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Wireless Communications

From Fundamentals to Beyond 5G

Molisch, Andreas F.

Wiley - IEEE

Cover

3. Auflage Dezember 2022
1008 Seiten, Softcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-11720-9
John Wiley & Sons

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An in-depth and comprehensive treatment of wireless communication technology ranging from the fundamentals to the newest research results

The expanded and completely revised Third Edition of Wireless Communications delivers an essential text in wireless communication technology that combines mathematical descriptions with intuitive explanations of the physical facts that enable readers to acquire a deep understanding of the subject.

This latest edition includes brand-new sections on cutting edge research topics such as massive MIMO, polar codes, heterogeneous networks, non-orthogonal multiple access, as well as 5G cellular standards, WiFi 6, and Bluetooth Low Energy. Together with the re-designed descriptions of fundamentals such as fading, OFDM, and multiple access, it provides a thorough treatment of all the technologies that underlie fifth-generation and beyond systems. A complimentary companion website provides readers with a wealth of old and new material, including instructor resources available upon request.

Readers will also find:
* A thorough introduction to the applications and requirements of modern wireless services, including video streaming, virtual reality, and Internet of Things.
* Comprehensive explorations of wireless propagation mechanisms and channel models, ranging from Rayleigh fading to advanced models for MIMO communications.
* Detailed discussions of single-user communications fundamentals, including modern coding techniques, multi-carrier communications, and single-user MIMO.
* Extensive description of multi-user communications, including packet radio systems, CDMA, scheduling, admission control, cellular and ad-hoc network design, and multi-user MIMO.
* In-depth examinations of advanced topics in wireless communication, like speech and video coding, cognitive radio, NOMA, network coding, and wireless localization.
* A comprehensive description of the key wireless standards, including LTE, 5G, WiFi, Bluetooth, and an outlook to Beyond 5G systems.

Perfect for advanced undergraduate and graduate students with a basic knowledge of standard communications, Wireless Communications will also earn a place in the libraries of researchers and system designers seeking a one-stop resource on wireless communication technology.

Preface to the Third, Expanded and Completely Revised, Edition: From the Fundamentals to Beyond 5G xxv

