John Wiley & Sons Handbook of Microwave Component Measurements Cover Handbook of Microwave Component Measurements Second Edition is a fully updated, complete reference t.. Product #: 978-1-119-47713-6 Regular price: $132.38 $132.38 Auf Lager

Handbook of Microwave Component Measurements

with Advanced VNA Techniques

Dunsmore, Joel P.

Cover

2. Auflage Juni 2020
840 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-47713-6
John Wiley & Sons

Jetzt kaufen

Preis: 139,00 €

Preis inkl. MwSt, zzgl. Versand

Weitere Versionen

epubmobipdf

Handbook of Microwave Component Measurements Second Edition is a fully updated, complete reference to this topic, focusing on the modern measurement tools, such as a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), gathering in one place all the concepts, formulas, and best practices of measurement science. It includes basic concepts in each chapter as well as appendices which provide all the detail needed to understand the science behind microwave measurements. The book offers an insight into the best practices for ascertaining the true nature of the device-under-test (DUT), optimizing the time to setup and measure, and to the greatest extent possible, remove the effects of the measuring equipment from that result. Furthermore, the author writes with a simplicity that is easily accessible to the student or new engineer, yet is thorough enough to provide details of measurement science for even the most advanced applications and researchers. This welcome new edition brings forward the most modern techniques used in industry today, and recognizes that more new techniques have developed since the first edition published in 2012. Whilst still focusing on the VNA, these techniques are also compatible with other vendor's advanced equipment, providing a comprehensive industry reference.

