John Wiley & Sons Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Development Cover An essential guide for developing and interpreting piping and instrumentation drawings Piping and I.. Product #: 978-1-119-32933-6 Regular price: $129.91 $129.91 Auf Lager

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Development

Toghraei, Moe

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1. Auflage Mai 2019
496 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-32933-6
John Wiley & Sons

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An essential guide for developing and interpreting piping and instrumentation drawings

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Development is an important resource that offers the fundamental information needed for designers of process plants as well as a guide for other interested professionals. The author offers a proven, systemic approach to present the concepts of P&ID development which previously were deemed to be graspable only during practicing and not through training.

This comprehensive text offers the information needed in order to create P&ID for a variety of chemical industries such as: oil and gas industries; water and wastewater treatment industries; and food industries. The author outlines the basic development rules of piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) and describes in detail the three main components of a process plant: equipment and other process items, control system, and utility system. Each step of the way, the text explores the skills needed to excel at P&ID, includes a wealth of illustrative examples, and describes the most effective practices.

This vital resource:
* Offers a comprehensive resource that outlines a step-by-step guide for developing piping and instrumentation diagrams
* Includes helpful learning objectives and problem sets that are based on real-life examples
* Provides a wide range of original engineering flow drawing (P&ID) samples
* Includes PDF's that contain notes explaining the reason for each piece on a P&ID and additional samples to help the reader create their own P&IDs

Written for chemical engineers, mechanical engineers and other technical practitioners, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Development reveals the fundamental steps needed for creating accurate blueprints that are the key elements for the design, operation, and maintenance of process industries.

