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Handbook of Catchment Management

Ferrier, Robert C. / Jenkins, Alan (Herausgeber)

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2. Auflage Juli 2021
656 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-53122-7
John Wiley & Sons

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HANDBOOK OF CATCHMENT MANAGEMENT

In 2010, the first edition of the Handbook of Catchment Management provided a benchmark on how our understanding and actions in water management within a catchment context had evolved in recent decades. Over ten years on, the catchment management concept is entering a new phase of development aligned to contemporary and future challenges. These include climate change uncertainty, further understanding in ecological functioning under change, the drive for a low-carbon, energy efficient and circular society, multiple uses of water, the emergence of new pollutants of concern, new approaches to valuation, finance and pricing mechanisms, stewardship and community engagement, the integration of water across the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and the link between water, energy and food. These developments are framed within an increasingly data rich world where new analytics, sensor technology and processing power are informing increasingly real-time decision making. The challenge is also to increase cross-compliance and policy integration to meet multiple stakeholder objectives, and to link actions to achieve cost-effective outcomes. In addition, there are a number of new and exciting city, region and basin-scale real-world examples of contemporary and new catchment thinking; integrating science, technology, knowledge and governance to address multiple drivers and complex problems from across the globe. The time is now right, to capture the new challenges facing catchment management and water resources management globally.

This revised and updated edition of the Handbook of Catchment Management features:
* Thoroughly rewritten chapters which provide an up-to-date view of catchment management issues and contexts
* New case study material highlighting multi-sectoral management in different globally significant basins and different geographical locations
* Up-to-date topics selected for their resonance not only in natural sciences and engineering, but also in other fields, such as socio-economics, law and policy

The Handbook is designed for a broad audience, but will be particularly useful for advanced students, researchers, academics and water sector professionals such as planners, consultants and regulators.

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxi

Acknowledgements xxiv

1 Introduction to Catchment Management in 2020 3
Robert C. Ferrier and Alan Jenkins

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Historical Synopsis 3

1.3 Recent Developments and Emerging Issues 6

1.3.1 Value of Water 6

1.3.2 Evaluation of the Global Resource 9

1.3.3 Water Scarcity and Drought 11

1.3.4 Emerging Technologies 14

1.3.5 Energy Transition 15

1.3.6 Water Quality 15

1.4 Policy Development 17

1.5 Working with Nature, Natural Capital, and Ecosystem Services 18

1.6 Summary 19

References 20

2 Water Diplomacy 25
Rozemarijn ter Horst 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Short Historical Synopsis 26

2.2.1 What Is Water Diplomacy? 27

2.2.2 Water conflict and cooperation 28

2.3 Current Solutions 28

2.3.1 Who Practises Water Diplomacy? 28

2.3.2 How Is Water Diplomacy Done? 31

2.4 New Insights 37

2.5 Future Knowledge Requirements 38

References 39

3 Water Financing and Pricing Mechanisms 47
Alan D. A. Sutherland and Colin McNaughton

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Short Historical Synopsis 49

