John Wiley & Sons Practical Field Ecology Cover Offers a comprehensive, accessible introduction to experimental design, field monitoring skills for .. Product #: 978-1-119-41322-6 Regular price: $55.98 $55.98 Auf Lager

Practical Field Ecology

A Project Guide

Wheater, C. Philip / Bell, James R. / Cook, Penny A.


2. Auflage Juli 2020
464 Seiten, Softcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-41322-6
John Wiley & Sons

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Offers a comprehensive, accessible introduction to experimental design, field monitoring skills for plants and animals, data analysis, interpretation and reporting

This user-friendly book presents field monitoring skills for both plants and animals, within the context of a research project. This text provides a single resource to take the reader all the way through from the planning stage, into the field, guiding through sampling, organism identification, computer-based data analysis and interpretation, and finally how to present the results to maximise the impact of the work. Logically structured throughout, and revised extensively in the second edition, the book concentrates on the techniques required to design a field-based ecological survey and shows how to execute an appropriate sampling regime. It evaluates appropriate sampling and analytical methods, identifying potential problems associated with various techniques and how to mitigate these.

The second edition of this popular text has updated reference material and weblinks, increased the number of case studies by 50% to illustrate the use of specific techniques in the field, added over 20% more figures (including 8 colour plates), and made more extensive use of footnotes to provide extra details. Extensions to topics covered in the first edition include additional discussion of: ethical issues; statistical methods (sample size estimation, use of the statistical package R, mixed models); bioindicators, especially for freshwater pollution; seeds, fecundity and population dynamics including static and dynamic life tables; forestry techniques including tree coring and tree mortality calculations; the use of data repositories; writing for a journal and producing poster and oral presentations. In addition, the use of new and emerging technologies has been a particular focus, including mobile apps for environmental monitoring and identification; land cover and GIS; the use of drones including legal frameworks and codes of practice; molecular field techniques including DNA analysis in the field (including eDNA); photo-matching for identifying individuals; camera trapping; modern techniques for detecting and analysing bat echolocation calls; and data storage using the cloud.

Divided into six distinct chapters, Practical Field Ecology, 2nd Edition begins at project inception with a chapter on planning--covering health and safety, along with guidance on how to ensure that the sampling and experimental design is suitable for subsequent statistical analysis. Following a chapter dealing with site characterisation and general aspects of species identification, subsequent chapters describe the techniques used to survey and census particular groups of organisms. The final chapters cover analysing, interpreting and presenting data, and writing up the research.
* Offers a readable and approachable integrated guide devoted to field-based research projects
* Takes students from the planning stage, into the field, and clearly guides them through organism identification in the laboratory and computer-based data analysis, interpretation and data presentation
* Includes a chapter on how to write project reports and present findings in a variety of formats to differing audiences

Aimed at undergraduates taking courses in Ecology, Biology, Geography, and Environmental Science, Practical Field Ecology, 2nd Edition will also benefit postgraduates seeking to support their projects.

