# Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility

3. Auflage November 2022

848 Seiten, Hardcover*Lehrbuch*

**978-1-119-40434-7**

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY

The revised new edition of the classic textbook is an essential resource for anyone working with today's advancements in both digital and analog devices, communications systems, as well as power/energy generation and distribution.

Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility provides thorough coverage of the techniques and methodologies used to design and analyze electronic systems that function acceptably in their electromagnetic environment. Assuming no prior familiarity with electromagnetic compatibility, this user-friendly textbook first explains fundamental EMC concepts and technologies before moving on to more advanced topics in EMC system design.

This third edition reflects the results of an extensive detailed review of the entire second edition, embracing and maintaining the content that has "stood the test of time", such as from the theory of electromagnetic phenomena and associated mathematics, to the practical background information on U.S. and international regulatory requirements. In addition to converting Dr. Paul's original SPICE exercises to contemporary utilization of LTSPICE, there is new chapter material on antenna modeling and simulation. This edition will continue to provide invaluable information on computer modeling for EMC, circuit board and system-level EMC design, EMC test practices, EMC measurement procedures and equipment, and more such as:

* Features fully-worked examples, topic reviews, self-assessment questions, end-of-chapter exercises, and numerous high-quality images and illustrations

* Contains useful appendices of phasor analysis methods, electromagnetic field equations and waves.

The ideal textbook for university courses on EMC, Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, Third Edition is also an invaluable reference for practicing electrical engineers dealing with interference issues or those wanting to learn more about electromagnetic compatibility to become better product designers.

1 Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

1.1 Aspects of EMC

1.2 Electrical Dimensions and Waves

1.3 Decibels and Common EMC Units

1.3.1 Signal Source Specification

Problems

References

2 EMC Requirements for Electronic Systems

2.1 Governmental Requirements

2.1.1 Requirements for Commercial Products Marketed in the United States

2.1.2 Requirements for Commercial Products Marketed outside the United States

2.1.3 Requirements for Military Products Marketed in the United States

2.1.4 Measurement of Emissions for Verification of Compliance

2.1.4.1 Radiated Emissions

2.1.4.2 Conducted Emissions

2.1.5 Typical Product Emissions

2.1.6 A Simple Example to Illustrate the Difficulty in Meeting the Regulatory Limits

2.2 Additional Product Requirements

2.2.1 Radiated Susceptibility (Immunity)

2.2.2 Conducted Susceptibility (Immunity)

2.2.3 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)