3.3 Current Solutions 52

3.3.1 Regulation by Contract (Franchise Regulation) 53

3.3.2 Rate of Return Regulation 53

3.3.3 Incentive-Based Regulation 54

3.3.4 The Regulatory Governance Framework 58

3.4 New Insights 60

3.5 Future Knowledge Requirements 64

References 65

4 Defining 'Smart Water' 67
David Lloyd Owen

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Historical Synopsis 69

4.3 Current Solutions 72

4.4 New Insights - The Digital Disruption 73

4.4.1 Adopting New Technologies 73

4.4.2 Decarbonising Water and Wastewater as a Resource 75

4.4.3 Water and Sewerage Metering 76

4.4.4 Demand Management, Tariffs, and Smarter White Goods 77

4.4.5 Sensors 78

4.4.6 'Digital' Water 79

4.4.7 Rural-Urban Interface (New Storage and Green Infiltration) 82

4.5 Future Knowledge Requirements 84

4.6 Discussion and Conclusions 86

References 87

5 Water, Food, and Energy Nexus 93
Alex Smajgl

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Historical Synopsis 94

5.2.1 Nexus Conceptualisations 94

5.2.2 Nexus-Focused Research 96

5.2.3 Nexus-Type Implementations and Case Studies 97

5.2.4 Nexus Interactions and Trade-off Examples 98

5.2.4.1 Hydropower - Fish 98

5.2.4.2 Irrigation - Food Crops - Energy Crops 99

5.2.4.3 Energy Pricing - Irrigated Agriculture - Availability of Surface and Groundwater 99

5.2.4.4 Desalinisation - Energy Costs - Water Supply 100

5.3 Current Solutions 100

5.3.1 Sustainability and Nexus Outcomes 100

5.3.2 Different Types of Water 102

5.3.3 Intervention Points to 'Manage the Nexus' 103

5.3.4 Research Solutions for Improved Trade-off Assessments 104

5.3.5 Innovative Engagement Processes to Steer Cross-Sector Dialogue 108

5.4 New Insights 110

5.5 Future Knowledge Requirements 112

References 114

6 Groundwater Management 125
Stephen Foster and Alan MacDonald

6.1 Introduction 125

6.1.1 Importance of Groundwater Storage 125

6.1.2 Dynamics of Groundwater Flow Systems 126

6.1.3 Evaluation of Groundwater Recharge 128

6.1.4 Processes of Groundwater Quality Degradation 129

6.1.5 Aquifer Pollution Vulnerability and Quality Protection 132

6.2 Groundwater Management - Needs and Approaches 133

6.2.1 Impacts of Groundwater Resource Development 133

6.2.2 Surface-Water Impacts of Ineffective Management 135

6.2.3 Key Components of Groundwater Resources Management 135

6.2.3.1 Demand vs. Supply Side Interventions 135

6.2.3.2 Identifying Links with the Rest of the Water Cycle 136

6.2.3.3 Climate Change 137

6.2.3.4 Irrigation 137

6.2.4 Approaches to Groundwater Quality Protection 138

6.2.4.1 Potential Polluter Pays for Protection 138

6.2.4.2 Groundwater-Friendly Rural Land Use 139

6.2.5 Need for Adaptive and Precautionary Management 140

6.3 New Insights 140

6.3.1 Evolving Paradigm of Sound Governance 140

6.3.2 Integrated Policy to Strengthen Governance 142

6.3.2.1 Vertical Integration Within the Water Sector 142

6.3.2.2 Horizontal Integration Beyond the Water Sector 143

6.3.3 Conjunctive Use of Groundwater and Surface Water 143

6.3.4 Groundwater Management Planning 145

Acknowledgements 148

References 149

7 Diffuse Pollution Management 153
Andrew Vinten

7.1 Introduction 153

7.1.1 Attributes of Diffuse Pollution 154

7.2 Historical synopsis: Challenges for diffuse pollution management 155

7.2.1 Recognition of Diffuse Pollution as an Issue 155

7.2.2 Identification of Sources of Diffuse Pollution 159

7.2.3 Development of Programmes of Measures to Combat Diffuse Pollution 161

7.3 Current solutions 162

7.3.1 Evidence of Effectiveness of Measures 162

7.3.2 Appropriateness of Measures in Specific Contexts 166

7.3.3 The Role of Governance and Other Factors in Effecting Behaviour Change 167

7.4 A Way Forward? 169

References 174

8 Emerging Contaminants and Pollutants of Concern 183
Pei Wang and Yonglong Lu

8.1 Introduction 183

8.2 Short Historical Synopsis 186

8.2.1 Pollution Pathways 186

8.2.2 Life Cycle Analysis 188

8.2.3 Flows in Waste Management 189

8.2.4 Storage in the Environment 189

8.2.5 Alternatives or Mitigation Technologies for PFOA/PFO 190

8.3 Current Solutions 190

8.4 New Insights 191

8.4.1 Multi-contaminants: Improved Risk Ranking 191

8.4.2 Heavy Metals 191

8.4.3 Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 193

8.4.4 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products 194

8.4.5 Persistent Organic Pollutants 194

8.4.6 What Is the Balance of the Cost from Production, Monitoring to Remediation of Emerging Pollutants? 196

8.4.7 What Is the Balance of the Attitude Among Different Stakeholders Including Government, Industry, Academia, and Public? 197

