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Environmental Noise and Management

Overview from Past to Present

Kurra, Selma

Wiley Series in Acoustics Noise and Vibration

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1. Auflage November 2020
864 Seiten, Hardcover
Handbuch/Nachschlagewerk

ISBN: 978-1-118-88740-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Environmental Noise and Management

Selma Kurra, Istanbul Technical University and dBKES Engineering Ltd, Turkey


A comprehensive overview of environmental noise pollution from the standpoint of environmental impact and control



Environmental noise is studied, regulated and monitored by many governments and institutions, as well as forming the basis for a number of different occupations due to the adverse effects of noise exposure.

Environmental Noise and Management provides a comprehensive overview of environmental noise pollution. The book begins by covering the fundamentals of noise and acoustics, major noise sources and prediction and evaluation techniques. Developments in noise measuring techniques, and mapping and improvement of legislation to control noise pollution are then discussed, and international regulations are presented. Technological advances and recent developments regarding strategy and action plans are also covered in depth.


Key features:
* Summarizes the relevant international standards covering noise pollution and environmental engineering practice.
* Presents technological advances and recent developments regarding strategy and action plans.
* Covers developments in noise measuring techniques, prediction models, mapping and improvement of legislation to control noise pollution.


Environmental Noise and Management is a comprehensive resource for researchers and graduate students who are involved in noise pollution from the standpoint of environmental impact and control.