Foreword to the Second Edition xvii

Foreword to the First Edition xix

Preface to the Second Edition xxi

Preface to the First Edition xxiii

Acknowledgments for the Second Edition xxv

Acknowledgments from the First Edition xxvii

1 Introduction to Microwave Measurements 1

1.1 Modern Measurement Process 2

1.2 A Practical Measurement Focus 3

1.3 Definition of Microwave Parameters 3

1.3.1 S-Parameter Primer 4

1.3.2 Phase Response of Networks 11

1.4 Power Parameters 13

1.4.1 Incident and Reflected Power 13

1.4.2 Available Power 13

1.4.3 Delivered Power 14

1.4.4 Power Available from a Network 14

1.4.5 Available Gain 15

1.5 Noise Figure and Noise Parameters 15

1.5.1 Noise Temperature 16

1.5.2 Effective or Excess Input Noise Temperature 17

1.5.3 Excess Noise Power and Operating Temperature 17

1.5.4 Noise Power Density 17

1.5.5 Noise Parameters 18

1.6 Distortion Parameters 19

1.6.1 Harmonics 19

1.6.2 Second-Order Intercept 19

1.6.3 Two-Tone Intermodulation Distortion 20

1.6.4 Adjacent Channel Power and Adjacent Channel Level Ratio 23

1.6.5 Noise Power Ratio (NPR) 24

1.6.6 Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) 25

1.7 Characteristics of Microwave Components 26

1.8 Passive Microwave Components 27

1.8.1 Cables, Connectors, and Transmission Lines 27

1.8.2 Connectors 31

1.8.3 Non-coaxial Transmission Lines 44

1.9 Filters 47

1.10 Directional Couplers 49

1.11 Circulators and Isolators 51

1.12 Antennas 52

1.13 PC Board Components 53

1.13.1 SMT Resistors 53

1.13.2 SMT Capacitors 56

1.13.3 SMT Inductors 57

1.13.4 PC Board Vias 57

1.14 Active Microwave Components 58

1.14.1 Linear and Non-linear 58

1.14.2 Amplifiers: System, Low-Noise, High Power 58

1.14.3 Mixers and Frequency Converters 59

1.14.4 Frequency Multiplier and Limiters and Dividers 61

1.14.5 Oscillators 62

1.15 Measurement Instrumentation 63

1.15.1 Power Meters 63

1.15.2 Signal Sources 64

1.15.3 Spectrum Analyzers 65

1.15.4 Vector Signal Analyzers 66

1.15.5 Noise Figure Analyzers 67

1.15.6 Network Analyzers 67

References 70

2 VNA Measurement Systems 71

2.1 Introduction 71

2.2 VNA Block Diagrams 72

2.2.1 VNA Source 73

2.2.2 Understanding Source-Match 76

2.2.3 VNA Test Set 82

2.2.4 Directional Devices 85

2.2.5 VNA Receivers 91

2.2.6 IF and Data Processing 95

2.2.7 Multiport VNAs 97

2.2.8 High-Power Test Systems 104

2.2.9 VNA with mm-Wave Extenders 105

2.3 VNA Measurement of Linear Microwave Parameters 107

2.3.1 Measurement Limitations of the VNA 107

2.3.2 Limitations Due to External Components 111

2.4 Measurements Derived from S-Parameters 112

2.4.1 The Smith Chart 112

2.4.2 Transforming S-Parameters to Other Impedances 117

2.4.3 Concatenating Circuits and T-Parameters 118

2.5 Modeling Circuits Using Y and Z Conversion 120

2.5.1 Reflection Conversion 120

2.5.2 Transmission Conversion 120

2.6 Other Linear Parameters 121

2.6.1 Z-Parameters, or Open-Circuit Impedance Parameters 122

2.6.2 Y-Parameters, or Short-Circuit Admittance Parameters 123

2.6.3 ABCD Parameters 124

2.6.4 H-Parameters or Hybrid Parameters 125

2.6.5 Complex Conversions and Non-equal Reference Impedances 126

References 126

3 Calibration and Vector Error Correction 127

3.1 Introduction 127

3.1.1 Error Correction and Linear Measurement Methods for S-Parameters 128

3.1.2 Power Measurements with a VNA 131

3.2 Basic Error Correction for S-Parameters: Cal-Application 134

3.2.1 12-Term Error Model 134

3.2.2 1-Port Error Model 136

3.2.3 8-Term Error Model 136

3.3 Determining Error Terms: Cal-Acquisition for 12-Term Models 139

3.3.1 1-Port Error Terms 139

3.3.2 1-Port Standards 141

3.3.3 2-Port Error Terms 148

3.3.4 12-Term to 11-Term Error Model 153

3.4 Determining Error Terms: Cal-Acquisition for 8-Term Models 153

3.4.1 TRL Standards and Raw Measurements 153

3.4.2 Special Cases for TRL Calibration 157

3.4.3 Unknown Thru or SOLR (Reciprocal Thru Calibration) 158

3.4.4 Applications of Unknown Thru Calibrations 159

3.4.5 QSOLT Calibration 161

3.4.6 Electronic Calibration (ECal(TM)) or Automatic Calibration 162

3.5 Waveguide Calibrations 166

3.6 Calibration for Source Power 167

3.6.1 Calibrating Source Power for Source Frequency Response 168