Preface and Acknowledgements to the Second Edition xxix

Preface and Acknowledgements to the First Edition xxx

List of Abbreviations xxxiii

List of Symbols xxxv

About the Companion Website xxxvii

Part I Introduction 1

1 Applications and Requirements of Wireless Services 3

1.1 History 3

1.2 Types of Services 7

1.3 Requirements for the Services 12

1.4 Economic and Social Aspects 17

Exercises: Sec. 36.1 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 18

2 Technical Challenges of Wireless Communications 19

2.1 Broadcast Effect 19

2.2 Multi-path Propagation 19

2.3 Spectrum Limitations 23

2.4 Limited Energy 25

2.5 User Mobility 26

Exercises: Sec. 36.2 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 26

3 Wireless System Design Overview 27

3.1 Noise-limited Systems and Link Budgets 27

3.2 Digital Modulation and Receiver Signal Processing 34

3.3 Multi-user Systems 39

3.4 Summary 44

Exercises: Sec. 36.3 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 45

Part II Wireless Propagation Channels 47

4 Propagation Mechanisms 49

4.1 Free Space Attenuation 49

4.2 Reflection and Transmission 52

4.3 Diffraction 57

4.4 Scattering by Rough Surfaces 64

4.5 Waveguiding 66

4.6 Atmospheric Absorption 67

4.7 Deterministic Channel Modeling 67

4.8 Appendices: App4.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 71

App. 4.A: Derivation of the d-4 Law 71

App. 4.B: Diffraction Coefficients for Diffraction by a Wedge or Cylinder 71

Further Reading 71

Exercises: Sec. 36.4 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 71

5 Statistical Description of the Wireless Channel 73

5.1 Introduction 73

5.2 The Time-Invariant Two-Path Model 74

5.3 The Time-Variant Two-Path Model 76

5.4 Small-Scale Fading Without a Dominant Component 77

5.5 Small-Scale Fading with a Dominant Component 85

5.6 Doppler Spectra and Statistics of Temporal Channel Variations 89

5.7 Temporal Fading Characterization 92

5.8 Large-Scale Fading 95

5.9 Appendices: App5.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 99

App. 5.A: The Central Limit Theorem 99

App. 5.B: Derivation of the Rayleigh Distribution 99

App. 5.C: Derivation of the Level Crossing Rate 99

Further Reading 99

Exercises: Sec. 36.5 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 99

6 Wideband and Directional Channel Characterization 101

6.1 Introduction 101

6.2 The Causes of Delay Dispersion 102

6.3 System-Theoretic Description of Wireless Channels 105

6.4 The WSSUS Model 108

6.5 Condensed Parameters 110

6.6 Ultra Wideband Channels 115

6.7 Directional Description 117

6.8 Appendices: App6.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 121

App. 6A: Validity of WSSUS in Mobile Radio 121

App. 6B: Instantaneous Channel Parameters 121

Further Reading 121

Exercises: Sec. 36.6 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 122

7 Channel Models 123

7.1 Narrowband Models 123

7.2 Delay Dispersion Models 132

7.3 Angular Dispersion 135

7.4 Joint Dispersion Characteristics and Clustering 136

7.5 Generalized Tapped-Delay Line Models 140

7.6 Geometry-Based Stochastic Channel Models 143

7.7 Semi-Deterministic Models 146

7.8 Blockage 148

7.9 Special Models 148

7.10 Appendices: App7.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 151

App. 7.A: The Okumura-Hata Model 151

App. 7.B: The COST 231-Walfish-Ikegami Model 151

App. 7.C: The COST 207 GSM Model 151

App. 7.D: The 3GPP Spatial Channel Model 151

App. 7.E: The 802.15.4a UWB Channel Model 151

App. 7.F: The COST 259/273/2100 Channel Model 152

Further Reading 152

Exercises: Sec. 36.7 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 152

8 Antennas 153

8.1 Introduction and Brief Characterization 153

8.2 Characterization of Antennas 157

8.3 Popular Antenna Types 165

8.5 Special Aspects of Antennas for BS and UE 177

Further Reading 181

Exercises: Sec. 36.8 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 181

9 Channel Sounding 183

9.1 Introduction 183

9.2 Time-Domain Measurements 186

9.3 Frequency Domain Analysis 188

9.5 Directionally Resolved Measurements 192

9.6 Appendices: App9.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 201

App. 9.A: The ESPRIT Algorithm 201

App. 9.B: Guidelines for Evaluation of Channel Measurements 201

Further Reading 201

Exercises: Sec. 36.9 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 201

Part III Wireless Communication Over a Single Link 203

10 Modulation Formats 205

10.1 Introduction 205

10.2 Pulse Amplitude Modulation 209

10.3 Widely Used PAM Modulation Formats 212

10.4 Multi-Pulse Modulation 223

10.5 Summary of Spectral Efficiencies 233

10.6 Appendix: App10.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 233

App. 10.A: Interpretation of MSK as OQPSK 233

Further Reading 233

Exercises: Sec. 36.10 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 233

11 Demodulation 235

11.1 Demodulator Structure and Error Probability in Additive White Gaussian Noise Channels 235

11.2 Error Probability in Flat-Fading Channels 244

11.3 Error Probability in Delay- and Frequency-Dispersive Fading Channels 250

Further Reading 257

Exercises: Sec. 36.11 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 257

12 Diversity 259

12.1 Introduction 259

12.2 Microdiversity 260

12.3 Macrodiversity and Simulcast 266

12.4 Combination of Signals 267

12.5 Error Probability in Fading Channels with Diversity Reception 273

12.6 Appendix: App12.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 277

App. 12.A: Correlation Coefficient of Two Signals with Frequency Separation 277

Further Reading 277

Exercises: Sec. 36.12 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 278

13 Channel Coding and Information Theory 279

13.1 Fundamentals of Coding and Information Theory 279

13.2 Block Codes 284

13.3 Convolutional Codes 288

13.4 Trellis Coded Modulation 297

13.5 Bit Interleaved Coded Modulation (BICM) 301

13.6 Turbo Codes 302

13.7 Low-Density Parity-Check Codes 306

13.8 Polar Codes 310

13.9 Comparison of Capacity-Approaching Codes 314

13.10 Coding for the Fading Channel 315

13.10.1 Interleaving 315

13.10.2 Block Codes and Convolutional Codes 317

13.10.3 Concatenated Codes 318

13.10.4 Trellis Coded Modulation in Fading Channels 318

13.11 Information-Theoretic Performance Limits of Fading Channels 318

13.11.1 Ergodic Capacity vs. Outage Capacity 318

13.11.2 Capacity for Channel State Information at the Receiver (CSIR) Only 319

13.11.3 Capacity for CSIT and CSIR - Waterfilling 320

13.12 Automatic Repeat Request 320

Further Reading 321

Exercises: Sec. 36.13 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 322

14 Equalizers 323

14.1 Introduction 323

14.2 Linear Equalizers 326

14.3 Decision Feedback Equalizers 331

14.4 Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation - Viterbi Detector 333