About the Author xii

List of Figures xiii

List of Tables xxxv

Series Preface xxxvii

Acknowledgments xxxviii

Introduction xxxix

1 Acoustics and Noise Fundamentals 1

1.1 Acoustics and Brief History: Pioneers and Subsequent Researchers 1

1.2 Fundamentals of Sound 14

1.2.1 Sound Waves 23

1.2.2 Basic Units and Relations 30

1.3 Sound Sources 51

1.3.1 Source Types and Sound Powers 52

1.3.2 Directionality Characteristics of Sources 55

1.3.3 Wave Propagation and Sound Pressures in Relation to Source Type 59

1.3.4 Acoustic Fields 72

1.4 Sound Propagation and Disturbances 74

1.4.1 Sound Reflection 74

1.4.2 Sound Scattering (Diffusion) 80

1.4.3 Sound Absorption 81

1.4.4 Sound Transmission into Solid Media 84

1.4.5 Sound Refraction 86

1.4.6 Sound Diffraction 89

1.5 Conclusion 91

References 92

Further Reading 93

2 Noise 94

2.1 Definition and Concepts 94

2.2 Spectral Characteristics of Noise 95

2.2.1 Filters in Frequency Analysis 97

2.2.2 Fourier Analysis 98

2.2.3 Test Signals 100

2.2.4 Frequency Weighting Networks 102

2.3 Spatial Variation of Noise 104

2.3.1 The Distance Effect 105

2.3.2 Effect of Air Absorption 106

2.3.3 Meteorological Factors 109

2.3.4 The Ground Effect 117

2.3.5 Effects of Forests and Vegetation 122

2.3.6 Effect of Barriers 124

2.3.7 Vertical Surfaces 137

2.3.8 Total Effect of the Physical Environmental Factors 137

2.4 Temporal Variation of Noise 139

2.5 Noise Metrics and Descriptors 141

2.5.1 Basic Noise Units 142

2.5.2 Noise Descriptors 145

2.6 Conclusion 148

Appendix 2.A 149

2.A.1 Barrier Design, Constructions, and Samples 149

2.A.2 Overview of the Design Principles of Noise Barriers 150

2.A.3 Noise Barriers (Screens) for Other Sources 161

References 164

3 Environmental Noise Sources 171

3.1 Introduction to Environmental Noise Sources 171

3.1.1 Outdoor Noise Sources 172

3.1.2 Indoor Noise Sources 172

3.2 Transportation Noise Sources 174

3.2.1 Road Traffic Noise 175

3.2.2 Noise from Railways 193

3.2.3 Aircraft and Airport Noise 206

3.2.4 Waterway Traffic Noise 218

3.3 Industrial and Mechanical Noise Sources 227

3.3.1 Noise Emission from Single Machines and Installations 227

3.3.2 Noise Emission from Industrial Premises 230

3.4 Wind Farm Noise 232

3.4.1 Emission of Noise from Wind Turbines 233

3.4.2 Noise Emission of Wind Farms in Relation to the Environment 234

3.5 Construction Noise 235

3.5.1 Noise Emissions from Construction Equipment and Operations 235

3.5.2 Noise Emission of Construction Sites 239

3.6 Entertainment Noise 243

3.6.1 Noise Emission from Sound Amplification Systems 244

3.6.2 Noise Emission from Entertainment Premises 245

3.7 Shooting Noise 247

3.7.1 Noise Emission of Firing Weapons 247

3.7.2 Noise Emission of Shooting Ranges 248

3.8 Other Public Noise Sources 248

3.9 Noise Sources in Buildings 251

3.9.1 Noise Emission of Individual Sources in Buildings 252

3.9.2 Noise Emission of Specific Buildings (e.g. an Industrial Building) 252

3.10 Conclusion 253

References 253

4 Prediction Models for Environmental Noises 260

4.1 Development of Acoustic Modeling 260

4.1.1 Analytical Models 261

4.1.2 Empirical Models 261

4.1.3 Numerical Methods with Advanced Computer Techniques 262

4.2 Prediction Models for Road Traffic Noise 264

4.2.1 Development of the Models 264

4.2.2 The NMPB Method 283

4.2.3 The Harmonoise Model 287

4.2.4 The Cnossos-EU Traffic Noise Model 288

4.3 Prediction Models for Railway Noise 289

4.3.1 Development of the Models 289

4.3.2 Analytical Models 290

4.3.3 The RMRS Model 296

4.3.4 The Cnossos-EU Railway Noise Model 299

4.4 Prediction Models for Aircraft Noise 300

4.4.1 Development of the Models 300

4.4.2 Guidelines and Simulation Models 301

4.4.3 The ECAC Model 305

4.4.4 The Cnososs-EU Aircraft Noise Model 309

4.5 Prediction Models for Industrial Noise 310

4.5.1 Development of the Models 310

4.5.2 The ISO 9613 Model 313

4.5.3 The ISO 13474 Blast Noise Model 314

4.5.4 The Cnossos-EU Industrial Noise Model 318

4.6 Prediction Models for Construction Noise 318

4.6.1 Development of the Models 319

4.6.2 Analytical Models 319

4.6.3 Guideline Models 320

4.7 Prediction Models for Other Sources 324

4.7.1 Waterway Noise Prediction Models 324

4.7.2 Shooting Noise Prediction Models 324

4.7.3 Wind Turbine Noise Prediction Models 327

4.8 Validation of Models 329

4.8.1 Comparison of Analytical Models 329

4.8.2 Comparison with the Field Measurements 330

4.8.3 Validation with the Laboratory Experiments 330

4.9 Conclusion 330

References 331

5 Noise Measurements 338

5.1 Brief History of Advances in Noise Measurements 338

5.2 Objectives of Noise Measurements 343

5.3 Basic Acoustic Measurements 346

5.3.1 Measurement of Sound Pressure 346

5.3.2 Measurements of Sound Power and Sound Energy 346

5.3.3 Measurement of Sound Intensity 364

5.4 Measurement Methods and Techniques to Acquire Emission Data for Environmental Noise Sources 368

5.4.1 Emission Measurements of Industrial Noise Sources 368

5.4.2 Emission Measurements of Transportation Noise Sources 376

5.4.3 Emission Measurements of Building Service Equipment 389

5.5 Measurement Methods and Techniques to Acquire Immision Data for Environmental Noise Sources (Field Measurements and Analysis) 391

