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Drug Delivery

The importance of drug delivery to chemists, medicinal and otherwise, has increased since the advent of integrated drug discovery processes. Physicochemical and biological barriers, pathways for drug delivery, formulation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic issues, metabolism, and cell culture models used in studying drug delivery are just some of the topics that make drug delivery an exciting field for researchers.

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Polymerization of a Photocleavable Monomer Using Visible Light

Polymerization of a Photocleavable Monomer Using Visible Light

The facile synthesis of low dispersity photocleavable polymers are demonstrated for the first time using a novel photopolymerization approach. Under a visible light stimulus (530–655 nm), poly(o-nitrobenzyl methacrylate) polymers are readily synthesized using a metal-based or organic photoredox catalyst with good polymerization control.

[Communication]
Ali Bagheri, Jonathan Yeow, Hamidreza Arandiyan, Jiangtao Xu, Cyrille Boyer, May Lim
Macromol. Rapid Commun., April 28, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/marc.201600127. Read article

Cyclodextrins as Protective Agents of Protein Aggregation: An Overview

Cyclodextrins as Protective Agents of Protein Aggregation: An Overview

Inhibiting the crowd: Cyclodextrins are assayed as antiaggregant agents, and a number of data show their capability to inhibit the aggregation of proteins. This review aims to be a stimulus to the design of new cyclodextrin derivatives with antiaggregant activities.

[Focus Review]
Valentina Oliveri, Graziella Vecchio
Chem. Asian J., April 28, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/asia.201600259. Read article

Metal-Organic Framework-Templated Polyelectrolyte Nanocapsules for the Encapsulation and Delivery of Small Molecule-Polymer Conjugates

In this work, a strategy to explore nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (nano-MOFs) as templates for the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polyelectrolytes was developed. As small-molecule drugs or imaging agents cannot be efficiently encapsulated by polyelectrolyte nanocapsules, two promising and biocompatible polymers (i.e., comb-shaped polyethylene glycol (PEG) and hyperbranched polyglycerol-based PEG) were exploited for the conjugation of model drugs and imaging agents, which were then encapsulated into the nano-MOF-templated nanocapsules. Moreover, we systemically explored the release kinetics of the encapsulated conjugates, and examined how the encapsulation and/or release processes can be controlled by varying the composition and architectures of the polymers. We envision that our nano-MOFs-templated nanocapsules, through combining with small molecule-polymer conjugates, would represent a new type of delivery systems which might open new opportunities for biomedicine applications.

[Full Paper]
Chuanliu Wu, Shuo Liu, Jianbin Chen, Xiaojia Bao, Tao Li, Yunyang Ling, Chunxiang Li, Yibing Zhao
Chem. Asian J., April 28, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/asia.201600250. Read article

Diamond Quantum Devices in Biology

Diamond Quantum Devices in Biology

Center of attention: Quantum sensors based on the spin-dependent photoluminescence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond offer imaging with atomic resolution under ambient conditions, which might evolve as a revolutionary technique for the understanding of biomolecules in their native environment. The recent development of this technique, its potential, and challenges are critically discussed.

[Minireview]
Yuzhou Wu, Fedor Jelezko, Martin B Plenio, Tanja Weil
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., April 27, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201506556. Read article

Responsive Biomaterials: Advances in Materials Based on Shape-Memory Polymers

Responsive Biomaterials: Advances in Materials Based on Shape‐Memory Polymers

Stimuli-responsive shape-memory polymer-based materials have great potential for application in a variety of biomedical applications. Their development toward use as functional biomedical devices for drug delivery, minimally invasive surgery and tissue engineering are discussed, particularly with a view to their progress toward clinical relevance.

[Research News]
John G. Hardy, Matteo Palma, Shalom J. Wind, Manus J. Biggs
Adv. Mater., April 27, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505417. Read article

Pancreas-Specific Delivery of β-Cell Proliferating Small Molecules

Pancreas‐Specific Delivery of β‐Cell Proliferating Small Molecules

Critical β-cell mass: Pancreas-specific delivery of a β-cell proliferation agent, aminopyrazine (AP), was achieved by attaching it onto (+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) through a non-cleavable linker. This is the first demonstration of enhanced delivery of β-cell-proliferating molecules to the pancreas by leveraging the intrinsic tissue specificity of a β-cell imaging agent.

[Communication]
Xueshi Hao, Qihui Jin, Porino Va, Chun Li, Weijun Shen, Bryan Laffitte, Tom Y.-H. Wu
ChemMedChem, April 20, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201600116. Read article

Dual-Responsive Viscoelastic Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Fluids to Control the Diffusion of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Molecules

Dual‐Responsive Viscoelastic Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Fluids to Control the Diffusion of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Molecules

Unlocking molecule release: A dual-responsive lyotropic liquid crystal system for the controlled release of molecules is reported.

