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Coal Geology

Thomas, Larry

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3. Auflage August 2020
536 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-42413-0
John Wiley & Sons

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A global exploration of coal geology, from production and use to chemical properties and coal petrology

Coal Geology, 3rd Edition, offers a revised and updated edition of this popular book which provides a comprehensive overview of the field of coal geology including coal geophysics, hydrogeology and mining. Also covered in this volume are fully revised coverage of resource and reserve definitions, equipment and recording techniques together with the use of coal as an alternative energy source as well as environmental implications.

This third edition provides a textbook ideally suited to anyone studying, researching or working in the field of coal geology, geotechnical engineering and environmental science.
* Fills the gap between academic aspects of coal geology and the practical role of geology in the coal industry
* Examines sedimentological and stratigraphical geology, together with mining, geophysics, hydrogeology, environmental issues and coal marketing
* Defines global coal resource classifications and methods of calculation
* Addresses the alternative uses of coal as a source of energy
* Covers a global approach to coal producers and consumers

Preface to Third Edition xv

Preface to Second Edition xvii

Preface to First Edition xix

List of Acronyms xxi

1 Preview 1

1.1 Scope 1

1.2 Coal Geology 1

1.3 Coal Use 2

1.4 Background 2

2 Origin of Coal 5

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Sedimentation of Coal and Coal-Bearing Sequences 5

