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Risk Communication

A Handbook for Communicating Environmental, Safety, and Health Risks

Lundgren, Regina E. / McMakin, Andrea H.

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6. Auflage November 2018
544 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-45611-7
John Wiley & Sons

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THE ESSENTIAL HANDBOOK FOR EFFECTIVELY COMMUNICATING ENVIRONMENTAL, SAFETY, AND HEALTH RISKS, FULLY REVISED AND UPDATED

Now in its sixth edition, Risk Communication has proven to be a valuable resource for people who are tasked with the responsibility of understanding how to apply the most current approaches to care, consensus, and crisis communication. The sixth edition updates the text with fresh and illustrative examples, lessons learned, and recent research as well as provides advice and guidelines for communicating risk information in the United States and other countries.

The authors help readers understand the basic theories and practices of risk communication and explain how to plan an effective strategy and put it into action. The book also contains information on evaluating risk communication efforts and explores how to communicate risk during and after an emergency. Risk Communication brings together in one resource proven scientific research with practical, hands-on guidance from practitioners with over 30 years of experience in the field. This important guide:
* Provides new examples of communication plans in government and industry, use of social media, dealing with "fake news," and new digital tools for stakeholder involvement and crisis communications
* Contains a new chapter on partnerships which covers topics such as assigning roles and expectations, ending partnerships, and more
* Presents real-world case studies with key lessons all risk communicators can apply.

Written for engineers, scientists, professors and students, land use planners, public health practitioners, communication specialists, consultants, and regulators, the revised sixth edition of Risk Communication is the must-have guide for those who communicate risks.

List of Figures XVII

List of Tables XIX

Preface XXI

About the Authors XXIII

1 INTRODUCTION 1

To Begin 2

The Risk Communication Process 6

Audiences, Situations, and Purposes 8

References 8

PART I UNDERSTANDING RISK COMMUNICATION

2 APPROACHES TO COMMUNICATING RISK 11

Cross-Cutting Risk Communication Approaches 12

Care Communication Approaches 20

Consensus Communication Approach 23

Crisis Communication Approaches 24

Summary 26

References 26

Additional Resources 28

3 LAWS THAT MANDATE RISK COMMUNICATION 29

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act 30

Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act 31

Executive Order 12898, Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations 34

Executive Order 13045, Reduce Environmental Health and Safety Risks to Children 34