2.2.4 Requirements for Commercial Aircraft

2.2.5 Requirements for Commercial Vehicles

2.3 Design Constraints for Products

2.4 Advantages of EMC Design

Problems

References

3 Signal Spectra--the Relationship between the Time Domain and the Frequency Domain

3.1 Periodic Signals

3.1.1 The Fourier Series Representation of Periodic Signals

3.1.2 Response of Linear Systems to Periodic Input Signals

3.1.3 Important Computational Techniques

3.2 Spectra of Digital Waveforms

3.2.1 The Spectrum of Trapezoidal (Clock) Waveforms

3.2.2 Spectral Bounds for Trapezoidal Waveforms

3.2.2.1 Effect of Rise/Falltime on Spectral Content

3.2.2.2 Bandwidth of Digital Waveforms

3.2.2.3 Effect of Repetition Rate and Duty Cycle

3.2.2.4 Effect of Ringing (Undershoot/Overshoot)

3.2.3 Use of Spectral Bounds in Computing Bounds on the Output Spectrum of a Linear System

3.3 Spectrum Analyzers

3.3.1 Basic Principles

3.3.2 Peak versus Quasi-Peak versus Average

3.4 Representation of Nonperiodic Waveforms

3.4.1 The Fourier Transform

3.4.2 Response of Linear Systems to Nonperiodic Inputs

3.5 Representation of Random (Data) Signals

Problems

References

4 Transmission Lines and Signal Integrity

4.1 The Transmission-Line Equations

4.2 The Per-Unit-Length Parameters

4.2.1 Wire-Type Structures

4.2.2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Structures

4.3 The Time-Domain Solution

4.3.1 Graphical Solutions

4.3.2 The Branin Method

4.4 High-Speed Digital Interconnects and Signal Integrity

4.4.1 Effect of Terminations on the Line Waveforms

4.4.1.1 Effect of Capacitive Terminations

4.4.1.2 Effect of Inductive Terminations

4.4.2 Matching Schemes for Signal Integrity

4.4.3 When Does the Line Not Matter, i.e., When is Matching Not Required?

4.4.4 Effects of Line Discontinuities

4.5 Sinusoidal Excitation of the Line and the Phasor Solution

4.5.1 Voltage and Current as Functions of Position

4.5.2 Power Flow

4.5.3 Inclusion of Losses

4.5.4 Effect of Losses on Signal Integrity

4.6 Lumped-Circuit Approximate Models

Problems

References

5 Nonideal Behavior of Components

5.1 Wires

5.1.1 Resistance and Internal Inductance of Wires

5.1.2 External Inductance and Capacitance of Parallel Wires

5.1.3 Lumped Equivalent Circuits of Parallel Wires

5.2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Lands

5.3 Effect of Component Leads

5.4 Resistors

5.5 Capacitors

5.6 Inductors

5.7 Ferromagnetic Materials--Saturation and Frequency Response

5.8 Ferrite Beads

5.9 Common-Mode Chokes

5.10 Electromechanical Devices

5.10.1 DC Motors

5.10.2 Stepper Motors

5.10.3 AC Motors

5.10.4 Solenoids

5.11 Digital Circuit Devices

5.12 Effect of Component Variability

5.13 Mechanical Switches

5.13.1 Arcing at Switch Contacts

5.13.2 The Showering Arc

5.13.3 Arc Suppression

Problems

References

6 Conducted Emissions and Susceptibility

6.1 Measurement of Conducted Emissions

6.1.1 The Line Impedance Stabilization Network (LISN)

6.1.2 Common- and Differential-Mode Currents Again

6.2 Power Supply Filters

6.2.1 Basic Properties of Filters

6.2.2 A Generic Power Supply Filter Topology

6.2.3 Effect of Filter Elements on Common- and Differential-Mode Currents

6.2.4 Separation of Conducted Emissions into Common and Differential-Mode

Components for Diagnostic Purposes

6.3 Power Supplies

6.3.1 Linear Power Supplies

6.3.2 Switched-Mode Power Supplies (SMPS)

6.3.3 Effect of Power Supply Components on Conducted Emissions

6.4 Power Supply and Filter Placement

6.5 Conducted Susceptibility

Problems

References

7 Antennas

7.1 Elemental Dipole Antennas

7.1.1 The Electric (Hertzian) Dipole

7.1.2 The Magnetic Dipole (Loop)

7.2 The Half-Wave Dipole and Quarter-Wave Monopole Antennas

7.3 Antenna Arrays

7.4 Characterization of Antennas

7.4.1 Directivity and Gain

7.4.2 Effective Aperture

7.4.3 Antenna Factor

7.4.4 Effects of Balancing and Baluns

7.4.5 Impedance Matching and the Use of Pads