2.2.1 Depositional Models 5

2.2.2 The Traditional Model 6

2.2.2.1 Prodelta and Delta Front Facies 8

2.2.2.2 Lower Delta Plain Facies 8

2.2.2.3 Upper Delta Plain Facies 11

2.2.2.4 Fluvial Facies 11

2.2.3 Modern Peat Analogues 11

2.2.3.1 Palaeobotanical Composition of Ancient Mires 19

2.2.3.2 Case Studies 24

2.2.4 Sequence Stratigraphy 25

2.2.5 Facies Correlation 27

2.2.6 Facies Maps 29

2.2.6.1 Seam Splitting 31

2.2.6.2 Washouts 34

2.2.6.3 Floor Rolls 34

2.2.6.4 Coal Seam Thickness Variations 35

2.2.6.5 Interburden/Overburden Thickness 37

2.2.6.6 Coal Seam Quality Variations 38

2.3 Structural Effects on Coal 40

2.3.1 Syndepositional Effects 40

2.3.1.1 Microstructural Effects 40

2.3.1.2 Macrostructural Effects 41

2.3.2 Post-Depositional Effects 44

2.3.2.1 Jointing/Cleats in Coal 44

2.3.2.2 Faulting 45

2.3.2.3 Folding 50

2.3.2.4 Igneous Associations 52

2.3.2.5 Mineral Precipitates 53

3 Age and Occurrence of Coal 57

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Plate Tectonics 57

3.3 Stratigraphy 61

3.4 Age and Geographical Distribution of Coal 64

3.4.1 United States of America 67

3.4.2 Canada 74

3.4.3 Europe 75

3.4.3.1 Albania 75

3.4.3.2 Austria 75

3.4.3.3 Belgium 75

3.4.3.4 Bosnia 75

3.4.3.5 Bulgaria 75

3.4.3.6 Czech Republic 75

3.4.3.7 Denmark 76

3.4.3.8 France 76

3.4.3.9 Germany 76

3.4.3.10 Georgia 76

3.4.3.11 Greece 77

3.4.3.12 Greenland 77

3.4.3.13 Holland 77

3.4.3.14 Hungary 77

3.4.3.15 Ireland 77

3.4.3.16 Italy 77

3.4.3.17 Kosovo 77

3.4.3.18 Montenegro 78

3.4.3.19 Poland 78

3.4.3.20 Portugal 78

3.4.3.21 Romania 78

3.4.3.22 Serbia 78

3.4.3.23 Spain 79

3.4.3.24 Spitzbergen 79

3.4.3.25 Sweden 79

3.4.3.26 Turkey 79

3.4.3.27 United Kingdom 79

3.4.4 Africa 80

3.4.4.1 Angola 80

3.4.4.2 Botswana 80

3.4.4.3 Cameroon 81

3.4.4.4 Egypt 81

3.4.4.5 Ethiopia 81

3.4.4.6 Malagasy Republic 81

3.4.4.7 Malawi 81

3.4.4.8 Mali 81

3.4.4.9 Morocco 81

3.4.4.10 Mozambique 82

3.4.4.11 Namibia 82

3.4.4.12 Niger 82

3.4.4.13 Nigeria 82

3.4.4.14 South Africa 82

3.4.4.15 Swaziland 83

3.4.4.16 Tanzania 83

3.4.4.17 Zaire 83

3.4.4.18 Zambia 83

3.4.4.19 Zimbabwe 83

3.4.5 The Indian Subcontinent 84

3.4.5.1 Afghanistan 84

3.4.5.2 Bangladesh 84

3.4.5.3 India 84

3.4.5.4 Iran 85

3.4.5.5 Pakistan 85

3.4.6 Central and South America 85

3.4.6.1 Argentina 85

3.4.6.2 Bolivia 86

3.4.6.3 Brazil 86

3.4.6.4 Chile 86

3.4.6.5 Colombia 87

3.4.6.6 Costa Rica 87

3.4.6.7 Ecuador 87

3.4.6.8 Mexico 87

3.4.6.9 Peru 87

3.4.6.10 Uruguay 88

3.4.6.11 Venezuela 88

3.4.7 Commonwealth of Independent States 88

3.4.7.1 Kazakhstan 88

3.4.7.2 Russian Federation 88

3.4.7.3 Tajikistan 89

3.4.7.4 Ukraine 89

3.4.7.5 Uzbekistan 89

3.4.8 Far East 89

3.4.8.1 Brunei 89

3.4.8.2 Democratic Republic of (North) Korea 90

3.4.8.3 Indonesia 90

3.4.8.4 Japan 91

3.4.8.5 Laos 91

3.4.8.6 Malaysia 91

3.4.8.7 Mongolia 91

3.4.8.8 Myanmar (Burma) 92

3.4.8.9 People's Republic of China 92

3.4.8.10 People's Republic of Vietnam 93

3.4.8.11 Philippines 93

3.4.8.12 Republic of (South) Korea 94

3.4.8.13 Taiwan 94

3.4.8.14 Thailand 94

3.4.9 Australasia 95

3.4.9.1 Australia 95

3.4.9.2 New Zealand 96

3.4.9.3 Antarctica 96

4 Coal as a Substance 97

4.1 Physical Description of Coal 97