List of Tables xiii

List of Figures xv

List of Boxes xxi

List of Case Studies xxiii

List of Plates xxv

Preface to the Second Edition xxvii

Preface to the First Edition xxix

Acknowledgements xxxi

About the Companion Website xxxv

1 Preparation 1

Choosing a topic for study 2

Ecological research questions 4

Monitoring individual species and groups of species 4

Monitoring species richness 5

Monitoring population sizes and density 5

Monitoring community structure 6

Monitoring behaviour 6

A note of caution 6

Creating aims, objectives, and hypotheses 9

Reviewing the literature 9

Primary literature 10

Secondary literature 10

Other sources of information 11

Search terms 11

Reading papers 12

Practical considerations 12

Legal aspects 13

Ethical issues 13

Health and safety issues 14

Implementation 16

Equipment and technical support 19

Field/laboratory notebook 19

Pilot studies 21

Time management 22

Statistical considerations in project design 24

Designing and setting up experiments and surveys 26

Choosing sampling methods 26

Types of data 27

Sampling designs 29

Planning statistical analysis 35

Describing data 35

Asking questions about data 36

Predictive analysis 37

Multivariate analysis 38

Examining patterns and structure in communities 39

Summary 39

2 Monitoring Site Characteristics 43

Site selection 43

Site characterisation 44

Habitat mapping 44

Examination of landscape scale 54

Measuring microclimatic variables 55

Monitoring substrates 60

Monitoring water 64

Other physical attributes 67

Measuring biological attributes 70

Identification 76

3 Sampling Plants and Other Static Organisms 85

Sampling for static organisms 88

Seeds, fecundity, and population dynamics 91

Quadrat sampling 92

Density estimation using quadrats 95

Frequency estimation using quadrats 95

Cover estimation using quadrats 96

Biomass estimation within quadrats 97

Quadrat size 99

Nested quadrats 100

Placement of quadrats 101

Quadrat shape 102

Pin-frames 103

Transects 104

Plotless sampling 106

Distribution of static organisms 109

Forestry techniques 110

Tree diameter 110

Tree basal area 113

Height of trees 113

Timber volume 114

Growth 114

Canopy cover 115

Age and mortality 115

4 Sampling Mobile Organisms 119

General issues 120

Distribution of mobile organisms 123

Direct observation 124

Behaviour 124

Indirect methods 130

Capture techniques 130

Marking individuals 133

Radio-Tracking 136

Population dynamics 138

Invertebrates 140

Direct observation 141

Butterfly census method 141

Indirect methods 143

Using insect sounds 143

Capture techniques 144

Killing and preserving invertebrates 145

Marking individuals 145

Capturing aquatic invertebrates 150

Netting 152

Suction sampling 156

Benthic coring 156

Drags, dredges, and grabs 157

Wet extraction 158

Artificial substrate samplers 159

Baited traps and refuges 159

Capturing soil-living invertebrates 161

Sieving 161

Floatation and phase-separation 161

Tullgren funnels and similar methods of dry extraction 162

Chemical extraction 164

Electrical extraction 166

Capturing ground-active invertebrates 167

Pitfall traps 167

Suction samplers 175

Emergence traps 178

Capturing invertebrates from plants 180

Pootering 182

Sweep netting 184

Beating 185

Fogging 185

Capturing airborne invertebrates 187

Sticky traps 190

Using attractants 191

Refuges 194

Flight interception traps 195

Light traps 197

Rotary traps 205

Water (pan) traps 206

Fish 208

Direct observation 210

Indirect methods 211

Capture techniques 211

Nets and traps 212

Collecting fish larvae 215

Electrofishing 215

Marking individuals 215

Amphibians 218

Direct observation 221

Indirect methods 221

Counting egg masses 221

Using environmental DNA (eDNA) 222

Capture techniques 222

Sampling adults in water 223

Sampling adults on land 224

Tadpoles 226

Juveniles/metamorphs 226

Marking individuals 226

Reptiles 228

Direct observation 228

Indirect methods 229

Capture techniques 230

Hand-capture 232

Traps 233

Marking individuals 235

Birds 236

Direct observation 237

Timed species count 239

Common bird census/breeding bird survey 240

Point counts 241

Transect line counts 242

Distance sampling 242

Flush counts 244

Indirect methods 245

Counting nests at a distance 246

Bird song 247

Capture techniques 247

Mist netting 248

Propelled nets 250

Marking individuals 250

Mammals 253

Direct observation 254

Indirect methods 257

Capture techniques 264

Marking individuals 272

5 Analysing and Interpreting Information 275

Keys to tests 278

Exploring and describing data 285

Transforming and screening data 285

Graphical display of data 288

Measures of central tendency and sample variability 290

Spatial and temporal distributions 292

Population estimation techniques: densities and population sizes 292

Richness and diversity 297

Similarity, dissimilarity, and distance coefficients 297

Recording descriptive statistics 300

Testing hypotheses using basic statistical tests and simple general linear models 301

Differences between samples 304

Relationships between variables 307

Associations between frequency distributions 312

More advanced general linear models for predictive analysis 314

Multiple regression 314

Analysis of covariance and multivariate analysis of variance 316

Discriminant function analysis 318

Generalized linear models 319

Extensions of the generalized linear model 323

Extensions of generalized linear models and GAMs into mixed-effects models 324

Statistical methods to examine pattern and structure in communities: classification, indicator species, and ordination 325

Classification 325

Classification techniques when the number of groups is known 326

Significance testing for group membership: analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) 328

Classification techniques when the number of groups is unknown 329

Indicator species analysis 331

Ordination 332

Indirect gradient analysis 333

Comparing ordinations and matrix data 338

Direct gradient analysis 339

6 Presenting Information 343

Written reports 344

Title 345

Abstract 345

Acknowledgements 346

Contents 346

Introduction 347

Methods 347

Results 348

Illustrations (Tables, Figures, Plates, Equations, etc.) 349

Discussion 354

References 354

Citing papers 355

Appendices 358

Archiving data 359

Authors' contributions 359

Writing style 359

Tense 362

Passive tense 362

Numbers 362

Abbreviations 363

Punctuation 364

Choice of font 365

Common mistakes 366

Computer files 368

Specific guidance for writing for a journal 368

Specific guidance for preparing a poster 371

Specific guidance for preparing an oral presentation 376

Summary 379

Appendix 1 Glossary of Statistical Terms 381

References 387

Index 409
C. PHILIP WHEATER, PHD, is Professor Emeritus in Environmental and Geographical Sciences at Manchester Metropolitan University. He has published widely in the fields of environmental science, environmental management, biogeography and ecology, including on plants, invertebrates, mammals, and amphibians.

PENNY A. COOK, PHD, is Professor in Public Health at the University of Salford, UK. She teaches statistical analysis, is a Statistical Editor of a peer-reviewed journal, and has published on greenspace, biodiversity and health and well-being, as well as on behavior and evolutionary ecology.

JAMES R. BELL, PHD, is Head of the Rothamsted Insect Survey, Rothamsted Research, UK. He has published widely on insect migration, climate change impacts on insects and the ecology of invertebrates. He has an interest in the analysis of large data sets as well as surveillance and monitoring technologies.

C. P. Wheater, Manchester Metropolitan University; J. R. Bell, Rothamsted Research; P. A. Cook, Liverpool John Moores University