Based Tubular Microengines: Toward Biomedical Applications

Coupling of the attractive properties of MoS2 nanosheets with rapidly moving tubular microengines opens the door to multifunctional micromachines for diverse biomedical applications, ranging from biodetection of protein and nucleic acid biomarkers to drug delivery.

[Full Paper]
Virendra V. Singh, Kevin Kaufmann, Berta Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Emil Karshalev, Joseph Wang
Adv. Funct. Mater., July 04, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602005. Read article

Fabrication of a Targeted Drug Delivery System from a Pillar[5]arene-Based Supramolecular Diblock Copolymeric Amphiphile for Effective Cancer Therapy

Fabrication of a Targeted Drug Delivery System from a Pillar[5]arene‐Based Supramolecular Diblock Copolymeric Amphiphile for Effective Cancer Therapy

A reduction-sensitive supramolecular diblock polymer is fabricated based on the molecular recognition motif between a novel water-soluble pillar[5]arene and a viologen salt. It self-assembles into polymersomes in water, which are successfully used in targeted drug delivery. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that these polymersomes can be applied in effective cancer treatment.

[Full Paper]
Guocan Yu, Wei Yu, Li Shao, Zhihua Zhang, Xiaodong Chi, Zhengwei Mao, Changyou Gao, Feihe Huang
Adv. Funct. Mater., July 04, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601770. Read article

Biodegradable Multiblock Polymers Based on N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide Designed as Drug Carriers for Tumor-Targeted Delivery

Biodegradable Multiblock Polymers Based on N‐(2‐Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide Designed as Drug Carriers for Tumor‐Targeted Delivery

Polymer drug-carriers designed for tumor-targeted delivery are synthesized. High molecular-weight multiblock polymers based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide are prepared via polycycloadittion reaction of azide and alkyne chain ends. These multiblock polymers contain peptide linkages, originating from chain transfer agents, which are degradable hydrolytically or enzymatically. In addition, multiblock polymers with azo-linkages susceptible to thermal degradation at elevated temperature are prepared.

[Full Paper]
Gabriela Mužíková, Robert Pola, Richard Laga, Michal Pechar
Macromol. Chem. Phys., June 27, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/macp.201600097. Read article

Cell-Penetrating Poly(disulfide) Assisted Intracellular Delivery of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Inhibition of miR-21 Function and Detection of Subsequent Therapeutic Effects

Cell‐Penetrating Poly(disulfide) Assisted Intracellular Delivery of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Inhibition of miR‐21 Function and Detection of Subsequent Therapeutic Effects

Combine and detect: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles are coated with cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s and a fluorogenic apoptosis-detecting peptide. The result is a theranostic drug delivery system for endocytosis-independent delivery/controlled release of combination drugs for the inhibition of endogenous miR-21 with simultaneous detection of subsequent drug effects by two-photon fluorescence microscopy.

[Communication]
Changmin Yu, Linghui Qian, Jingyan Ge, Jiaqi Fu, Peiyan Yuan, Samantha C. L. Yao, Shao Q. Yao
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., June 21, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201602188. Read article

Preparation of a Noncytotoxic Hemocompatible Ion Gel by Self-Polymerization of HEMA in a Green Deep Eutectic Solvent

Preparation of a Noncytotoxic Hemocompatible Ion Gel by Self‐Polymerization of HEMA in a Green Deep Eutectic Solvent

Self-polymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate in a natural deep eutectic solvent in the presence of indomethacin resulted the formation of a drug-immobilized ion gel. The ion gel thus obtained is found to be stable in gastrointestinal fluid pH and sustained release in simulated lower intestinal fluid at physiological human body temperature of the drug is recorded.

[Full Paper]
Chandrakant Mukesh, Kapil K. Upadhyay, Ranjitsinh V. Devkar, Nishith A. Chudasama, Gopalkumar G. Raol, Kamalesh Prasad
Macromol. Chem. Phys., June 20, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/macp.201600122. Read article

Molecular Assembly of Polysaccharide-Based Microcapsules and Their Biomedical Applications

Molecular Assembly of Polysaccharide‐Based Microcapsules and Their Biomedical Applications

Advanced polysaccharide-based microcapsules have revealed great potential in biomedical applications owing to their tunable structure, surface properties, stimuli responsiveness, and remarkable biocompatibility. In this account, we summarize our investigations in multifunctional molecular assemblies including the principles of bioinspired design and fabrication, and further discuss the applications in biomedical areas.