Preface xix

Acknowledgement xxiii

About the Companion Website xxv

Part I Fundamentals of P&ID Development 1

1 What Is P&ID 3

1.1 Why Is P&ID Important? 3

1.2 What Is a P&ID? 4

1.3 P&ID Media 4

1.4 P&ID Development Activity 5

2 Management of P&ID Development 9

2.1 Project of Developing P&IDs 9

2.2 P&ID Milestones 9

2.3 Involved Parties in P&ID Development 11

2.4 P&ID Set Owner 12

2.5 Required Quality of the P&ID in Each Stage of Development 12

2.6 P&ID Evolution 12

2.7 Tracking Changes in P&IDs 12

2.8 Required Man-Hours for the Development of P&IDs 13

3 Anatomy of a P&ID Sheet 15

3.1 Title Block 15

3.2 Ownership Block 15

3.3 Reference Drawing Block 15

3.4 Revision Block 15

3.5 Comments Block 16

3.6 Main Body of a P&ID 19

4 General Rules in Drawing of P&IDs 21

4.1 Items on P&IDs 21

4.1.4 Signals 22

4.2 How to Show Them: Visual Rules 22

4.3 Item Identifiers in P&IDs 26

4.4 Different Types of P&IDs 32

4.5 A Set of P&IDs 39

4.6 P&IDs Prepared in Engineering Companies Compared to Manufacturing or Fabricating Companies 42

4.7 Dealing with Vendor or Licensor P&IDs 43

5 Principles of P&ID Development 45

5.1 Plant Stakeholders 45

5.2 The Hierarchy of P&ID Development Rules 45

5.3 Plant Operations 46

5.4 What Should a P&ID Address? 53

5.5 Conflicting Check and Merging Opportunities Check 63

5.6 Dealing with Common Challenges in P&ID Development 64

5.7 Example: Development of P&ID of a Typical Pump 65

Part II Pipes and Equipment 69

6 Pipes 71

6.1 Fluid Conductors: Pipes, Tubes, and Ducts 71

6.2 Pipe Identifiers 71

6.3 Pipe Tag Anatomy 74

6.4 Pipes Crossing "Borders" 79

6.5 Goal of Piping 82

6.6 Piping Arrangements 84

6.7 Pipe Route 88

6.8 Piping Movement 91

6.9 Dealing with Unwanted Two-Phase Flow in Pipes 92

6.10 Tubes 94

6.11 Double-Wall Pipes 95

6.12 Pipesfor Special Arrangements 96

6.13 Pipe Size Rule of Thumbs 97

6.14 Pipe Appurtenances 97

6.15 Other Approach about Piping 103

6.16 "Merging" Pipes 103

6.17 Wrapping-Up: Addressing Requirements of Pipe during the Life Span 103

6.18 Transferring Bulk Solid Materials 104

Reference 104

7 Manual Valves and Automatic Valves 105

7.1 Valve Naming 105

7.2 Valve Functions 105

7.3 Valve Structure 105

7.4 Classification of Valves 105

7.5 Valve Operators 110

7.6 Different Types of Actuators 111

7.7 Basis of Operation for Automatic Valves 112

7.8 Tagging Automatic Valves 113

7.9 Tagging Manual Valves 113

7.10 Valve Positions 113

7.11 Valve Arrangement 117

7.12 Control Valves and RO Combinations 119

7.13 Operating in the Absence of Valves 119

7.14 Valves in Role of Unit Operation 122

7.15 Special Valves 123

7.16 Valve Combinations 126

7.17 End of Valve Arrangements 126

7.18 Valve Sizing Rule of Thumbs 127

7.19 Merging Valves 127

7.20 Wrapping Up: Addressing Requirements of Valve During the Life Span 127

References 128

8 Provisions for Ease of Maintenance 129

8.1 Introduction 129

8.2 Different Types of Equipment Care 129

8.3 In-place In-line Equipment Care 129

8.4 In-place Off-line Equipment Care 130

8.5 In-workshop Off-line Equipment Care 131

8.6 Preparing Equipment for Off-line Care 131

8.7 Isolation 131

8.8 Bringing the Equipment to a Non-harmful Condition 136

8.9 Cleaning 139

8.10 Ultimate Destination of Dirty Fluids 140

8.11 Making Equipment Easy to Remove 141

8.12 Wrap-up 142

9 Containers 143

9.1 Introduction 143

9.2 Selection of Containers 143

9.3 Containers Purposes 144

9.4 Transferring Fluids Between Containers 145

9.5 Container Positions 146

9.6 Container Shapes 147

9.7 Container Identifiers 148

9.8 Levels in Non-flooded Liquid Containers 151

9.9 Container Nozzles 151

9.10 Overflow Nozzles 157

9.11 Breathing of Non-flooded Containers 158

9.12 Blanketed Tanks 160

9.13 Heating (or Cooling) in Containers 161

9.14 Mixing in Containers 162

9.15 Container Internals 162

9.16 Tank Roofs 162

9.17 Tank Floors 163

9.18 Container Arrangement 164

9.19 Merging Containers 164

9.20 Secondary Containment 165

9.21 Underground Storage Tanks 166

9.22 Sumps 167

9.23 Wrapping- up: Addressing the Requirements of the Container During its Lifespan 167

10 Pumps and Compressors 169

10.1 Introduction 169

10.2 Fluid Mover Roles 169

10.3 Types of Fluid Movers 169

10.4 A Brief Discussion on the Function of Fluid Movers in a System 169

10.5 Fluid Mover Identifiers 171

10.6 Liquid Movers: Dynamic Pumps 173

10.7 Liquid Movers: PD Pumps 190

10.8 Gas Movers: Fans, Blowers, Compressors 196

10.9 Wrapping-up: Addressing Requirements of Fluid Movers During the Life Span 200

Reference 200

11 Heat Transfer Units 201

11.1 Introduction 201

11.2 Main Types of Heat Transfer Units 201

11.3 Different Types of Heat Exchangers and Their Selection 202

11.4 Different Types of Heat Transfer Fluids and Their Selection 203

11.5 Heat Exchangers: General Naming 204

11.6 Heat Exchanger Identifiers 204