[Article]
Dong Wang, Yueying Cao, Meiwen Cao, Yawei Sun, Jiqian Wang, Jingcheng Hao
ChemPhysChem, April 08, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201600066. Read article

Supramolecular Drug Delivery Systems Based on Water-Soluble Pillar[n]arenes

Supramolecular Drug Delivery Systems Based on Water‐Soluble Pillar[n]arenes

This account describes our recent progress in the development of pillararene-based stimuli-responsive supramolecular nanostructures constructed by reversible noncovalent host–guest interactions with the aim of creating smart and functional supramolecular drug delivery systems for controllable anticancer drug delivery. The potential applications and fundamental questions of these supramolecular drug carriers in cancer treatment are also discussed.

[Personal Account]
Xuan Wu, Lei Gao, Xiao-Yu Hu, Leyong Wang
The Chemical Record, April 07, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/tcr.201500265. Read article

Ultrastable Liquid–Liquid Interface as Viable Route for Controlled Deposition of Biodegradable Polymer Nanocapsules

Ultrastable Liquid–Liquid Interface as Viable Route for Controlled Deposition of Biodegradable Polymer Nanocapsules

The preparation of an ultrastable liquid–liquid interface based on an O/W secondary miniemulsion has enabled its use as effective template for the self-assembly of polymeric multilayer nanocapsules made of entirely biodegradable materials, with highly controlled size—well under 200 nm—and capability to embed lipophilic drugs together with multifunctional features typical of polymer multilayer nanocapsules.

[Full Paper]
Raffaele Vecchione, Giulia Iaccarino, Paolo Bianchini, Roberto Marotta, Francesca D'autilia, Vincenzo Quagliariello, Alberto Diaspro, Paolo A. Netti
Small, April 06, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/smll.201600347. Read article

Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers from Poly(2-oxazoline) with Different Hydrophobic Blocks: Changes of the Micellar Structures upon Addition of a Strongly Hydrophobic Cancer Drug

Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymers from Poly(2‐oxazoline) with Different Hydrophobic Blocks: Changes of the Micellar Structures upon Addition of a Strongly Hydrophobic Cancer Drug

Micelles formed by weakly amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline) triblock copolymers have a very high loading capacity for the cancer drug Paclitaxel. The aggregation behavior of the micelles is investigated in dependence on Paclitaxel concentration using small-angle neutron scattering and is compared to the aggregation of strongly amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline) triblock copolymers.

[Full Paper]
Sebastian Jaksch, Anita Schulz, Zhenyu Di, Robert Luxenhofer, Rainer Jordan, Christine M. Papadakis
Macromol. Chem. Phys., April 04, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/macp.201500465. Read article

Doxorubicin-loaded metal-organic gels for pH and glutathione dual-responsive release

An emerging class of porous materials known as metal-organic gels (MOGs) has been gaining popularity due to its stability under reduced pressure and sensitivity to varying chemical environment. In this work, MOGs were used for the storage and controlled release of an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox). In acidic pH or high concentration of glutathione, significant release of Dox from MOGs was observed. In addition, structural integrity of MOGs was disrupted under acidic or glutathione environment, which was demonstrated by several characterization techniques. In vitro experiments on HeLa cancer cells showed the low toxicity of MOGs and further confirmed triggered drug release of Dox-loaded MOGs. From the promising results obtained, Dox-loaded MOG presents a great potential for future drug delivery applications.

[Communication]
Yanli Zhao, Si Yu Tan, Chung Yen Ang, Asif Mahmood, Qiuyu Qu, Peizhou Li, Ruqiang Zou
ChemNanoMat, April 02, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/cnma.201600078. Read article

Controlled Drug Release and Chemotherapy Response in a Novel Acoustofluidic 3D Tumor Platform

Controlled Drug Release and Chemotherapy Response in a Novel Acoustofluidic 3D Tumor Platform

A novel 3D acoustofluidic tumor platform to study the effects of focused ultrasound-triggered drug release and uptake in glioma cell lines in real time and monitor tumor cell death and DNA damage is presented. This platform can be used to discover new noninvasive protocols that target tumor cells regionally without damaging normal cells.

[Full Paper]
Ioannis K. Zervantonakis, Costas D. Arvanitis
Small, March 31, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/smll.201503342. Read article

Enhanced Efficacy of Artemisinin Loaded in Transferrin-Conjugated Liposomes versus Stealth Liposomes against HCT-8 Colon Cancer Cells

Enhanced Efficacy of Artemisinin Loaded in Transferrin‐Conjugated Liposomes versus Stealth Liposomes against HCT‐8 Colon Cancer Cells

Express delivery: A novel decorated liposome (L) was developed for selective artemisinin (ART) delivery and activation in cancer tissues, given their overexpression of transferrin (Tf) receptors (PEG: polyethylene glycol). Liposomes were characterized for size, drug-entrapment efficiency, transferrin coupling moieties, and stability. Cell uptake and cytotoxicity were tested in the HCT-8 cell line. We found enhanced selectivity and improved cytotoxicity, resulting in concomitant synergism.