5.5.1 Objectives of the Field Measurements 392

5.5.2 Observations in the Field 393

5.5.3 Measurement Units 394

5.5.4 Overview of the Measurement Methods in the Field 395

5.5.5 Dealing with Background Noise in the Measurements 409

5.5.5.1 Comparison with Noise Limits and Evaluations 409

5.5.6 Analyses of the Measured Data 410

5.5.7 Reporting the Measurement Results 413

5.5.8 Outline of Source-Specific Measurements in the Field 415

5.6 Errors in Measurements and Determination of Uncertainty 431

5.6.1 Accuracy of the Measurements 431

5.6.2 Determination of Uncertainty in Different Standards 433

5.7 Occupational Noise Measurements 439

5.7.1 Hearing Tests 439

5.7.2 Assessment of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Workplaces 442

5.8 Scale Model Measurements 444

5.9 Sound Insulation Measurements 453

5.9.1 Basic Knowledge about Sound Transmission 454

5.9.2 Laboratory Measurement for Sound Insulation 457

5.9.3 Field Measurement for Sound Insulation 463

5.9.4 Sound Intensity Technique for Sound Insulation Measurements 466

5.9.5 Evaluation of the Measured Sound Insulation 467

5.9.6 Measurements of Room Acoustics Parameters 467

5.10 Performance Measurements for Noise Abatement Devices 471

5.10.1 Measurements of Silencers 471

5.10.2 Measurement of Low Noise Surfaces 472

5.10.3 Measurements of Barrier Performance 473

5.11 Instrumentation for Noise Measurements 479

5.11.1 Overview of the Measurement Systems from Past to Present 479

5.11.2 Basic Instrumentation for Acoustic and Noise Measurements From the Past to the Present 481

5.11.3 Computer-Based Data Acquisition System and Network-Based Data Control 499

5.11.4 Purchasing Noise Measurement Equipment 507

5.12 Conclusion 508

References 509

6 Noise Mapping 524

6.1 Descriptions and Objectives of Noise Mapping 524

6.2 Strategic Noise Maps 525

6.3 Noise Mapping Techniques 526

6.3.1 Development of Noise Mapping 526

6.3.2 Preliminary Determinations for Noise Mapping 532

6.3.3 Measurements for Noise Mapping 538

6.3.4 Computation Models and Input Parameters for Noise Mapping 539

6.3.5 Strategies of emission calculations 543

6.3.6 Strategies of immission calculations 548

6.3.7 Insertion of Data into the Software 551

6.3.8 Performing Operations 556

6.3.9 Managing the Outputs 557

6.4 Evaluation of Noise Maps 568

6.4.1 Identifying Noise Zones 568

6.4.2 Rating Noise Impact and Noise Scores 570

6.5 Uncertainty and Validity of Noise Maps 574

6.5.1 Sources of Uncertainty in Noise Mapping 575

6.5.2 Determination of Uncertainty 577

6.5.3 Required Accuracy 581

6.5.4 Validation of Noise Maps 581

6.6 Reporting the Results of Noise Maps 582

6.7 Examples of Noise Mapping Practices 584

6.7.1 Large-Scale Maps (Regional Maps) 584

6.7.2 Small-Scale Maps (Local Maps) 590

6.7.3 Noise Mapping for Specific Environmental Noise Sources 592

6.7.4 Recent advances in noise mapping 592

6.8 Conclusion 598

References 599

7 Effects of Noise and Noise Control Criteria 604

7.1 The Concept of Hearing, Perception, and Loudness 605

7.1.1 Anatomy of the Hearing System 605

7.1.2 The Hearing Mechanism 606

7.2 Effects of Noise on Human Health, Comfort, and Work Performance 610

7.2.1 Physical Effects: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 612

7.2.2 Physiological Effects of Noise 615

7.2.3 Effects of Noise on Human Performance 620

7.2.4 Psychological Effects of Noise 624

7.2.5 Adaptation to Noise 630

7.3 Noise Impact Studies and Dose-Response Relations 631

7.3.1 Annoyance and Related Factors 631

7.3.2 Methodology for Noise Impact Studies 634

7.3.3 Laboratory Experiments on Annoyance 662