8.4.8 Government 197

8.4.9 Industry 198

8.4.10 Academia 199

8.4.11 Public 199

8.5 Future Knowledge Requirements 199

8.5.1 Regulations on the Production-Demand Chain to Help Develop Low-Toxicity Substitutes 199

8.5.2 Highly Efficient Methods to Remove the Pollutants in Various Wastes 200

8.5.3 Develop Specific Criteria and Standards for More Effective Risk Assessment and Environmental Management 200

8.5.4 Ecosystem-Based Management for Prevention from Environmental Impacts of Emerging Pollutants 201

References 201

9 Flood Management 205
Mark Fletcher

9.1 Introduction 205

9.1.1 The Water Cycle and Flooding 205

9.2 Historical Synopsis and Current Understanding 208

9.2.1 Flood Warning 208

9.2.2 UK Overview 208

9.2.3 Legislative Framework 209

9.2.4 Resilience to Flooding 209

9.2.5 Flood Categorisation 210

9.3 Current Solutions 213

9.3.1 Coping with Extreme Flooding 213

9.3.2 How to Cope (in Advance of a Major Flood Event) 213

9.3.3 Flood Asset Management 214

9.4 New Insights 214

9.4.1 Case Studies: (A) Leeds Flood Alleviation Scheme, Leeds, UK 214

9.4.1.1 Scheme Development 214

9.4.1.2 Digital Construction and Collaboration 215

9.4.1.3 Replacing the Weirs 215

9.4.1.4 Linear Defences in the City Centre 216

9.4.1.5 Eliminating Another Barrier 216

9.4.1.6 Integrated Urban Drainage Model 216

9.4.1.7 The Cutting Edge 216

9.4.2 Case Studies: (B) Skipton Flood Alleviation Scheme, Skipton, UK 221

9.4.2.1 The Short- and Long-Term Benefits from a Sustainable Development Perspective 224

9.4.2.2 Economic Benefits 224

9.4.2.3 Environmental Benefits 225

9.4.2.4 Social Benefits 225

9.4.2.5 Cutting Edge Aspects 225

9.4.2.6 Transferability - A Model for Work Elsewhere 226

9.4.2.7 Planning Impact on the Scheme 227

9.4.2.8 The Role of SMART Design in Flood Management 228

9.4.2.9 SMART Control 229

9.4.2.10 Automatic PLC Control 230

9.4.2.11 3D Modelling 230

9.4.3 Case Studies: (C) Connswater Community Greenway, Belfast, UK 233

9.4.4 Case Studies: (D) Freckleton Floodbank Breach, River Ribble, Lancashire, UK 233

9.4.4.1 Introduction 233

9.4.4.2 Possible Reasons for the Failure of the Embankment 237

9.4.4.3 Good Working Practice 239

9.5 Future Challenges 241

9.5.1 Climate Change - A Global Perspective 241

9.5.2 Population and Urbanisation 242

9.5.3 Digital 242

9.5.4 Nature Based Solutions (NBS) 242

References 243

10 Ecological Restoration 245
Laurence Carvalho, Iain D. M. Gunn, Bryan M. Spears, and Anne J. Dobel

10.1 Introduction 245

10.2 Short Historical Synopsis 246

10.2.1 Restoration Success (or Lack of It) 246

10.2.2 Timescales in Ecological Recovery 249

10.3 Target-Setting, Monitoring, and Assessment 250

10.4 Current Restoration Approaches 250

10.4.1 Rivers 251

10.4.2 Environmental Flows 252

10.4.3 Lakes 254

10.4.3.1 Biomanipulation 255

10.4.3.2 Artificial Mixing and Aeration 256

10.4.3.3 Chemical Treatment 256

10.4.3.4 Sediment Removal 257

10.4.3.5 Short-Term Mitigation of Harmful Algal Blooms - Poorly Evidenced Lake Restoration Methods 257

10.4.4 Ponds 258

10.5 New Insights, Innovation, and Knowledge Gaps 259

10.5.1 Circular Economies - Resource Recovery 259

10.5.2 Nature-Based Solutions and Payment for Ecosystem Services 260

10.5.3 Building Climate Change Resilience 260

10.5.4 Developing a Systemic Approach and Re-wilding 262

References 263

11 Water, Sanitation, and Health: Progress and Obstacles to Achieving the SDGs 271
Emmanuel M. Akpabio and John S. Rowan

11.1 Introduction 271

11.2 Theoretical and Historical Basis of Water, Sanitation, and Health Nexus 273

11.3 Understanding Current WaSH Management Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case of Nigeria and Malawi 278