14.5 Comparison of Equalizer Structures 335

14.6 Fractionally Spaced Equalizers 335

14.8 Predistortion at the Transmitter 337

14.9 Appendices: App14.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 338

App. 14.A: Equivalence of Peak Distortion and Zero-Forcing Criterion 338

App. 14.B: Derivation of the Mean-Square Error Criterion 338

App. 14.C: The Recursive Least Squares Algorithm 338

Further Reading 338

Exercises: Sec. 36.14 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 338

15 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) 339

15.1 Introduction 339

15.2 Principle of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 339

15.3 Implementation of Transceivers 340

15.4 Frequency-Selective Channels 341

15.6 Peak-to-Average Power Ratio 350

15.7 Inter Carrier Interference 352

15.8 Synchronization 355

15.9 Adaptive Power Allocation, Modulation, and Coding 359

15.10 Generalizations of OFDM 362

15.10.1 General Framework - Gabor Systems 362

15.10.2 Filters (Pulses) 363

15.10.3 Lattices 364

15.10.4 Dichotomy of Multi-Carrier Schemes 364

15.10.5 Filtered Multitone (FMT) and UFMC 366

15.10.6 Generalized FDM 366

15.10.7 Staggered Multitone - FBMC/OQAM 367

15.11 Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum 368

15.11.1 MC-CDMA 368

15.11.2 DFT-Spread OFDM 370

15.12 Orthogonal Time Frequency Spreading (OTFS) 371

15.12.1 Introduction 371

15.12.2 Mathematical Description 371

15.12.3 Implementation as Overlay 373

15.12.4 Diversity and Channel Gain 373

Further Reading 374

Exercises: Sec. 36.15 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 374

16 Multiple Antenna Systems - SIMO, MISO, and MIMO 375

16.1 Diversity and Beamforming 375

16.2 Spatial Multiplexing 395

Further Reading 430

Exercises: Sec. 36.16 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 430

17 Hardware Aspects 431

17.1 Introduction 431

17.2 General Concepts 434

17.3 ADCs and DACs 438

17.4 Amplifiers 440

17.5 Filters, Power Dividers, and Phase Shifters 444

17.6 Oscillators 447

17.7 Mixers and Frequency Conversion 453

17.8 Transceiver Structures 453

17.9 Spectrum Masks 456

17.10 Full Duplex 457

17.11 Appendices: App17.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 459

App. 17.A: Two-port Network and S-parameters 459

App. 17.B: Matching 459

Further Reading 459

Exercises: Sec. 36.22 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 459

Part IV Wireless Communication with Multiple Users 461

18 Multiple Access 463

18.1 Introduction 463

18.2 Performance Limits for Multiple Access 464

18.3 Contention-Free Multiple Access 467

18.4 Contention Multiple Access 471

18.5 Duplexing 479

18.6 Broadcast and Multi-Cast 481

Further Reading 481

Exercises: Sec. 36.18 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 481

19 Spread Spectrum Systems 483

19.1 Frequency Hopping Multiple Access (FHMA) 483

19.2 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum - Single-User Case 485