3.6.2 Calibration for Power Sensor Mismatch 169

3.6.3 Calibration for Source Power Linearity 171

3.7 Calibration for Receiver Power 173

3.7.1 Some Historical Perspective 173

3.7.2 Modern Receiver Power Calibration 173

3.7.3 Response Correction for the Transmission Test Receiver 178

3.7.4 Power Waves vs. Actual Waves 181

3.8 Calibrating Multiple Channels Simultaneously: Cal All 182

3.9 Multiport Calibration Strategies 186

3.9.1 N × 2-Port Calibrations: Switching Test Sets 186

3.9.2 N-port Calibration: True Multiport 188

3.10 Automatic In-Situ Calibrations: CalPod 191

3.10.1 CalPod Initialization and Recorrection 192

3.10.2 CalPod-as-Ecal 194

3.11 Devolved Calibrations 194

3.11.1 Response Calibrations 195

3.11.2 Enhanced Response Calibration 196

3.12 Determining Residual Errors 199

3.12.1 Reflection Errors 199

3.12.2 Using Airlines to Determine Residual Errors 199

3.13 Computing Measurement Uncertainties 210

3.13.1 Uncertainty in Reflection Measurements 210

3.13.2 Uncertainty in Source Power 211

3.13.3 Uncertainty in Measuring Power (Receiver Uncertainty) 212

3.14 S21 or Transmission Uncertainty 212

3.14.1 General Uncertainty Equation for S21 214

3.14.2 Dynamic Uncertainty Computation 215

3.15 Errors in Phase 218

3.16 Practical Calibration Limitations 219

3.16.1 Cable Flexure 220

3.16.2 Changing Power after Calibration 221

3.16.3 Compensating for Changes in Step Attenuators 223

3.16.4 Connector Repeatability 225

3.16.5 Noise Effects 226

3.16.6 Drift: Short-Term and Long-Term 227

3.16.7 Interpolation of Error Terms 229

3.16.8 Calibration Quality: Electronic vs. Mechanical Kits 231

Reference 232

4 Time-Domain Transforms 235

4.1 Introduction 235

4.2 The Fourier Transform 236

4.2.1 The Continuous Fourier Transform 236

4.2.2 Even and Odd Functions and the Fourier Transform 236

4.2.3 Modulation (Shift) Theorem 237

4.3 The Discrete Fourier Transform 238

4.3.1 Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) 238

4.3.2 Discrete Fourier Transforms 240

4.4 Fourier Transform (Analytic) vs. VNA Time Domain Transform 240

4.4.1 Defining the Fourier Transform 241

4.4.2 Effects of Discrete Sampling 242

4.4.3 Effects of Truncated Frequency 244

4.4.4 Windowing to Reduce Effects of Truncation 246

4.4.5 Scaling and Renormalization 248

4.5 Low-Pass Transforms 248

4.5.1 Low-Pass Impulse Mode 248

4.5.2 DC Extrapolation 249

4.5.3 Low-Pass Step Mode 249

4.5.4 Band-Pass Mode 251

4.6 Time-Domain Gating 252

4.6.1 Gating Loss and Renormalization 253

4.7 Examples of Time-Domain Transforms of Various Networks 256

4.7.1 Time-Domain Response of Changes in Line Impedance 256

4.7.2 Time-Domain Response of Discrete Discontinuities 257

4.7.3 Time-Domain Responses of Various Circuits 257

4.8 The Effects of Masking and Gating on Measurement Accuracy 259

4.8.1 Compensation for Changes in Line Impedance 259

4.8.2 Compensation for Discrete Discontinuities 260

4.8.3 Time-Domain Gating 260

4.8.4 Estimating an Uncertainty Due to Masking 265

4.9 Time-Domain Transmission Using VNA 265

4.10 Conclusions 269

References 269

5 Measuring Linear Passive Devices 271

5.1 Transmission Lines, Cables, and Connectors 271

5.1.1 Calibration for Low Loss Devices with Connectors 271

5.1.2 Measuring Electrically Long Devices 273

5.1.3 Attenuation Measurements 278

5.1.4 Return Loss Measurements 295

5.1.5 Cable Length and Delay 305

5.2 Filters and Filter Measurements 306

5.2.1 Filter Classes and Difficulties 306

5.2.2 Duplexer and Diplexers 307

5.2.3 Measuring Tunable High-Performance Filters 308

5.2.4 Measuring Transmission Response 310

5.2.5 High Speed vs. Dynamic Range 315

5.2.6 Extremely High Dynamic Range Measurements 317

5.2.7 Calibration Considerations 326

5.3 Multiport Devices 327

5.3.1 Differential Cables and Lines 328

5.3.2 Couplers 328

5.3.3 Hybrids, Splitters, and Dividers 331

5.3.4 Circulators and Isolators 334

5.4 Resonators 336

5.4.1 Resonator Responses on a Smith Chart 336

5.5 Antenna Measurements 338

5.6 Conclusions 340

References 341

6 Measuring Amplifiers 343

6.1 Amplifiers as a Linear Devices 343

6.1.1 Pretesting an Amplifier 344

6.1.2 Optimizing VNA Settings for Calibration 346