11.4 Understanding the Challenges Associated with Achieving Improved WaSH Services Delivery for Sub-Saharan Africa 296

11.5 Key Insights, Lessons, and Future Knowledge 299

11.5.1 A Lack of Nexus Approach 300

11.5.2 Governance Challenge and Poor Institutional Capacities 301

11.5.3 Cultural and Religious Values 301

11.5.4 Excessive Influence of External Actors and Agencies 303

11.5.5 Prioritising and Strengthening Catchment-Based Management Approach to WaSH Services Delivery 303

11.5.6 Climate Change Impact and Access to Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene 304

Acknowledgements 305

References 305

12 The Legal and Institutional Framework for Basin Management Across Governance Levels 309
Susanne Schmeier

12.1 Introduction 309

12.2 The Conceptual Framework - Legal and Institutional Dimensions of River Basin Management 311

12.2.1 From Local to Transboundary - A Level Perspective on River Basin Management 311

12.2.2 The River Basin Management Cycle 314

12.2.3 Combining the Level and the Cyclical Approach 315

12.3 From Concept to Practice - The (Mal-)Functioning of Legal and Institutional Frameworks 316

12.3.1 River Basin Management in Europe - High Complexity 316

12.3.1.1 The Rhine River Basin - A High Density of Legal and Institutional Instruments 316

12.3.1.2 The Danube River Basin - Complex Management Mechanisms for a Complex Basin 321

12.3.2 River Basin Management Across Levels in the Mekong River Basin - A Patchy Framework 323

12.3.3 River Basin Management in Southern Africa - Increasing Integration in the Orange River Basin 327

12.4 Conclusions 331

References 332

13 Scotland the 'Hydro Nation': Linking Policy, Science, Industry, Regulation in Scotland and Internationally 339
Barry Greig and Jon Rathjen

13.1 Introduction 339

13.2 Scotland's Water Environment 339

13.3 Industry Vision 341

13.4 Scotland: The Hydro Nation 341

13.5 Value 343

13.6 Hydro Nation: Strategy and Structure 343

13.7 Hydro Nation Strategy: National Theme 346

13.8 Water Supply and Demand Management 347

13.9 Private Supplies and Rural Provision 347

13.10 Regulation and Governance 348

13.11 Hydro Nation Strategy: International Theme 349

13.12 Scotland and Malawi 350

13.13 Hydro Nation Strategy: Knowledge Theme 352

13.14 Hydro Nation Strategy: Innovation Theme 352

13.15 Hydro Nation Impact 353

13.16 Emerging Policy Issues for Scotland 355

References 357

14 Yorkshire Integrated Catchment Solutions Programme (iCASP): A New Model for Research-Based Catchment Management 359
Janet C. Richardson, Marie Ferré, Benjamin L. Rabb, Jennifer C. Armstrong, Julia Martin-Ortega, David M. Hodgson, Thomas D. M Willis, Richard Grayson, Poppy Leeder, and Joseph Holden