19.3 Code-Division-Multiple-Access Systems 490

19.4 Time Hopping Impulse Radio 496

Further Reading 499

Exercises: Sec. 36.19 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 500

20 Resource Allocation: Scheduling, Power Control, and Admission Control 501

20.1 Rate and Latency Requirements for Different Kinds of Traffic 501

20.2 Dichotomy of Resource Allocation 505

20.3 Resource Allocation in OFDMA with Infinite Backlog 506

20.4 Resource Allocation in CDMA with Infinite Backlog 512

20.5 Scheduling with Random Data Arrivals 513

20.6 Multi-Channel Systems and Admission Control 518

20.7 Machine Learning for Resource Allocation 524

Further Reading 525

Exercises: Sec. 36.20 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 525

21 Principles of Cellular Networks 527

21.1 Frequency Reuse 527

21.2 Cell Planning with Symmetric BS Deployment 528

21.3 Inter-Cell Interference Reduction 533

21.4 Cell Planning with Irregular Deployment 539

21.5 CDMA-Based Cellular Systems 547

21.6 Handover 549

21.7 Heterogeneous Networks 550

21.8 Backhaul 555

21.9 Other Methods for Increasing Capacity 555

Further Reading 556

Exercises: Sec. 36.21 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 556

22 Multiple Antennas for Multi-User Systems - MU-MIMO, Massive MIMO, and CoMP 557

22.1 Introduction and Intuition 557

22.2 System Model 559

22.3 Performance Limits 562

22.4 Linear Processing for Uplink 565

22.5 Linear Processing for the Downlink 567

22.6 Beamforming Based on Second-Order Statistics 573

22.7 Channel Estimation and Feedback 574

22.8 Scheduling for MU-MIMO 575

22.9 Massive MIMO Theory 579

22.10 Massive MIMO Implementation Aspects 589

22.10.1 Antenna Configurations and Propagation Channels 589

22.10.2 Hybrid Beamforming Transceivers 591 * 22.10.3 Implementation Aspects - Load Modulators 594 * 22.10.4 Low-Resolution ADCs 595