6.1.3 Calibration for Amplifier Measurements 347

6.1.4 Amplifier Measurements 351

6.1.5 Analysis of Amplifier Measurements 357

6.1.6 Saving Amplifier Measurement Results 367

6.2 Gain Compression Measurements 372

6.2.1 Compression Definitions 372

6.2.2 AM-to-PM or Phase Compression 376

6.2.3 Swept Frequency Gain and Phase Compression 377

6.2.4 Gain Compression Application, Smart Sweep, and Safe-Sweep Mode 378

6.3 Measuring High-Gain Amplifiers 384

6.3.1 Setup for High-Gain Amplifiers 386

6.3.2 Calibration Considerations 386

6.4 Measuring High-Power Amplifiers 389

6.4.1 Configurations for Generating High Drive Power 389

6.4.2 Configurations for Receiving High-Power 391

6.4.3 Power Calibration and Pre/Post Leveling 393

6.5 Making Pulsed-RF Measurements 394

6.5.1 Wideband vs. Narrowband Measurements 395

6.5.2 Pulse Profile Measurements 398

6.5.3 Pulse-to-Pulse Measurements 401

6.5.4 DC Measurements for Pulsed RF Stimulus 401

6.6 Distortion Measurements 403

6.6.1 Harmonic Measurements on Amplifiers 404

6.7 Measuring Doherty Amplifiers 410

6.8 X-Parameters, Load-Pull Measurements, Active Loads, and Hot S-Parameters 413

6.8.1 Non-linear Responses and X-Parameters 414

6.8.2 Load-Pull, Source-Pull, and Load Contours 417

6.8.3 Hot S-Parameters and True Hot-S22 421

6.9 Conclusions on Amplifier Measurements 433

References 434

7 Mixer and Frequency Converter Measurements 435

7.1 Mixer Characteristics 435

7.1.1 Small Signal Model of Mixers 438

7.1.2 Reciprocity in Mixers 442

7.1.3 Scalar and Vector Responses 444

7.2 Mixers vs. Frequency Converters 445

7.2.1 Frequency Converter Design 446

7.2.2 Multiple Conversions and Spur Avoidance 446

7.3 Mixers as a 12-Port Device 448

7.3.1 Mixer Conversion Terms 448

7.4 Mixer Measurements: Frequency Response 451

7.4.1 Introduction 451

7.4.2 Amplitude Response 452

7.4.3 Phase Response 456

7.4.4 Group Delay and Modulation Methods 466

7.4.5 Swept LO Measurements 469

7.5 Calibration for Mixer Measurements 476

7.5.1 Calibrating for Power 476

7.5.2 Calibrating for Phase 479

7.5.3 Determining the Phase and Delay of a Reciprocal Calibration Mixer 482

7.6 Mixers Measurements vs. Drive Power 493

7.6.1 Mixer Measurements vs. LO Drive 493

7.6.2 Mixer Measurements vs. RF Drive Level 497

7.7 TOI and Mixers 501

7.7.1 IMD vs. LO Drive Power 502

7.7.2 IMD vs. RF Power 502

7.7.3 IMD vs. Frequency Response 505

7.8 Noise Figure in Mixers and Converters 507

7.9 Special Cases 507

7.9.1 Mixers with RF or LO Multipliers 507

7.9.2 Segmented Sweeps 509

7.9.3 Measuring Higher-Order Products 509

7.9.4 Mixers with an Embedded LO 515

7.9.5 High-Gain and High-Power Converters 517

7.10 I/Q Converters and Modulators 518

7.11 Conclusions on Mixer Measurements 530

References 531

8 Spectrum Analysis: Distortion and Modulation Measurements 533

8.1 Spectrum Analysis in Vector Network Analyzers 534

8.1.1 Spectrum Analysis Fundamentals 534

8.1.2 SA Block Diagrams: Image Rejection: Hardware vs. Software 539

8.1.3 Attributes of Repetitive Signals and Spectrum Measurements 546

8.1.4 Coherent Spectrum Analysis 559

8.1.5 Calibration of SA Results 568

8.1.6 Two-Tone Measurements, IMD, and TOI Definition 571

8.1.7 Measurement Techniques for Two-Tone TOI 574

8.1.8 Swept IMD 576

8.1.9 Optimizing Results 579

8.1.10 Error Correction 582

8.2 Distortion Measurement of Complex Modulated Signals 583

8.2.1 Adjacent Power Measurements 584

8.2.2 Noise Power Ratio (NPR) Measurements 587

8.2.3 NPR Signal Quality and Correction 592

8.2.4 EVM Derived from Distortion Measurements 596

8.3 Measurements of Spurious Signals with VNA Spectrum Analyzer 605

8.3.1 Spurious at Predictable Frequencies 605

8.3.2 Multiport Mixer Spurious Measurements 607

8.3.3 Spurious Oscillations 608

8.4 Measurements of Pulsed Signals and Time-Gated Spectrum Analysis 611

8.4.1 Understanding Pulsed Spectrum 611

8.4.2 Time-Gated Spectrum Analysis 612

8.5 Summary 615

Reference 615

9 Measuring Noise Figure and Noise Power 617

9.1 Noise-Figure Measurements for Amplifiers 617

9.1.1 Definition of Noise Figure 618

9.1.2 Noise-Power Measurements 619

9.1.3 Computing Noise Figure from Noise Powers 623