Food and Drug Administration Regulations on Prescription Drug Communication 35

National Environmental Policy Act 35

Natural Resource Damage Assessment 36

Occupational Safety and Health Act 37

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 39

Risk Management Plan Rule 39

Privacy Rule 39

Other Government Inducements 40

Summary 42

References 42

Additional Resources 43

4 CONSTRAINTS TO EFFECTIVE RISK COMMUNICATION 45

Constraints on the Communicator 45

Constraints from the Audience 55

Constraints for Both Communicator and Audience 63

Summary 65

References 65

Additional Resources 67

5 ETHICAL ISSUES 69

Social Ethics 70

Organizational Ethics 77

Personal Ethics 82

Summary 85

References 85

Additional Resources 86

6 PRINCIPLES OF RISK COMMUNICATION 89

Principles of Process 90

Principles of Presentation 95

Principles for Comparing Risks 100

Summary 104

References 104

Additional Resources 105

PART II PLANNING THE RISK COMMUNICATION EFFORT

7 DETERMINE PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES 109

Factors That Influence Purpose and Objectives 110

Reference 114

Additional Resources 115

8 ANALYZE YOUR AUDIENCE 117

Begin with Purpose and Objectives 118

Choose a Level of Analysis 119

Determine Key Audience Characteristics 122

Determine How to Find Audience Analysis Information 125

Incorporate Audience Analysis Information into Risk Communication Efforts 129

References 132

Additional Resources 133

9 DEVELOP YOUR MESSAGE 135

Common Pitfalls 136

Information People Want 139

Mental Models 141

Message Mapping and Message Development Templates 144

Health Risk Communication 144

Crisis Communication 147

References 150

Additional Resource 151

10 DETERMINE THE APPROPRIATE METHODS 153

Information Materials 153

Visual Representation of Risk 155

Face-to-Face Communication 156

The News Media 158

Stakeholder Participation 160

Technology-Assisted Communication 162

Social Media 163

Partnerships 164

Additional Resources 166

11 SET A SCHEDULE 167

Legal Requirements 167

Organizational Requirements 168

The Scientific Process 169

Ongoing Activities 169

Audience Needs 170

Reference 172

12 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION PLAN 173

What to Include in a Communication Plan 174

Developing Risk Communication Strategies 177

References 183

Additional Resources 184

PART III PUTTING RISK COMMUNICATION INTO ACTION

13 INFORMATION MATERIALS 187

Constructing Information Materials 187

Guidelines for Specific Types of Information Materials 195

References 202

Additional Resources 202

14 VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS OF RISKS 203

Design Visuals for Specific Audiences and Uses 205

Match the Visual Portrayal to the Information to Be Conveyed 207

Pretest Graphics with Those Who Will Use Them 209

Using Visuals to Personalize Risk Information 213

Comparing Risks in Visual Formats 213

Static versus Interactive Visuals 216

Depicting Probability and Uncertainty 218

Warning Labels 227

Consider Using Action Levels 230

Ethical Portrayal of Risk Information 232

Using Visual Information in Group Decision Making 235

References 236

Additional Resources 239

15 FACE-TO-FACE COMMUNICATION 241

Constructing Face-to-Face Messages 242

Guidelines for Specific Types of Face-to-Face Communication 247

References 258

Additional Resource 258

16 NEWS MEDIA 259

The Roles of the News Media in Risk Communication 260

Understanding Cultural Differences 263

Guidelines for Interacting with the News Media 266

Getting the Word Out 275

Dealing with Fake News 279

References 281

Additional Resources 283

17 STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION 285

Requirements for Stakeholder Participation 286

Guidelines for Specific Types of Stakeholder Participation Activities 290

References 311

Additional Resources 312

18 TECHNOLOGY-ASSISTED COMMUNICATION 315

Choosing Technology-Based Applications 316

Workplace Risk Communication 317

Web-Delivered and Stand-Alone Multimedia Programs 322

Traditional Electronic Forums 327

Interactive Multimedia Programs in Public Places 328

Technology in Care Communication 331

Technology in Consensus Communication 332

Technology in Crisis Communication 336

References 343

Additional Resources 345

19 SOCIAL MEDIA 347

General Principles on Participating in Social Media to Communicate Risk 348

Sharing Content via Social Media 354

Engaging with Stakeholders 355

Monitoring Changes in Perception via Social Media 356

Guidelines for Specific Types of Social Media 358

Evaluating Social Media Effectiveness 362

Dealing with Fake News 364

References 367

Additional Resources 369

20 PARTNERSHIPS 371

Categories of Partnerships 372

General Principles for Working in Partnership 374

Working with Influencers 378

Evaluating and Ending Partnerships 381

References 383

Additional Resources 384

PART IV EVALUATING RISK COMMUNICATION EFFORTS

21 EVALUATION OF RISK COMMUNICATION EFFORTS 387

Why Evaluate Risk Communication Efforts? 387

The Meaning of Success 388

Types of Evaluations 391

Conducting the Evaluation 393

References 397

Additional Resources 398

PART V SPECIAL CASES IN RISK COMMUNICATION

22 EMERGENCY RISK COMMUNICATION 401

Understanding Emergency Risk Communication 402

Planning for the Unexpected 409

Communicating During an Emergency 436

Communicating After an Emergency 448

References 452

Additional Resources 456

23 INTERNATIONAL RISK COMMUNICATION 457

Recognize the Similarities 458

Account for Cultural Differences 459

Look for "Your" Risk in Other Countries 461

Plan for Cross-Country Communication 463

References 466

Additional Resources 468

24 PUBLIC HEALTH CAMPAIGNS 471

Understand Your Goals 472

Use Research to Design Campaigns 473

Use Multiple Methods to Reach People 474

When Things Go Wrong 479

Evaluate Success 481

References 485

Additional Resources 486

RESOURCES 489

General Risk Communication Resources 489

Environmental Risk Communication Resources 491

Safety Risk Communication Resources 491

Health Risk Communication Resources 492

Care Communication Resources 493

Consensus Communication Resources 493

Crisis Communication Resources 494

GLOSSARY 497

INDEX 501
REGINA E. LUNDGREN is an independent consultant in risk communication, public involvement, and science and strategic communication. For more than 30 years, she has specialized in communicating environmental, safety, and health risks to lay audiences. You can learn more at her website at http://www.rlriskcom.com.

ANDREA H. MCMAKIN is a communication specialist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. For more than 30 years, she has directed, taught, advised on, and carried out the communication of scientific, technical, and risk-related information.