[Personal Account]
Xiyun Feng, Cuiling Du, Junbai Li
The Chemical Record, June 16, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600051. Read article

A Novel Peptide Hydrogel for an Antimicrobial Bandage Contact Lens

A Novel Peptide Hydrogel for an Antimicrobial Bandage Contact Lens

A peptide hydrogel with an antimicrobial activity is developed as a bandage contact lens. The antimicrobial activity is enhanced with the addition of the biomolecules penicillin G or poly-ε-lysine and is positive against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The lens is also noncytotoxic toward a human corneal epithelial cell line and as a consequence is of great potential as a drug-eluting bandage lens replacing conventional corneal ulcer treatment.

[Communication]
Andrew G. Gallagher, Jamal A. Alorabi, Donald A. Wellings, Rebecca Lace, Mal J. Horsburgh, Rachel L. Williams
Adv. Healthcare Mater., June 08, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201600258. Read article

Low Cytotoxic Metal–Organic Frameworks as Temperature-Responsive Drug Carriers

Low Cytotoxic Metal–Organic Frameworks as Temperature‐Responsive Drug Carriers

Drugs on demand: Two low cytotoxicity metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), ZJU-64 and ZJU-64-CH3, have been prepared. The anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX) can be loaded at desirable drug payloads. The drug-loaded crystals exhibit sustainable release and temperature-responsive deliveries to provide a new strategy that combines drug therapy and thermal therapy to advance the therapeutic efficacy (see figure).

[Full Paper]
Wenxin Lin, Quan Hu, Jiancan Yu, Ke Jiang, Yanyu Yang, Shengchang Xiang, Yuanjing Cui, Yu Yang, Zhiyu Wang, Guodong Qian
ChemPlusChem, June 06, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/cplu.201600142. Read article

Hybrid Nanoparticles as Drug Carriers for Controlled Chemotherapy of Cancer

Hybrid Nanoparticles as Drug Carriers for Controlled Chemotherapy of Cancer

Hybrid nanoparticles offer many opportunities for the optimization and improvement of conventional chemotherapy and have great potential in terms of improved biosafety, biocompatibility, multifunctionality, and biodegradability. This Personal Account highlights strategies currently available for the regulation of drug release from hybrid nanoparticle carriers.

[Personal Account]
Menghuan Li, Zhong Luo, Yanli Zhao
The Chemical Record, June 03, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201600029. Read article

Phospholipid End-Capped Acid-Degradable Polyurethane Micelles for Intracellular Delivery of Cancer Therapeutics

Phospholipid End‐Capped Acid‐Degradable Polyurethane Micelles for Intracellular Delivery of Cancer Therapeutics

Nanoscale drug carriers fabricated by phospholipid end-capped polyurethane bearing acetal backbones that degrade in acidic conditions are fabricated. These micelles effectively allow drugs to enter the blood circulation, and then disintegrate in acidic endosomes and lysosomes for intelligent delivery of payloads.

[Communication]
Johnson V. John, Reju George Thomas, Hye Ri Lee, Hongyu Chen, Yong Yeon Jeong, Il Kim
Adv. Healthcare Mater., June 01, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201600126. Read article

Molecular Polymer Brushes in Nanomedicine

Molecular Polymer Brushes in Nanomedicine

Molecular polymer brushes present an emerging class of polymer nanostructures with the potential to address persevering problems in nanomedicine. Recent improvements in the synthesis of these polymeric architectures allowed the tailoring of sophisticated nanomaterials for applications in drug and gene delivery, as well as the design of new imaging probes and prototype nanomaterials.

[Talent]
Markus Müllner
Macromol. Chem. Phys., May 06, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/macp.201600086. Read article

Enhanced Efficacy of Artemisinin Loaded in Transferrin-Conjugated Liposomes versus Stealth Liposomes against HCT-8 Colon Cancer Cells

Enhanced Efficacy of Artemisinin Loaded in Transferrin‐Conjugated Liposomes versus Stealth Liposomes against HCT‐8 Colon Cancer Cells

Express delivery: A novel decorated liposome (L) was developed for selective artemisinin (ART) delivery and activation in cancer tissues, given their overexpression of transferrin (Tf) receptors (PEG: polyethylene glycol). Liposomes were characterized for size, drug-entrapment efficiency, transferrin coupling moieties, and stability. Cell uptake and cytotoxicity were tested in the HCT-8 cell line. We found enhanced selectivity and improved cytotoxicity, resulting in concomitant synergism.