9.1.4 Computing DUT Noise Figure from Y-Factor Measurements 624

9.1.5 Cold-Source Methods 626

9.1.6 Noise Parameters 628

9.1.7 Noise Parameter Measurement Results 634

9.1.8 Error Correction in Noise Figure Measurements 637

9.2 Active Antenna Noise-Figure Measurements (G/T) 638

9.3 Noise Figure in Mixers and Converters 642

9.3.1 Y-Factor Measurements on Mixers 642

9.3.2 Cold-Source Measurements on Mixers 644

9.4 Other Noise-Related Measurements 650

9.4.1 Noise Power Measurements with a VNA Spectrum Analyzer 650

9.4.2 Noise-Power Measurements 650

9.4.3 Noise Figure Measurements Using Spectrum Analysis 653

9.4.4 Carrier-to-Noise Measurements 654

9.5 Uncertainty, Verification, and Improvement of Noise-Figure Measurements 655

9.5.1 Uncertainty of Noise-Figure Measurements 655

9.5.2 Existing Methodologies 656

9.5.3 Techniques for Improving Noise-Figure Measurements 665

9.6 Summary: Noise and Noise-Figure Measurements 668

References 668

10 VNA Balanced Measurements 669

10.1 Differential and Balanced S-Parameters 669

10.2 3-Port Balanced Devices 674

10.3 Measurement Examples for Mixed-Mode Devices 675

10.3.1 Passive Differential Devices: Balanced Transmission Lines 675

10.3.2 Differential Amplifier Measurements 680

10.3.3 Differential Amplifiers and Non-linear Operation 682

10.4 True-Mode VNA for Non-linear Testing 689

10.4.1 True-Mode Instruments 689

10.4.2 True-Mode Measurements 692

10.4.3 Determining the Phase Skew of a Differential Device 698

10.4.4 Differential Harmonic Measurements 700

10.5 Differential Testing Using Baluns, Hybrids, and Transformers 708

10.5.1 Transformers vs. Hybrids 708

10.5.2 Using Hybrids and Baluns with a 2-Port VNA 711

10.6 Distortion Measurements of Differential Devices 714

10.6.1 Comparing Single-Ended IMD Measurement to True-Mode Measurements 715

10.6.2 Differential IMD without Baluns 718

10.7 Noise Figure Measurements on Differential Devices 723

10.7.2 Measurement Setup 725

10.8 Conclusions on Differential Device Measurement 731

References 732

11 Advanced Measurement Techniques 733

11.1 Creating Your Own Cal-Kits 733

11.1.1 PC Board Example 734

11.1.2 Evaluating PC Board Fixtures 735

11.2 Fixturing and De-embedding 750

11.2.1 De-embedding Mathematics 751

11.3 Determining S-Parameters for Fixtures 753

11.3.1 Fixture Characterization Using 1-Port Calibrations 753

11.4 Automatic Port Extensions (APE) 759

11.5 AFR: Fixture Removal Using Time Domain 764

11.5.1 2-Port AFR 764

11.5.2 Fixture-Enhanced AFR 768

11.5.3 1-Port AFR 770

11.6 Embedding Port-Matching Elements 772

11.7 Impedance Transformations 774

11.8 De-embedding High-Loss Devices 775

11.9 Understanding System Stability 778

11.9.1 Determining Cable Transmission Stability 778

11.9.2 Determining Cable Mismatch Stability 778

11.9.3 Reflection Tracking Stability 781

11.10 Some Final Comments on Advanced Techniques and Measurements 782

References 783

Appendix A Physical Constants 785

Appendix B Common RF and Microwave Connectors 787

Appendix C Common Waveguides 789

Appendix D Some Definitions for Calibration Kit Opens and Shorts 791

Appendix E Frequency, Wavelength, and Period 795

Index 797
Dr. Joel P. Dunsmore, Research Fellow at Keysight Technologies, California, USA
Since graduating from Oregon State University with a BSEE (1982) and an MSEE (1983), Joel Dunsmore has worked for Keysight Technologies (formerly Agilent Technologies, and Hewlett-Packard) at the Sonoma County Site. He received his Ph.D. from Leeds University in 2004. He was a principle contributor to the HP 8753 and PNA family of network analyzers, responsible for RF and Microwave circuit designs in these products. Recently, he has worked in the area of non-linear test including differential devices, and mixer measurements. He has received 31 patents related to this work, has published numerous articles on measurement technology, as well as consulting on measurement applications. He has taught electrical circuit fundamentals at the local university and co-taught an RF course at the University of California, Berkeley, and presented several short courses and seminars through ARFTG, MTT, EMC, and Keysight.

J. P. Dunsmore, Agilent Technologies