11.7 Heat Exchanger P&ID 206

11.8 Heat Exchanger Arrangement 207

11.9 Aerial Coolers 209

11.10 Merging Heat Exchangers 212

11.11 Wrapping-up: Addressing the Requirements of a Heat Exchanger During its Life Span 212

11.12 Fired Heaters and Furnaces 213

11.13 Fire Heater Arrangement 215

11.14 Merging Fired Heaters 216

11.15 Wrapping-up: Addressing the Requirements of Fired Heaters During their Lifespan 216

12 Pressure Relief Devices 217

12.1 Introduction 217

12.2 Why Pressure Is So Important? 217

12.3 Dealing with Abnormal Pressures 217

12.4 Safety Relief System 219

12.5 What Is an "Enclosure," and Which "Side" Should Be Protected? 220

12.6 Regulatory Issues Involved in PRVs 220

12.7 PRD Structure 222

12.8 Six Steps to Providing a Protective Layer 222

12.9 Locating PRDs 223

12.10 Positioning PRDs 223

12.11 Specifying the PRD 225

12.12 Selecting the Right Type of PRD 225

12.13 PRD Identifiers 226

12.14 Selecting the Right Type of PRD Arrangement 228

12.15 Deciding on an Emergency Release Collecting Network 230

12.16 Deciding on a Disposal System 232

12.17 Protecting Atmospheric Containers 235

12.18 Merging PRDs 236

12.19 Wrapping-Up: Addressing the Requirements of PRDs During their Lifespan 238

Part III Instrumentation and Control System 239

13 Fundamentals of Instrumentation and Control 241

13.1 What Is Process Control? 241

13.2 Components of Process Control Against Violating Parameters 241

13.3 Parameters Versus Steering/Protecting Components 242

13.4 How Many Steering Loops Are Needed? 242

13.5 ICSS System Technology 243

13.6 ICSS Elements 245

13.7 Basic Process Control System (BPCS) 245

13.8 Instruments on P&IDs 247

13.9 Instrument Identifiers 248

13.10 Signals: Communication Between Instruments 252

13.11 Different Instrument Elements 255

13.12 Simple Control Loops 264

13.13 Position of Sensor Regarding Control Valves 266

14 Application of Control Architectures 269

14.1 Introduction 269

14.2 Control System Design 269

14.3 Selecting the Parameter to Control 269

14.4 Identifying the Manipulated Stream 270

14.5 Determining the Set Point 271

14.6 Building a Control Loop 272

14.7 Multi-Loop Control Architectures 274

14.8 Feedforward Plus Feedback Control 276

14.9 Monitoring Parameters 289

15 Plant Process Control 293

15.1 Introduction 293

15.2 Plant-Wide Control 293

15.3 Heat and Mass Balance Control 293

15.4 Surge Control 295

15.4.6 The Purpose of Containers in Process Plants 301

15.5 Equipment Control 302

15.6 Pipe Control System 304

15.7 Fluid Mover Control System 309

15.8 Heat Transfer Equipment Control 320

15.9 Container Control System 331

15.10 Blanket Gas Control Systems 332

Reference 332

16 Plant Interlocks and Alarms 333

16.1 Introduction 333

16.2 Safety Strategies 333

16.3 Concept of a SIS 333

16.4 SIS Actions and SIS Types 333

16.5 SIS Extent 336

16.6 Deciding on the Required SIS 336

16.7 The Anatomy of a SIS 336

16.8 Showing Safety Instrumented Functions on P&IDs 340

16.9 Discrete Control 343

16.10 Alarm System 344

16.11 Fire and Gas Detection System (FGS) 347

16.12 Electric Motor Control 351

Part IV Utilities 357

17 Utilities 359

17.1 Utility System Components 359

17.2 Developing P&IDs for Utility Systems 359

17.3 Different Utilities in Plants 363

17.4 Air as a Utility in Process Plants 363

17.5 Water as a Utility in Process Plants 364

17.6 Heat Transfer Media 364

17.7 Condensate Collection Network 366

17.8 Fuel as Utility 366

17.9 Inert Gas 367

17.10 Vapor Collection Network 367

17.11 Emergency Vapor/Gas Release Collection Network 368

17.12 Fire Water 368

17.13 Surface Drainage Collection Network or Sewer System 370

17.14 Utility Circuits 372

17.15 Connection Between Distribution and Collecting Networks 375

Part V Additional Information and General Procedure 379

18 Ancillary Systems and Additional Considerations 381

18.1 Introduction 381

18.2 Safety Issues 381

18.3 Dealing with Environment 384

18.3.4 Summary of Insulation 390

18.4 Utility Stations 390

18.5 Off-Line Monitoring Programs 392

18.6 Corrosion Monitoring Program 396

18.7 Impact of the Plant Model on the P&ID 397

18.8 Design Pressure and Temperature Considerations 398

19 General Procedures 405

19.1 Introduction 405

19.2 General Procedure for P&ID Development 405

19.3 P&ID Reviewing and Checking 409

19.4 Methods of P&ID Reviewing and Checking 412

19.5 Required Quality of P&IDs at Each Stage of Development 413

20 Examples 417

Index 453
MOE TOGHRAEI is an independent consultant and instructor. He has more than 20 years of experience in the chemical process industries. He provides consultancy in process and project engineering areas. He also has developed and instructed dozens of technical courses, including tailor-made courses for companies, public courses and online courses. His online courses are available through the University of Kansas and University of Dalhousie.