7.5 The Friis Transmission Equation

7.6 Effects of Reflections

7.6.1 The Method of Images

7.6.2 Normal Incidence of Uniform Plane Waves on Plane Material Boundaries

7.6.3 Multipath Effects

7.7 Broadband Measurement Antennas

7.7.1 The Biconical Antenna

7.7.2 The Log-Periodic Antenna

7.8 Antenna Modeling and Simulation

7.8.1 Why Model Antennas?

7.8.2 Modeling Methods

7.8.3 Summary

Problems

References

8 Radiated Emissions and Susceptibility

8.1 Simple Emission Models for Wires and PCB Lands

8.1.1 Differential-Mode versus Common-Mode Currents

8.1.2 Differential-Mode Current Emission Model

8.1.3 Common-Mode Current Emission Model

8.1.4 Current Probes

8.1.5 Experimental Results

8.2 Simple Susceptibility Models for Wires and PCB Lands

8.2.1 Experimental Results

8.2.2 Shielded Cables and Surface Transfer Impedance

Problems

References

9 Crosstalk

9.1 Three-Conductor Transmission Lines and Crosstalk

9.2 The Transmission-Line Equations for Lossless Lines

9.3 The Per-Unit-Length Parameters

9.3.1 Homogeneous versus Inhomogeneous Media

9.3.2 Wide-Separation Approximations for Wires

9.3.3 Numerical Methods for Other Structures

9.3.3.1 Wires with Dielectric Insulations (Ribbon Cables)

9.3.3.2 Rectangular Cross-Section Conductors (PCB Lands)

9.4 The Inductive-Capacitive Coupling Approximate Model

9.4.1 Frequency-Domain Inductive-Capacitive Coupling Model

9.4.1.1 Inclusion of Losses: Common-Impedance Coupling

9.4.1.2 Experimental Results

9.4.2 Time-Domain Inductive-Capacitive Coupling Model

9.4.2.1 Inclusion of Losses: Common-Impedance Coupling

9.4.2.2 Experimental Results

9.5 Shielded Wires

9.5.1 Per-Unit-Length Parameters

9.5.2 Inductive and Capacitive Coupling

9.5.3 Effect of Shield Grounding

9.5.4 Effect of Pigtails

9.5.5 Effects of Multiple Shields

9.5.6 MTL Model Predictions

9.6 Twisted Wires

9.6.1 Per-Unit-Length Parameters

9.6.2 Inductive and Capacitive Coupling

9.6.3 Effects of Twist

9.6.4 Effects of Balancing

Problems

References

10 Shielding

10.1 Shielding Effectiveness

10.2 Shielding Effectiveness: Far-Field Sources

10.2.1 Exact Solution

10.2.2 Approximate Solution

10.2.2.1 Reflection Loss

10.2.2.2 Absorption Loss

10.2.2.3 Multiple-Reflection Loss

10.2.2.4 Total Loss

10.3 Shielding Effectiveness: Near-Field Sources

10.3.1 Near Field versus Far Field

10.3.2 Electric Sources

10.3.3 Magnetic Sources

10.4 Low-Frequency, Magnetic Field Shielding

10.5 Effect of Apertures

Problems

References

11 System Design for EMC

11.1 Changing the Way We Think about Electrical Phenomena

11.1.1 Nonideal Behavior of Components and the Hidden Schematic

11.1.2 "Electrons Do Not Read Schematics"

11.1.3 What Do We Mean by the Term "Shielding"?

11.2 What Do We Mean by the Term "Ground"?

11.2.1 Safety Ground

11.2.2 Signal Ground

11.2.3 Ground Bounce and Partial Inductance

11.2.3.1 Partial Inductance of Wires

11.2.3.2 Partial Inductance of PCB Lands

11.2.4 Currents Return to Their Source on the Paths of Lowest Impedance

11.2.5 Utilizing Mutual Inductance and Image Planes to Force Currents to Return on a Desired Path

11.2.6 Single-Point Grounding, Multipoint Grounding, and Hybrid Grounding

11.2.7 Ground Loops and Subsystem Decoupling

11.3 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design

11.3.1 Component Selection

11.3.2 Component Speed and Placement

11.3.3 Cable I/O Placement and Filtering

11.3.4 The Important Ground Grid

11.3.5 Power Distribution and Decoupling Capacitors

11.3.6 Reduction of Loop Areas

11.3.7 Mixed-Signal PCB Partitioning

11.4 System Configuration and Design

11.4.1 System Enclosures

11.4.2 Power Line Filter Placement

11.4.3 Interconnection and Number of Printed Circuit Boards

11.4.4 Internal Cable Routing and Connector Placement

11.4.5 PCB and Subsystem Placement

11.4.6 PCB and Subsystem Decoupling

11.4.7 Motor Noise Suppression

11.4.8 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)