4.1.1 Macroscopic Description of Coal 97

4.1.1.1 Humic Coals 97

4.1.1.2 Sapropelic Coals 101

4.1.2 Microscopic Description of Coal 102

4.1.3 Mineral Content of Coals 106

4.1.4 Coal Petrography 113

4.2 Coalification (Rank) 116

4.2.1 Coalification 116

4.2.2 Causes of Coalification 118

4.2.2.1 Temperature 120

4.2.2.2 Time 120

4.2.2.3 Pressure 120

4.2.2.4 Radioactivity 121

4.3 Coal Quality 121

4.3.1 Chemical Properties of Coal 122

4.3.1.1 Basis of Analytical Data 122

4.3.1.2 Proximate Analysis 123

4.3.1.3 Ultimate Analysis 125

4.3.1.4 Other Analysis 126

4.3.2 Combustion Properties of Coal 127

4.3.2.1 Calorific Value 127

4.3.2.2 Ash Fusion Temperatures 128

4.3.2.3 Caking Tests 128

4.3.2.4 Coking Tests 129

4.3.3 Physical Properties of Coal 131

4.3.3.1 Mechanical Strength 131

4.3.3.2 Density 132

4.3.3.3 Hardness and Grindability 132

4.3.3.4 Abrasion Index 133

4.3.3.5 Particle Size Distribution 133

4.3.3.6 Float-Sink Tests 133

4.3.4 Coal Oxidation 135

4.4 Classification of Coals 136

4.4.1 North America 136

4.4.2 United Kingdom 136

4.4.3 Europe 137

4.4.4 Australia 146

4.4.5 South Africa 146

4.4.6 United Nations 146

4.4.7 Russia 148

4.4.8 People's Republic of China 149

5 Coal Sampling and Analysis 151

5.1 Coal Sampling 151

5.1.1 In-Situ Coal Sampling 151

5.1.1.1 Grab Samples 151

5.1.1.2 Channel Samples 151

5.1.1.3 Pillar Samples 154

5.1.1.4 Core Samples 154

5.1.1.5 Cuttings Samples 155

5.1.1.6 Specimen Samples 155

5.1.1.7 Bulk Samples 156

5.1.1.8 Sample Storage 156

5.1.2 Ex-Situ Sampling 157

5.2 Coal Analysis 162

5.2.1 Outcrop/Core Samples 162

5.2.2 Bulk Samples 162

5.2.3 Ex-Situ Samples 162

6 Coal Exploration and Data Collection 169

6.1 Introduction 169

6.2 Field Techniques 169

6.2.1 Outcrop Mapping 172

6.2.2 Global Positioning System 179

6.2.3 Portable Personal Computers 179

6.2.4 Remote Sensing 180

6.2.4.1 Satellite Imagery 180

6.2.4.2 Airborne Imagery 181

6.3 Drilling 183

6.3.1 Openhole Drilling 184

6.3.2 Core Drilling 188

6.3.3 Portable Drilling 189

6.3.4 Core and Openhole Logging 190

6.3.4.1 Core Logging 190

6.3.4.2 Openhole Logging 193

6.4 Geotechnical Properties 194

6.4.1 Strength 195

6.4.2 Weathering 196

6.4.3 Texture and Structure 196

6.4.4 Colour 196

6.4.5 Grain Size 198

6.4.6 Total Core Recovery 198

6.4.7 Solid Core Recovery 198

6.4.8 Rock Quality Designation 198

6.4.9 Fracture Spacing Index 198

6.4.10 Fracture Logging 199

6.4.11 Rock Mass Rating 201

6.5 Computer Applications 201

7 Coal Resources and Reserves 207

7.1 Introduction 207

7.2 Coal Resources and Reserves Classification 208

7.2.1 Australia 209

7.2.1.1 Coal Resources 209

7.2.1.2 Coal Reserves 211

7.2.2 Canada 211

7.2.3 Europe (Including the UK) 212

7.2.4 South Africa 213

7.2.5 United Nations 213

7.2.6 United States of America 216

7.2.7 Russian Federation 219

7.2.8 People's Republic of China 222

7.2.9 India 222

7.2.10 Other Countries 224

7.3 Reporting of Resources/Reserves 225

7.3.1 Coal Resources and Reserves 225

7.3.2 Coal Resources and Reserves Maps 226

7.3.3 Calculation of Coal Resources 227

7.3.3.1 In-Situ Tonnage Calculations 227

7.3.3.2 Geostatistics and Computer Modelling 229

7.3.3.3 Opencast Coal Mining 232

7.3.3.4 Geological Losses 233

7.3.3.5 Reserves Reporting 235