[Full Paper]
Isabella Leto, Marcella Coronnello, Chiara Righeschi, Maria Camilla Bergonzi, Enrico Mini, Anna Rita Bilia
ChemMedChem, March 21, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201500586. Read article

Albumin Nanoparticles for Brain Delivery: A Comparison of Chemical versus Thermal Methods and in vivo Behavior

Albumin Nanoparticles for Brain Delivery: A Comparison of Chemical versus Thermal Methods and in vivo Behavior

Coming together: Human serum albumin nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared through two different cross-linking methods. The NPs were optimized in terms of size, homogeneity, and stability in order to generate carriers able to cross the blood–brain barrier. Their capacity to do so was evaluated after systemic administration in healthy rats. The distribution, cellular uptake, and fate were investigated in vivo. Toxicity was estimated by behavioral tests.

[Full Paper]
Maria C. Bergonzi, Clizia Guccione, Cristina Grossi, Vieri Piazzini, Andrea Torracchi, Ilaria Luccarini, Fiorella Casamenti, Anna R. Bilia
ChemMedChem, March 07, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201600080. Read article

Evaluation of New Palladium Cages as Potential Delivery Systems for the Anticancer Drug Cisplatin

Evaluation of New Palladium Cages as Potential Delivery Systems for the Anticancer Drug Cisplatin

Self-assembled metallocages of the type Pd2L4 are promising delivery vehicles for the anticancer drug cisplatin. Drug encapsulation was proven by different methods, and the biological properties were investigated in cancer cells also with the aid of fluorescence microscopy. The host–guest systems possess improved toxic effects in ovarian cancer cells compared to cisplatin while having limited toxicity in liver tissues (see scheme).

[Communication]
Andrea Schmidt, Viviana Molano, Manuela Hollering, Alexander Pöthig, Angela Casini, Fritz E. Kühn
Chem. Eur. J., January 12, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504930. Read article.

Targeting Innate Immunity with dsRNA-Conjugated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Promotes Antitumor Effects on Breast Cancer Cells

Targeting Innate Immunity with dsRNA-Conjugated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Promotes Antitumor Effects on Breast Cancer Cells

Messenger of death: A new drug-delivery system based in mesoporous silica nanoparticles capped with the synthetic double stranded RNA polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) for targeting breast carcinoma cells is reported (see figure).

[Communication]
Amelia Ultimo, Cristina Giménez, Pavel Bartovsky, Elena Aznar, Félix Sancenón, M. Dolores Marcos, Pedro Amorós, Ana R. Bernardo, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Ana M. Jiménez-Lara, José R. Murguía
Chem. Eur. J., January 7, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504629. Read article.

A Divalent PAMAM-Based Matrix Metalloproteinase/Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome

A Divalent PAMAM-Based Matrix Metalloproteinase/Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome

It’s all in the delivery: The inhibitor shown here is a nanomolar, dendron-based divalent sulfonamide that can bind gelatinase (MMP-9), the most important MMP on the ocular surface, and the transmembrane human carbonic anhydrase XII, present in eyes and considered an antiglaucoma target. In an animal model of a dry eye, no evidence of corneal desiccation was observed in eyes treated with our inhibitor.

[Full Paper]
B. Richichi, V. Baldoneschi, S. Burgalassi, M. Fragai, D. Vullo, A. Akdemir, E. Dragoni, A. Louka, M. Mamusa, D. Monti, D. Berti, E. Novellino, G. De Rosa, C. T. Supuran, C. Nativi
Chem. Eur. J., December 22, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504355. Read article.

Controlled Multi-functionalization Facilitates Targeted Delivery of Nanoparticles to Cancer Cells

Controlled Multi-functionalization Facilitates Targeted Delivery of Nanoparticles to Cancer Cells

Through the barricades: Controlled multi-functionalization of nanoparticles with a cytotoxic drug, a glycan ligand for the cell surface receptor CD22, and an imaging moiety led to a remarkable 60-fold enhancement in cytotoxicity of CD22 (+) lymphoma cells compared to non-targeted nanoparticles.

[Full Paper]
Manish S. Hudlikar, Xiuru Li, Ivan A. Gagarinov, Nagesh Kolishetti, Margreet A. Wolfert, Geert-Jan Boons
Chem. Eur. J., December 18, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201503999. Read article.

Coordination Polymers Derived from Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Cell Imaging and Drug Delivery

Coordination Polymers Derived from Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Cell Imaging and Drug Delivery

Coordinated functions: A series of MnII-based coordination polymers were derived from different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which showed excellent cell imaging, in vitro anti-inflammatory and drug delivery properties (see figure).

[Full Paper]
Mithun Paul, Parthasarathi Dastidar
Chem. Eur. J., December 11, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201503706. Read article.

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