[Full Paper]
Isabella Leto, Marcella Coronnello, Chiara Righeschi, Maria Camilla Bergonzi, Enrico Mini, Anna Rita Bilia
ChemMedChem, March 21, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201500586. Read article

Nanostructure-Dependent Ratiometric NIR Fluorescence Enabled by Ordered Dye Aggregation

Nanostructure‐Dependent Ratiometric NIR Fluorescence Enabled by Ordered Dye Aggregation

Less is more in theranostics: J-aggregating dyes provide more information for monitoring nanocarrier fate and drug release than conventional fluorophores through control of their supramolecular nanoassembly.

[Full Paper]
Danielle M. Charron, Juan Chen, Gang Zheng
ChemNanoMat, March 15, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/cnma.201600038. Read article

Carbon-Quantum-Dots-Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanocarriers with pH-Switchable Zwitterionic Surface and Enzyme-Responsive Pore-Cap for Targeted Imaging and Drug Delivery to Tumor

Carbon‐Quantum‐Dots‐Loaded Mesoporous Silica Nanocarriers with pH‐Switchable Zwitterionic Surface and Enzyme‐Responsive Pore‐Cap for Targeted Imaging and Drug Delivery to Tumor

Mesoporous silica nanocarriers with pH-switchable antifouling zwitterionic surface, enzyme responsive drug release properties and blue fluorescence are reported. Prolonged circulation in the blood system with zero premature release as well as efficient cellular uptake and intracellular drug release in tumor tissue are achieved.

[Communication]
Zhongning Liu, Xin Chen, Xiaojin Zhang, John Justin Gooding, Yongsheng Zhou
Adv. Healthcare Mater., March 14, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201600002. Read article

Choline and Geranate Deep Eutectic Solvent as a Broad-Spectrum Antiseptic Agent for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications

Choline and Geranate Deep Eutectic Solvent as a Broad‐Spectrum Antiseptic Agent for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications

A unique formulation of choline, geranate, and geranic acid eutectic solvent (CAGE) holds promise as a transformative platform for the prevention and treatment of microbial infections.

[Full Paper]
Michael Zakrewsky, Amrita Banerjee, Sanjana Apte, Theresa L. Kern, Mattie R. Jones, Rico E. Del Sesto, Andrew T. Koppisch, David T. Fox, Samir Mitragotri
Adv. Healthcare Mater., March 09, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201600086. Read article

Albumin Nanoparticles for Brain Delivery: A Comparison of Chemical versus Thermal Methods and in vivo Behavior

Albumin Nanoparticles for Brain Delivery: A Comparison of Chemical versus Thermal Methods and in vivo Behavior

Coming together: Human serum albumin nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared through two different cross-linking methods. The NPs were optimized in terms of size, homogeneity, and stability in order to generate carriers able to cross the blood–brain barrier. Their capacity to do so was evaluated after systemic administration in healthy rats. The distribution, cellular uptake, and fate were investigated in vivo. Toxicity was estimated by behavioral tests.

[Full Paper]
Maria C. Bergonzi, Clizia Guccione, Cristina Grossi, Vieri Piazzini, Andrea Torracchi, Ilaria Luccarini, Fiorella Casamenti, Anna R. Bilia
ChemMedChem, March 07, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201600080. Read article

Photolytic Protein Aggregates: Versatile Materials for Controlled Release of Active Proteins

Photolytic Protein Aggregates: Versatile Materials for Controlled Release of Active Proteins

Photolytic protein aggregates are developed as a facile and versatile platform for light-induced release of active proteins. The proteins modified with biotin through a photo-cleavable linker rapidly form aggregates with streptavidin and biotinylated functional molecules simply by mixing. Light irradiation releases active proteins from the aggregates in high yields, and light-induced uptake of drug-modified transferrin into living cells is successfully demonstrated.

[Communication]
Akira Ishiwatari, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Satoshi Takamori, Shinya Yamahira, Kosuke Minamihata, Teruyuki Nagamune
Adv. Healthcare Mater., March 04, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201500957. Read article

Hybrid Hierarchical Porous Silica Templated in Nanoemulsions for Drug Release

Hybrid Hierarchical Porous Silica Templated in Nanoemulsions for Drug Release

A nanocarrier for loading and releasing ketoprofen combines nanoemulsions with mesostructured silica. The release of the drug is pH responsive. By contrast, for the impregnation of ketoprofen in the bare macro-/mesoporous silica, a micelle-assisted release is observed. The modeling of the release profiles with the Korsmeyer–Peppas equation evidences a pseudo-Fickian release mechanism.