7.3.3.6 Reserve Economics 235

7.4 World Coal Reserves and Production 235

7.4.1 World Coal Reserves 235

7.4.2 World Coal Production 237

7.4.2.1 Coal Production Statistics 237

7.4.2.2 Regional Production and Consumption 241

7.4.2.3 Reserves/Production Ratio 242

8 Geophysics of Coal 243

8.1 Introduction 243

8.2 Physical Properties of Coal-Bearing Sequences 244

8.2.1 Density 244

8.2.2 Seismic Velocity 244

8.2.3 Seismic Reflection Coefficients 245

8.2.4 Magnetic Susceptibility 245

8.2.5 Electrical Conductivity 245

8.2.6 Radiometric Properties 245

8.3 Surface Geophysical Methods 246

8.3.1 Seismic Surveys 246

8.3.1.1 Seismic Reflection Surveys 246

8.3.1.2 Seismic Refraction Surveys 256

8.3.1.3 Passive Seismic Surveys 257

8.3.2 Gravity Surveys 257

8.3.3 Magnetic Surveys 259

8.3.4 Electrical Methods 262

8.3.4.1 Electrical Resistivity Methods 262

8.3.4.2 Ground-Penetrating Radar Methods 262

8.3.4.3 Electromagnetic Surveys 263

8.3.5 Radioactive Methods 264

8.4 Underground Geophysical Methods 264

8.4.1 In-Seam Seismic Surveys 264

8.4.2 Underground Gravity Surveys 269

8.4.3 Ground-Penetrating Radar Techniques 269

8.5 Geophysical Borehole Logging 269

8.5.1 Radiation Logs 271

8.5.1.1 Gamma-Ray Log 271

8.5.1.2 Density Log 273

8.5.1.3 Neutron Log 274

8.5.1.4 Gamma Spectrometry 276

8.5.2 Calliper Log 276

8.5.3 Electric Logs 277

8.5.4 Dipmeter Log 277

8.5.5 Sonic Log 278

8.5.6 Acoustic Scanning Tools 279

8.5.7 Temperature Log 280

8.5.8 Advanced Interpretation 282

9 Hydrogeology of Coal 289

9.1 Introduction 289

9.2 The Nature of Groundwater and Surface Flow 289

9.2.1 Surface Water 289

9.2.2 Groundwater 290

9.3 Hydrogeological Characteristics of Coals and Coal-Bearing Sequences 292

9.4 Collection and Handling of Hydrogeological Data 295

9.4.1 Surface Water 295

9.4.2 Groundwater 295

9.5 Groundwater Inflows in Mines 298

9.5.1 Dewatering of Open-pit Mines 299

9.5.2 Dewatering of Underground Mines 306

9.5.3 Water Quality 307

9.6 Groundwater Rebound 307

10 Geology and Coal Mining 311

10.1 Introduction 311

10.2 Underground Mining 312

10.2.1 Geological Factors 313

10.2.2 Mining Methods 314

10.2.2.1 Longwall Mining 314

10.2.2.2 Room-and-Pillar Mining 316

10.2.2.3 Stress Fields 318

10.2.2.4 Coal Bursts 326

10.2.2.5 Strata and Air Temperatures 327

10.2.2.6 Spontaneous Combustion 328

10.3 Surface Mining 328

10.3.1 Geological Factors 328

10.3.2 Mining Equipment 330

10.3.2.1 Dragline 330

10.3.2.2 Powered Shovels 331

10.3.2.3 Bucketwheel Excavators 334

10.3.3 Surface Mining Methods 335

10.3.3.1 Strip Mining 335

10.3.3.2 Opencast or Open-pit Mining 335

10.3.3.3 Highwall Mining 338

10.4 Coal Production 339

10.4.1 Underground Coal Production 340

10.4.2 Surface Coal Production 340

11 Coal as an Alternative Energy Source 343

11.1 Introduction 343

11.2 Gas in Coal 343

11.2.1 Coal-bed Methane 345

11.2.1.1 Coal-bed Methane Generation 345

11.2.1.2 Coal-bed Methane Retention 346

11.2.1.3 Coal-bed Methane Production 349

11.3 Underground Coal Gasification 365

11.3.1 Underground Coal Gasification: The Case For and Against 365

11.3.2 Underground Coal Gasification Technology 366

11.3.2.1 Coal Gasification Reactions 366

11.3.3 Global Development of Underground Coal Gasification 373