11.5 Diagnostic Tools

11.5.1 The Concept of Dominant Effect in the Diagnosis of EMC Problems

Problems

References

Appendix A The Phasor Solution Method

A.1 Solving Differential Equations for Their Sinusoidal Steady-State Solution

A.2 Solving Electric Circuits for Their Sinusoidal Steady-State Response

Problems

References

Appendix B The Electromagnetic Field Equations and Waves

B.1 Vector Analysis

B.2 Maxwell's Equations

B.2.1 Faraday's Law

B.2.2 Ampere's Law

B.2.3 Gauss' Laws

B.2.4 Conservation of Charge

B.2.5 Constitutive Parameters of the Medium

B.3 Boundary Conditions

B.4 Sinusoidal Steady State

B.5 Power Flow

B.6 Uniform Plane Waves

B.6.1 Lossless Media

B.6.2 Lossy Media

B.6.3 Power Flow

B.6.4 Conductors versus Dielectrics

B.6.5 Skin Depth

B.7 Static (DC) Electromagnetic Field Relations -- a Special Case

B.7.1 Maxwell's Equations for Static (DC) Fields

B.7.1.1 Range of Applicability for Low-Frequency Fields

B.7.2 Two-Dimensional Fields and Laplace's Equation

Problems

References

Appendix C Computer Codes for Calculating the Per-Unit-Length (PUL) Parameters and Crosstalk of Multiconductor Transmission Lines

C.1 WIDESEP.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Widely Spaced Wires

C.2 RIBBON.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Ribbon Cables

C.3 PCB.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Printed Circuit Boards

C.4 MSTRP.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Coupled Microstrip Lines

C.5 STRPLINE.FOR for Computing the PUL Parameter Matrices of Coupled Striplines

Appendix D A SPICE (PSPICE, LTSPICE, ETC) Tutorial and Applications Guide

D.1 Creating the SPICE or PSPICE Simulation

D.1.1 Circuit Description

D.1.2 Execution Statements

D.1.3 Output Statements

D.1.4 Examples

D.2 Creating an LTSPICE Simulation

D.3 Lumped-Circuit Approximate Models

D.4 An Exact SPICE (PSPICE) Model for Lossless Coupled Lines

D.4.1 Computed versus Experimental Results for Wires

D.4.2 Computed versus Experimental Results for PCBs

D.5 Use of SPICE (PSPICE) for Fourier Analysis

D.6 SPICEMTL.FOR for Computing a SPICE (PSPICE) Subcircuit Model of a Lossless, Multiconductor Transmission Line

D.7 SPICELPI.FOR For Computing a SPICE (PSPICE) Subcircuit of a Lumped-Pi Model of a Lossless, Multiconductor Transmission Line

Problems

References

Appendix E A Brief History of EMC

E.1 History of EMC

E.2 Historical Examples

References

Index

Robert C. Scully a Principal Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineer, practicing at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, CA., previously the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Electromagnetic Compatibility Group Lead Engineer for 20 years. He earned his PhD in Electrical Engineering from the University of Texas at Arlington, USA, and is a Fellow of the IEEE. At JSC, he supported NASA's major space programs including the Space Shuttle, the International Space Station, the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Commercial Crew Development Program, and the Gateway Program. At JPL he is currently supporting development of major satellite projects including NISAR and Europa.

Mark A. Steffka is a Professor at the University of Detroit-Mercy. He joined the Electrical and Computer Engineering department as a full-time faculty member after his retirement from General Motors, where spent 20 years in the EMC Group. He received his B.S.E.E. from the University of Michigan and his M.S. from Indiana Wesleyan University. He has over 35 years' experience in the design, development, and testing of military communication systems, aerospace instrumentation, automotive electrical/electronic systems, and vehicle antennas. Steffka is a Senior Member of the IEEE and has co-authored / authored many publications on EMC, Radio Frequency Interference and more.