[Full Paper]
Philippe Riachy, Ferran Roig, Maria-José García-Celma, Marie-José Stébé, Andrea Pasc, Jordi Esquena, Conxita Solans, Jean Luc Blin
Eur. J. Inorg. Chem., January 12, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201501127. Read article.

Evaluation of New Palladium Cages as Potential Delivery Systems for the Anticancer Drug Cisplatin

Evaluation of New Palladium Cages as Potential Delivery Systems for the Anticancer Drug Cisplatin

Self-assembled metallocages of the type Pd2L4 are promising delivery vehicles for the anticancer drug cisplatin. Drug encapsulation was proven by different methods, and the biological properties were investigated in cancer cells also with the aid of fluorescence microscopy. The host–guest systems possess improved toxic effects in ovarian cancer cells compared to cisplatin while having limited toxicity in liver tissues (see scheme).

[Communication]
Andrea Schmidt, Viviana Molano, Manuela Hollering, Alexander Pöthig, Angela Casini, Fritz E. Kühn
Chem. Eur. J., January 12, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504930. Read article.

Targeting Innate Immunity with dsRNA-Conjugated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Promotes Antitumor Effects on Breast Cancer Cells

Targeting Innate Immunity with dsRNA-Conjugated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Promotes Antitumor Effects on Breast Cancer Cells

Messenger of death: A new drug-delivery system based in mesoporous silica nanoparticles capped with the synthetic double stranded RNA polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) for targeting breast carcinoma cells is reported (see figure).

[Communication]
Amelia Ultimo, Cristina Giménez, Pavel Bartovsky, Elena Aznar, Félix Sancenón, M. Dolores Marcos, Pedro Amorós, Ana R. Bernardo, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Ana M. Jiménez-Lara, José R. Murguía
Chem. Eur. J., January 7, 2016, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504629. Read article.

A Divalent PAMAM-Based Matrix Metalloproteinase/Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome

A Divalent PAMAM-Based Matrix Metalloproteinase/Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome

It’s all in the delivery: The inhibitor shown here is a nanomolar, dendron-based divalent sulfonamide that can bind gelatinase (MMP-9), the most important MMP on the ocular surface, and the transmembrane human carbonic anhydrase XII, present in eyes and considered an antiglaucoma target. In an animal model of a dry eye, no evidence of corneal desiccation was observed in eyes treated with our inhibitor.

[Full Paper]
B. Richichi, V. Baldoneschi, S. Burgalassi, M. Fragai, D. Vullo, A. Akdemir, E. Dragoni, A. Louka, M. Mamusa, D. Monti, D. Berti, E. Novellino, G. De Rosa, C. T. Supuran, C. Nativi
Chem. Eur. J., December 22, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201504355. Read article.

Controlled Multi-functionalization Facilitates Targeted Delivery of Nanoparticles to Cancer Cells

Controlled Multi-functionalization Facilitates Targeted Delivery of Nanoparticles to Cancer Cells

Through the barricades: Controlled multi-functionalization of nanoparticles with a cytotoxic drug, a glycan ligand for the cell surface receptor CD22, and an imaging moiety led to a remarkable 60-fold enhancement in cytotoxicity of CD22 (+) lymphoma cells compared to non-targeted nanoparticles.

[Full Paper]
Manish S. Hudlikar, Xiuru Li, Ivan A. Gagarinov, Nagesh Kolishetti, Margreet A. Wolfert, Geert-Jan Boons
Chem. Eur. J., December 18, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201503999. Read article.

Glutathione Bioresponsive Cyclodextrin Nanosponges

Glutathione Bioresponsive Cyclodextrin Nanosponges

Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges: A new one-step synthetic route for the production of glutathione (GSH)-responsive nanosponges was reported. The system can encapsulate the anticancer drug doxorubicin and release it as a function of external GSH concentration. In vitro and in vivo studies showed an increase in effectiveness of anticancer drugs encapsulated within the nanosponge (see figure).

[Communication]
Francesco Trotta, Fabrizio Caldera, Chiara Dianzani, Monica Argenziano, Giuseppina Barrera, Roberta Cavalli
ChemPlusChem, December 15, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/cplu.201500531. Read article

Coordination Polymers Derived from Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Cell Imaging and Drug Delivery

Coordination Polymers Derived from Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Cell Imaging and Drug Delivery

Coordinated functions: A series of MnII-based coordination polymers were derived from different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which showed excellent cell imaging, in vitro anti-inflammatory and drug delivery properties (see figure).

[Full Paper]
Mithun Paul, Parthasarathi Dastidar
Chem. Eur. J., December 11, 2015, DOI: 10.1002/chem.201503706. Read article.

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