PHYSICAL MODELS: Their historical and current use in civil and building engineering design
1. Auflage September 2020
XXXII, 1114 Seiten, Hardcover
Seit über 250 Jahren arbeiten Bauingenieure und Architekten mit maßstabsgetreuen Modellen. Neben numerischen Ingenieurmethoden werden Modellversuche noch heute eingesetzt. Für die Entwicklung der Bauwissenschaften sind sie ebenso wichtig wie wissenschaftliche Theorien.
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Physical models have been, and continue to be used by engineers when faced with unprecedented challenges, when engineering science has been inadequate or even non-existent, and in any other situation when engineers have needed to raise their confidence in a design proposal to a sufficient level in order to begin construction. For this reason, models have mostly been used by designers and constructors of highly innovative projects, when previous experience has not been available.
The book covers the history of using physical models in the design and development of civil and building engineering projects including Robert Stephenson?s Britannia Bridge in the 1840s, the masonry Aswan Dam in the 1890s and the Boulder Dam in the 1930s; tidal flow in estuaries and wind and seismic loads on structures from the 1890s, the acoustics of concert halls and the design of thin concrete shell roofs from the 1920s, and the dynamic behaviour of tall buildings from the 1930s, as well as and cable-net and membrane structures in the 1960s. Individual designers featured include Eduardo Torroja, Pier Luigi Nervi, Heinz Hossdorf, Heinz Isler, Frei Otto, Sergio Musmeci and Mamoru Kawaguchi.
The book concludes with overviews of the current use of physical models alongside computer models, for example in boundary layer wind tunnels, seismic engineering, hydrology, soil mechanics, and air flow in buildings.
Traditionally, progress in engineering has been attributed to the creation and use of engineering science, the understanding of materials properties and the development of new construction methods. The book argues that the use of reduced-scale models has played an equally important part in the development of civil and building engineering. However, like the history of engineering design itself, this crucial contribution has not been widely reported or celebrated.
The book includes 39 chapters written by 29 authors from ten different countries.
Foreword (by Werner Sobek)
Introduction (by Bill Addis)
SECTION A - PHYSICAL MODELS FROM ANCIENT TIMES TO THE 1880s
1 Dirk Bühler: Models in civil engineering from ancient times to the Industrial Revolution
2 Santiago Huerta: Block models of the masonry arch and vault
3 Rainer Graefe: The catenary and the line of thrust as a means for shaping arches and vaults
4 Andreas Kahlow: Leonhard Euler and the model tests for a 300 metre timber arched bridge in St. Petersburg
5 Dennis Smith: The use of models in early nineteenth-century British suspension bridge design
6 Bill Addis: Models used during the design of the Conwy and Britannia tubular bridges
SECTION B - PHYSICAL MODELS USED IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN, 1890s-1930s
7 Mike Chrimes: The use of models to inform the structural design of dams, 1890-1940
8 Bill Addis: Models used during the design of the Boulder Dam
9 Roland May: The role of models in the early development of Zeiss-Dywidag shells
10 Mario Chiorino & Gabriele Neri: Model testing of structures in pre-war Italy; the School of Arturo Danusso
11 Joaquin Antuna: Eduardo Torroja and his use of models up to 1936
12 Bill Addis: Photoelastic stress analysis
SECTION C - PHYSICAL MODELS USED IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN, 1940s TO 1980s
13 Bernard Espion: Structural modelling technique
14 Christiane Weber: Physical modelling at the University of Stuttgart
15 Mario Chiorino & Gabriele Neri: Model testing of structures in post-war Italy: the activity of ISMES 1951-1974
16 Joaquin Antuna: Eduardo Torroja and his use of models from 1939
17 Edwin Trout: Scale models for structural testing at the Cement and Concrete Association, UK: 1951-73
18 Pepa Casinello: Heinz Hossdorf: his contribution to the development of physical model testing
19 Berthold Burkhardt: Soap film and soap bubble models
20 Lukas Ingold: The model as an ideal building: the origins of the design methods of Sergio Musmeci
21 John Chilton: Heinz Isler and his use of physical models
22 Ian Liddell: Models for the design development, engineering and construction of the Multihalle for the 1975 Bundesgartenschau in Mannheim
SECTION D - PHYSICAL MODELS USED IN NON-STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES
23 Bill Addis: The historical use of physical model testing in free-surface hydraulic engineering
24 Bill Addis: The historical use of physical model testing in wind engineering
25 Bill Addis: The historical use of physical model testing in earthquake engineering
26 Raf Orlowski: The historical use of models in the acoustic design of buildings
27 Bill Craig: Geotechnical centrifuge models ? a history of their role in pre-construction design
SECTION E - PHYSICAL MODELLING IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
28 Mamoru Kawaguchi: Physical models as powerful weapons in structural design
29 Bruce Martin: Physical modelling of structures for contemporary building design
30 David Wendland: Using physical models in the design of complex masonry structures
31 James Sutherland: Physical modelling of free surface water - current practice
32 Francesco Dorigatti: Boundary-layer wind tunnel model testing - current practice
33 Amarnath Kasalanati: Model testing using shake tables - current practice
34 David White: Geotechnical centrifuge modelling - current practice
35 Raf Orlowski: The use of physical models in acoustic design - current practice
36 Owen Connick: Water-bath modelling - small-scale simulation of natural ventilation flows
37 Jan Knippers: The use of biological models for building engineering design
38 Mamoru Kawaguchi: Flying a 100 metre long Jumbo Koinobori
39 Dirk Bühler & Christiane Weber: Epilogue: A future for models from the past
APPENDICES - Earliest writings in engineering literature about scaling and the use of reduced-scale models
A1 Original source 15BC Vitruvius.
A2 Original source 1638 Galileo.
A3 Original source 1772 Leonard Euler.
A4Original source 1801 Report on Telford's arch bridge across the Thames
A5 Original source 1846 Short article on models in The Builder.
A6 Original source 1847 Short article in Civil Engineer and Architects' Journal.
A7 Original source 1887 part of paper by Osborne Reynolds.
100 word AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES