John Wiley & Sons Petroleum Refining Design and Applications Handbook Cover A must-read for any practicing engineer or student in this area There is a renaissance that is occu.. Product #: 978-1-119-47641-2 Regular price: $254.21 $254.21 Auf Lager

Petroleum Refining Design and Applications Handbook

Rules of Thumb, Process Planning, Scheduling, and Flowsheet Design, Process Piping Design, Pumps, Compressors, and Process Safety Incidents, Volume 2

Coker, A. Kayode

Cover

1. Auflage April 2021
1056 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-47641-2
John Wiley & Sons

Jetzt kaufen

Preis: 272,00 €

Preis inkl. MwSt, zzgl. Versand

Weitere Versionen

epubpdf

A must-read for any practicing engineer or student in this area

There is a renaissance that is occurring in chemical and process engineering, and it is crucial for today's scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators to stay current. This book offers the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the most significant and recent changes to petroleum refining, presenting the state-of-the-art to the engineer, scientist, or student. Useful as a textbook, this is also an excellent, handy go-to reference for the veteran engineer, a volume no chemical or process engineering library should be without.

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xvii

13 Rules of Thumb--Summary 1

13.0 Introduction 1

14 Process Planning, Scheduling, and Flowsheet Design 19

14.1 Introduction 19

14.2 Organizational Structure 20

14.2.1 Process Design Scope 21

14.3 Role of the Process Design Engineer 23

14.4 Computer-Aided Flowsheeting 24

14.5 Flowsheets--Types 26

14.5.1 Block Diagram 26

14.5.2 Process Flowsheet or Flow Diagram 26

14.5.3 Piping Flowsheet or Mechanical Flow Diagram, or Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) 27

14.5.4 Combined Process and Piping Flowsheet or Diagram 32

14.5.5 Utility Flowsheets or Diagrams (ULDs) 32

14.5.6 Special Flowsheets or Diagrams 36

14.5.7 Special or Supplemental Aids 36

14.6 Flowsheet Presentation 36

14.7 General Arrangements Guide 36

14.8 Computer-Aided Flowsheet Design/Drafting 38

14.9 Flowsheet Symbols 40

14.10 Line Symbols and Designations 43

14.11 Materials of Construction for Lines 46

14.12 Test Pressure for Lines 47

14.13 Working Schedules 56

14.14 Information Checklists 61

14.15 Basic Engineering and Front End Engineering Design (FEED) 63

References 64

15 Fluid Flow 65

15.1 Introduction 65

15.2 Flow of Fluids in Pipes 65

15.3 Scope 70

15.4 Basis 72

15.5 Incompressible Flow 72

15.6 Compressible Flow: Vapors and Gases 73

15.7 Important Pressure Level References 75

15.8 Factors of "Safety" for Design Basis 75

15.9 Pipe, Fittings, and Valves 75

15.10 Pipe 75

15.11 Total Line Pressure Drop 78

15.11.1 Relationship Between the Pipe Diameter and Pressure Drop (DeltaP) 80

15.11.2 Economic Balance in Piping and Optimum Pipe Diameter 82

15.12 Reynolds Number, Re (Sometimes Used NRe) 83

15.13 Pipe Relative Roughness 85

15.14 Darcy Friction Factor, f 85

15.15 Friction Head Loss (Resistance) in Pipe, Fittings, and Connections 94

15.15.1 Pressure Drop in Straight Pipe: Incompressible Fluid 94

15.16 Oil System Piping 96

15.16.1 Density and Specific Gravity 97

15.16.2 Specific Gravity of Blended Products 98

15.16.3 Viscosity 98

15.16.4 Viscosity of Blended Products 100

15.16.5 Blending Index, H 101

15.16.6 Vapor Pressure 101

15.16.7 Velocity 101

15.16.8 Frictional Pressure Drop, ft of Liquid Head 104

15.16.9 Hazen-Williams Equation 105

15.16.10 Transmission Factor 107

15.16.11 Miller Equation 112

15.16.12 Shell-MIT Equation 113

15.17 Pressure Drop in Fittings, Valves, and Connections 116

15.17.1 Incompressible Fluid 116

15.17.2 Velocity and Velocity Head 116

15.17.3 Equivalent Lengths of Fittings 117

15.17.4 L/D Values in Laminar Region 120

15.17.5 Validity of K Values 122

15.17.6 Laminar Flow 122

15.17.7 Expressing All Pipe Sizes in Terms of One Diameter 124

15.17.8 Loss Coefficient 128

15.17.9 Sudden Enlargement or Contraction 134

15.17.10 For Sudden Contractions 134

15.17.11 Piping Systems 136

15.18 Resistance of Valves 136

15.19 Flow Coefficients for Valves, Cv 137

15.20 Flow Meters 138

15.20.1 Process Design of Orifice Meter 138

15.20.2 Nozzles and Orifices 142

Conclusion 167

15.21 Estimation of Pressure Loss Across Control Valves 169

15.22 The Direct Design of a Control Valve 173

15.23 Water Hammer 173

15.24 Friction Pressure Drop for Compressible Fluid Flow 175

15.24.1 Compressible Fluid Flow in Pipes 176

15.24.2 Maximum Flow and Pressure Drop 177

15.24.3 Sonic Conditions Limiting Flow of Gases and Vapors 177

15.24.4 The Mach Number, Ma 182

15.24.5 Critical Pressure Ratio 197

15.24.6 Adiabatic Flow 200

15.24.7 The Expansion Factor, Y 201

15.24.8 Misleading Rules of Thumb for Compressible Fluid Flow 203

15.24.9 Other Simplified Compressible Flow Methods 204

15.24.10 Friction Drop for Flow of Vapors, Gases and Steam 205

15.25 Darcy Rational Relation for Compressible Vapors and Gases 213

15.26 Velocity of Compressible Fluids in Pipe 215

15.27 Procedure 228