11.4 Coal as a Liquid Fuel 375

11.4.1 Petroleum Potential of Coal 375

11.4.2 Coal Properties as an Oil-Source Rock 375

11.4.3 Coal Liquefaction Technology 378

11.4.4 Future Development of Coal Liquefaction 379

11.4.5 Coal-Sourced Oil and Gas Occurrences 381

12 Coal Use and the Environment 385

12.1 Introduction 385

12.2 Coalmining 386

12.2.1 Effects on Water Supply 387

12.2.1.1 Surface Water 387

12.2.1.2 Underground Water 387

12.2.2 Contamination of Mine Waters 387

12.2.3 Other Water Pollution 391

12.2.4 Run-off, Erosion, and Sedimentation 391

12.2.5 Spoil Dumping 392

12.2.6 Spontaneous Combustion 396

12.2.7 Dust Suppression 397

12.2.8 Subsidence 398

12.3 Coal Use 401

12.3.1 Electricity Generation 404

12.3.1.1 Emissions 405

12.3.1.2 Flue Gas Desulfurisation 409

12.3.1.3 Other Emission Controls 410

12.3.1.4 Fluidised-Bed Combustion 411

12.3.2 Other Major Users 413

12.3.2.1 Iron and Steel Production 413

12.3.2.2 Industrial Use 414

12.3.2.3 Domestic Use 415

12.3.3 Coal Transportation 415

12.4 Health 415

12.5 Carbon Capture and Storage 416

12.6 Environmental Regulations 418

12.6.1 Introduction 418

12.6.2 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Conventions 419

12.6.3 European Union 420

12.6.4 World Bank 420

12.6.5 Kyoto Protocol 420

12.6.6 Copenhagen Accord 421

12.6.7 Durban Platform for Enhanced Action 421

12.6.8 Paris Agreement 421

12.7 Future Implications 422

13 Coal Marketing 423

13.1 Introduction 423

13.2 Coal Quality 423

13.3 Transportation 425

13.3.1 Land Transportation 425

13.3.1.1 Conveyors 426

13.3.1.2 Road 426

13.3.1.3 Rail 427

13.3.2 Water Transportation 428

13.3.2.1 Barges 428

13.3.2.2 Bulk Carriers 429

13.4 Coal Markets 430

13.5 Coal Contracts 431

13.5.1 Spot Purchases 431

13.5.2 Term Contracts 431

13.5.3 Indexed Contracts 432

13.6 Coal Price and Indexing 433

Appendix A List of International and National Standards Used in Coal and Coke Analysis and Evaluation 435

A.1 British Standards Institution (BS) 435

A.2 International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 438

A.3 ASTM International, Formerly Known as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 441

A.4 Standards Association of Australia (AS) 444

A.5 National Standards of People's Republic of China 446

A.6 Bureau of Indian Standards 449

A.7 State Standards of Russia - GOST (GOST = Gosudarstvennyy Standart) 451

Appendix B Tables of True and Apparent Dip, Slope Angles, Gradients, and Percentage Slope 455

Appendix C Calorific Values Expressed in Different Units 457

Appendix D Coal Statistics 463

Appendix E Methane Units Converter 465

Glossary 467

Bibliography 475

Index 497
LARRY THOMAS graduated from the University of Wales with a Ph.D in coalfield sedimentology, and has since been associated with the geology, exploration and mining of coal for over 50 years, and has produced a number of technical papers, maps and reports on coal deposits worldwide. He is a director of Dargo Associates Ltd., an international coal consultancy, involved in assessment of coal resources and coal utilisation in many parts of the world for both mining operations, fuel for electricity generation and for project financing.

L. Thomas, Dargo Associates Ltd, Geological and Coal Resource Consultants