7.3.4 Comparison of Field and Laboratory Study Results on Annoyance Responses 667

7.3.5 Investigations on the Effects of Noise in Schools 668

7.3.6 Noise Impact Assessment in General 668

7.4 Community Reactions to Environmental Noise 668

7.5 The Soundscape Concept, Objectives, and Implementations 670

7.5.1 Sound Quality and Soundscape 671

7.5.2 Methodology of Soundscape Research and Design 675

7.5.3 Overview of Soundscape Studies 679

7.6 The Concept of Noise Pollution 681

7.7 Noise Criteria and Limits 682

7.7.1 Hearing Risk Criteria 683

7.7.2 Environmental Noise Criteria 685

7.7.3 Building Acoustics Criteria for Noise Control 691

7.7.4 Implementation of Criteria and Noise Control 699

7.8 Conclusion 701

References 701

8 Regulations on Environmental Noise 715

8.1 Legislative Terminology 715

8.2 Overview of Noise Regulations 718

8.2.1 A Survey on Noise Regulation 720

8.2.2 Noise Regulations in Different Countries 721

8.3 Recommendations by International Organizations 726

8.3.1 Legislative Actions in the European Union 727

8.3.2 State-of-the-Art practices of Noise Regulations in the EU 731

8.3.3 Labeling of Noise Emissions 731

8.4 Development of Noise Regulations 732

8.4.1 Principles of Better Noise Regulation 732

8.4.2 Community Noise Regulation Practices 733

8.4.3 Validity of Noise Regulation 735

8.4.4 Strengthening Enforcement of Noise Regulation 736

8.4.5 Involving Complaints 736

8.5 Education and Training for Proficiency in Implementation of Regulations 738

8.5.1 Necessity and Objectives of Training 738

8.5.2 Organization of Training Programs 740

8.5.3 Framework of Efficient Training 740

8.5.4 Acoustic Consultancy 741

8.6 Regulations on Protection of Buildings Against Noise 743

8.6.1 An Example Regulation for the Protection of Buildings Against Noise 743

8.7 Conclusion 747

References 748

9 Environmental Noise Management 753

9.1 Concepts of Noise Policy, Strategy, and Management 753

9.1.1 Noise Policy and Key Elements 754

9.1.2 Noise Management 758

9.2 Development of Action Plans 760

9.2.1 Interaction of Noise Control Concept and Action Plans 760

9.2.2 General Characteristics of Action Plans 761

9.2.3 Framework of the Development of an Action Plan 763

9.3 Overview of the Action Plans in the EU 784

9.3.1 State-of-the-Art Implementations of Action Plans 784

9.3.2 International Projects Contributing to Noise Management 790

9.4 Quiet Areas and Quiet Façades 791

9.4.1 Definition of Noise Limits for Quiet Areas 791

9.4.2 Overview of Actions for Quiet Areas in Europe 793

9.4.3 Concept of Quiet Façades 794

9.5 Economic Impacts of Noise Management 794

9.5.1 Risk Valuation 795

9.5.2 Economic Impacts of Noise Management in EU Member States 797

9.6 Conclusion 798

References 798

Index 805
SELMA KURRA graduated as an architect-engineer with a PhD in environmental acoustics. She was formerly a Professor and had a 30 year career in the engineering departments of the Technical University of Istanbul and Bahcesehir University, giving lectures on environmental noise and building acoustics. She has also conducted noise surveys and research in the USA and Japan, and published papers, book chapters and reports. She participated in the development of the National Regulations regarding noise control and building protection. Professor Kurra is a member of IOA and IIAV and a founding member and former president of the Turkish Acoustical Society where she has been organizing the certification programs. She takes part in several ISO working groups on noise and also the Mirror Committee of the Turkish Standards Institute. She is currently a consultant for dBKES Engineering Ltd in Turkey and Hawk Technologies in UAE.