15.28 Friction Drop for Compressible Natural Gas in Long Pipe Lines 231

15.29 Panhandle-A Gas Flow Formula 235

15.30 Modified Panhandle Flow Formula 237

15.31 American Gas Association (AGA) Dry Gas Method 237

15.32 Complex Pipe Systems Handling Natural (or Similar) Gas 237

15.33 Two-Phase Liquid and Gas Flow in Process Piping 239

15.33.1 Flow Patterns 239

15.33.2 Flow Regimes 242

15.33.3 Pressure Drop 243

15.33.4 Erosion-Corrosion 248

15.33.5 Total System Pressure Drop 250

15.33.6 Pipe Sizing Rules 257

15.33.7 A Solution for All Two-Phase Problems 261

15.33.8 Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Vertical Down Flow 270

15.33.9 Pressure Drop in Vacuum Systems 277

15.33.10 Low Absolute Pressure Systems for Air 279

15.33.11 Vacuum for Other Gases and Vapors 281

15.33.12 Pressure Drop for Flashing Liquids 284

15.33.13 Sizing Condensate Return Lines 286

15.34 UniSim Design PIPESYS 295

15.35 Pipe Line Safety 300

15.36 Mitigating Pipeline Hazards 301

15.37 Examples of Safety Design Concerns 301

15.38 Safety Incidents Related With Pipeworks and Materials of Construction 303

15.39 Lessons Learned From Piping Designs 319

15.40 Design of Safer Piping 320

15.40.1 Best Practices for Process Piping 320

15.40.2 Designing Liquid Piping 321

15.40.3 Best Practices for Liquid Piping 322

Nomenclature 324

Greek Symbols 326

Subscripts 327

References 327

16 Pumps 331

16.1 Pumping of Liquids 331

16.2 Pump Design Standardization 336

16.3 Basic Parts of a Centrifugal Pump 336

16.4 Centrifugal Pump Selection 341

16.5 Hydraulic Characteristics for Centrifugal Pumps 359

16.6 Suction Head or Suction Lift, hs 367

16.7 Discharge Head, hd 369

16.8 Velocity Head 369

16.9 Friction 370

16.10 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) and Pump Suction 370

16.11 General Suction System 378

16.12 Reductions in NPSHR 384

16.13 Charting NPSHR Values of Pumps 384

16.14 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 386

16.15 NPSH Requirement for Liquids Saturation With Dissolved Gases 388

16.16 Specific Speed 390

16.17 Rotative Speed 394

16.18 Pumping Systems and Performance 395

16.19 Power Requirements for Pumping Through Process Lines 399

16.20 Affinity Laws 405

16.21 Centrifugal Pump Efficiency 417

16.22 Effects of Viscosity 421

16.23 Temperature Rise and Minimum Flow 436

16.24 Centrifugal Pump Specifications 440

16.25 Number of Pumping Units 441

16.26 Rotary Pumps 448

16.27 Reciprocating Pumps 452

16.28 Pump Selection 456

16.29 Selection Rules-of-Thumb 456

16.30 Case Studies 459

16.31 Pump Cavitations 464

16.32 Pump Fundamentals 474

16.33 Operating Philosophy 475

16.34 Piping 485

16.35 Troubleshooting Checklist for Centrifugal Pumps 485

Nomenclature 493

Subscripts 494

Greek Symbols 495

References 495

17 Compression Equipment 497

17.1 Introduction 497

17.2 General Application Guide 498

17.3 Specification Guides 499

17.4 General Considerations for Any Type of Compressor Flow Conditions 501

17.4.1 Fluid Properties 501

17.4.2 Compressibility 502

17.4.3 Corrosive Nature 502

17.4.4 Moisture 502

17.4.5 Special Conditions 502

17.5 Reciprocating Compression 503

17.6 Suction and Discharge Valves 514

17.7 Specification Sheet 523

17.8 Performance Considerations 524

17.9 Compressor Performance Characteristics 557

17.10 Hydrogen Use in the Refinery 594

17.10.1 IsoTherming Technology for Kerosene, Vacuum Gas Oil, and Diesel Hydroprocessing 595

Nomenclature 829

Greek Symbols 832

Subscripts 832

References 833

Glossary of Petroleum and Technical Terminology 837

Appendix D 929

Appendix E 1005

Index 1019

About the Author 1025
A. Kayode Coker PhD, is Engineering Consultant for AKC Technology, an Honorary Research Fellow at the University of Wolverhampton, U.K., a former Engineering Coordinator at Saudi Aramco Shell Refinery Company (SASREF) and Chairman of the department of Chemical Engineering Technology at Jubail Industrial College, Saudi Arabia. He has been a chartered chemical engineer for more than 30 years. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, U.K. (C. Eng., FIChemE), and a senior member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). He holds a B.Sc. honors degree in Chemical Engineering, a Master of Science degree in Process Analysis and Development and Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering, all from Aston University, Birmingham, U.K., and a Teacher's Certificate in Education at the University of London, U.K. He has directed and conducted short courses extensively throughout the world and has been a lecturer at the university level. His articles have been published in several international journals. He is an author of six books in chemical engineering, a contributor to the Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design, Vol 61 and a certified train -- the mentor trainer. A Technical Report Assessor and Interviewer for chartered chemical engineers (IChemE) in the U.K. He is a member of the International Biographical Centre in Cambridge, U.K. (IBC) as Leading Engineers of the World for 2008. Also, he is a member of International Who's Who of Professionals(TM) and Madison Who's Who in the U.S.