22.11 Base Station Cooperation and Distributed Antenna Systems 596

22.11.1 Principle of Capacity Increase 596

22.11.2 Single-Cell MIMO versus CoMP-JP 598

22.11.3 Challenges Related to Channel Information Acquisition 598

22.11.4 Imperfect Backhaul 600

22.11.5 Cell-Free MIMO 601 * 22.12 Appendix: App22.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 604

App. 22.A: Smart Antennas for CDMA 604

Further Reading 604

Exercises: Sec. 36.22 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 604

23 Ad hoc Networks, Device-to-Device Communications, and Mesh Networks 605

23.1 Introduction and Motivation 605

23.2 Applications 606

23.3 Node Types and Hierarchical Structure 607

23.4 Neighbor Discovery and Channel Estimation 608

23.5 Scheduling of Single-Hop Transmissions 612

23.6 Routing and Resource Allocation for Multi-Hop Networks 614

23.7 Routing and Resource Allocation in Collaborative Networks 624

23.9 Energy Management 630

23.10 Cellular vs. D2D Mode in Hybrid Networks 632

23.11 Mesh Networks 632

Further Reading 634

Exercises: Sec. 36.23 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 634

Part V Advanced Transmission Techniques and Special Features 635

24 Speech Coding 637
Gernot Kubin

24.1 Introduction 637

24.2 The Sound of Speech 639

24.3 Stochastic Models for Speech 642

24.4 Quantization and Coding 645

24.5 From Speech Transmission to Acoustic Telepresence 651

Further Reading 653

Exercises: Sec. 36.24 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 653

25 Video Coding 655
Anthony Vetro

25.1 Introduction 655

25.2 Transform and Quantization 657

25.3 Prediction 659

25.4 Entropy Coding 661

25.5 Video Coding Standards 662

25.6 Video Coding Extensions 665

25.7 Error Control 668

25.8 Video Streaming 671

Further Reading 673

Exercises: Sec. 36.25 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 673

26 Cognitive Radio 675

26.1 Types of Cognitive Radio 675

26.2 Cognitive Transceiver Architecture 678

26.3 Principles of Interweaving 679

26.4 Spectrum Sensing 679

26.5 Spectrum Management 683

26.6 Spectrum Sharing 683

26.7 Overlay 686

26.8 Underlay Hierarchical Access - Ultra Wide Bandwidth System Communications 687

Further Reading 690

Exercises: Sec. 36.26 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 690

27 Relaying, Cooperative Communications, and Network Coding 691

27.1 Introduction and Motivation 691

27.2 Fundamentals of Relaying 692

27.3 Relaying with Multiple, Parallel Relays 696

27.4 Applications 703

27.5 Network Coding 704

Further Reading 709

Exercises: Sec. 36.27 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 710

28 Advanced Interference Processing: Multi-User Detection, Nonorthogonal Multiple Access, and Interference Alignment 711

28.1 Introduction and Motivation 711

28.2 Multi-User Detectors 711

28.3 NOMA in the Power Domain 715

28.4 NOMA in the Code Domain 721

28.5 Interference Alignment 723

Further Reading 728

Exercises: Sec. 36.28 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 728

29 Localization 729

29.1 Introduction and Motivation 729

29.2 Principles of TOA/TDOA 730

29.3 NLOS Detection, Mitigation, and Exploitation 741

29.4 Direction-Of-Arrival (DoA) 744

29.5 RSSI and Fingerprinting 745

29.6 Global Positioning System (GPS) 747

29.7 Localization in Cellular Systems 751

29.8 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) 754

29.9 Cooperative Localization 755

29.10 Tracking 757

29.10.1 Motivation for Tracking 757

29.10.2 Linear Kalman Filters 757

29.10.3 Extended Kalman Filters 759

29.10.4 Accuracy Improvements of Kalman Filters 760 * 29.11 Machine Learning for Localization 761

29.11.1 Types of ML Problems 761

29.11.2 Supervised Learning 762

29.11.3 Training and Preprocessing 763

29.11.4 Other Learning Solutions 764

Further Reading 764

Exercises: Sec. 36.29 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 764

Part VI System Design and Standardization 765

30 System Design and Standardization 767

30.1 From Components to Systems 767

30.2 Motivation and Operation of Standards 769

30.3 Some Important Standards 773

30.4 Appendices: App30.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 775

App. 30.A: 2G Cellular - GSM 775

App. 30.B: 3G Cellular - WCDMA/UMTS 775

App. 30.C: Cordless Telephony - DECT 776

Exercises: Sec. 36.30 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 776

31 4G Cellular - 3GPP Long-Term Evolution (LTE) 777

31.1 Introduction 777

31.3 Physical Layer 784

31.4 Logical and Physical Channels 799

31.5 Physical Layer Procedures 807

31.6 Carrier Aggregation and License-Assisted Access 811

31.7 CoMP, Dual Connectivity, and Hetnet Support 812

31.8 Relaying 814

31.9 LTE for Machine-Type Applications 815

31.10 Device-to-Device Communications - Sidelink 817

31.10.1 Motivation, Architecture, and Channel Structure 817

31.10.2 Synchronization 818

31.10.3 Discovery 819

31.10.4 Communications 819

Glossary for LTE 820

Further Reading 822

Exercises: Sec. 36.31 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 822

32 5G Cellular - 3GPP New Radio (NR) 823

32.1 Introduction 823

32.2 System Overview 825

32.3 Physical Layer 830

32.4 Physical and Logical Channels 843

32.5 Physical Layer Procedures 851

32.6 Carrier Aggregation and License-Assisted Access 854

32.7 CoMP, Dual Connectivity, and HetNet Support 856

32.8 Relaying 856

32.9 NR for Machine-Type Communications 857

32.10 Device-to-Device Communications - Sidelink 858

32.10.1 Motivation, Architecture, and Channel Structure 858

32.10.2 Synchronization 859

32.10.3 Discovery and Resource Allocation 859

32.10.4 Communications 859

Glossary for 5G-NR 860

Further Reading 862

Exercises: Sec. 36.32 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 862

33 Wireless Local Area Networks 863

33.1 Introduction 863

33.2 802.11a/g - OFDM-Based LANs 867

33.3 802.11n - High-throughput Transmission 870

33.5 IEEE 802.11ac 883

33.6 802.11ax/Wi-Fi 6 886

Glossary for WiFi 892

Further Reading 894

Exercises: Sec. 36.33 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 894

34 PAN and Internet of Things - Bluetooth and Zigbee 895

34.1 Bluetooth 895

34.2 Zigbee 907

Glossary 912

Further Reading 912

Exercises: Sec. 36.34 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 912

35 Beyond 5G 913

35.1 Motivation and Process 913

35.2 Applications 913

35.3 Network Design in B5G 916

35.4 Spectrum Usage for B5G 918

35.5 Physical and MAC Layer Aspects 918

35.6 Real-Time Processing and RF Transceiver Design 922

35.7 Use of Machine Learning 923

35.8 A Final Word on New Technologies 924

Further Reading 925

Exercises: Sec. 36.35 of Exercises.pdf at www.wiley.com/go/molisch/wireless3e 925

References 927

Index 953

About the Author 963
Andreas F. Molisch, PhD, is Professor and Golomb-Viterbi Chair at the University of Southern California, USA. He has authored, co-authored, or edited 4 books, 21 book chapters, over 270 journal papers, and 70 patents. He is an IEEE Distinguished Lecturer, a Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, Fellow of AAAS, IEEE, and IET, and Member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.

A. F. Molisch, Fellow IEEE, University of Southern California, USA