14.1 Introduction 359

14.2 Study Area: River Ouse Drainage Basin, Yorkshire 360

14.2.1 Catchment Challenges 361

14.3 The iCASP Model 364

14.3.1 Partnership Working 364

14.3.2 Principles of Working 369

14.3.3 Project Development Process 369

14.3.3.1 Outputs 373

14.3.4 Impact Tracking 374

14.3.5 The Network 376

14.4 New Insights and Highlights 376

14.5 Conclusions 380

Acknowledgements 380

References 380

15 Integrated Management in Singapore 385
Cecilia Tortajada and Rachel Yan Ting Koh

15.1 Introduction 385

15.2 Institutional and Legal Frameworks 386

15.3 Overall Policy and Planning 388

15.4 The Search for Alternative Sources of Water 389

15.5 NEWater: From Concept to Implementation 393

15.6 NEWater: Water Source Looking to the Future 396

15.7 Final Thoughts: Public Engagement, Education, and Outreach Strategies to Promote Acceptance 400

References 401

16 Flood and Drought Emergency Management 409
Miaomiao Ma and Song Han

16.1 Severe Flooding on the Huai River in 2007 409

16.1.1 Introduction 409

16.1.2 Background Hydrological Situation 409

16.1.3 Challenges 412

16.1.4 Current Approach to Meeting the Challenges 413

16.1.5 Lessons Learned 414

16.1.5.1 Leave the Flood More Space 414

16.1.5.2 Optimise Flood Control Regulations 415

16.1.5.3 Moderating Flood Risks 415

16.1.6 Future Work 415

16.2 Severe Drought in South-west Region of China in 2010 416

16.2.1 Introduction and Background 416

16.2.2 Challenges 418

16.2.3 Current Approach to Meeting the Challenges 420

16.2.4 Recovery After the Drought Event 423

16.2.5 Lessons Learned 424

16.2.6 Future Work 426

References 426

17 The River Chief System in China 429
Tan Xianqiang

17.1 Introduction 429

17.1.1 Components of the RCS 430

17.2 Short Historical Synopsis 432

17.3 Current Solutions 433

17.3.1 RCS on the Chishui River as a Demonstration 433

17.3.2 New Insights 434

17.4 Future Knowledge Requirements 438

Acknowledgement 439

18 Water Resources Management in the Colorado River Basin 441
Alan Butler, Terrance Fulp, James Prairie, and Amy Witherall

18.1 Introduction and Background 441

18.1.1 Geography and Hydrology 442

18.1.2 Legal and Policy Framework 444

18.2 Current Challenge - Imbalance of Water Supply and Demand 450

18.3 Recent Approaches to Meeting Challenges 452

18.3.1 The Collaborative, Incremental Approach 452

18.3.2 Interim Surplus Guidelines and California '4.4 Plan' 453

18.3.3 2007 Interim Guidelines 455

18.3.4 Minutes 319 and 323 455

18.3.5 Drought Contingency Plans in the United States and Mexico 457

18.3.6 Reclamation's Role 458

18.4 Future Thoughts and Considerations 459

References 460

19 Development in the Northern Rivers of Australia 465
Ian Watson, Andrew Ash, Cuan Petheram, Marcus Barber, and Chris Stokes

19.1 Introduction 465

19.2 Context for Northern Development 468

19.3 Biophysical Characteristics and Constraints 475

19.3.1 Physiography, Climate, and Hydrology 476

19.3.1.1 Surface Water - Groundwater Connectivity 478

19.3.2 Environment and Ecology 480

19.3.3 Potential Impacts and Their Management 481

19.4 Catchment Governance and Management 483

19.4.1 Roles and Responsibilities of Government in Managing Catchments 483

19.4.2 Commonwealth Government 483

19.4.3 State and Territory Government 484

19.4.4 Statutory Bodies with a Role in Catchment Management 485

19.4.5 Community Organisations, Emerging Voices 485

19.4.6 The Role of Indigenous People in Catchment Management 485

19.4.7 Development Agendas and the Protection of the Natural and Cultural Values of Northern Australian Rivers 486

19.5 Development Opportunities 487

19.5.1 Background 487

19.5.2 Land and Water Resources 487

19.5.2.1 Soils and Land Suitability 487

19.5.2.2 Surface and Groundwater 488

19.5.3 Primary Production Opportunities 488

19.6 Conclusions 489

Acknowledgements 490

References 490

20 Catchment Management of Lake Simcoe, Canada 499
Jill C. Crossman

20.1 Introduction to the Lake Simcoe Case Study: A History of Problems 499

20.2 History of Pollution 501

20.2.1 Point Sources 502

20.2.2 Diffuse Sources 502

20.2.3 Direct Sources to the Lake 505

20.3 History of Management of Lake Simcoe 506

20.3.1 Implementation of Catchment Management Principles 507

20.4 Management Achievements 510

20.4.1 Reductions in Phosphorus Loadings 510

20.4.2 Point Source Reductions - Sewage Treatment 511

20.4.3 Diffuse Source Reductions 512

20.4.4 Septic Systems 512

20.4.5 Urban Run-off 513

20.4.6 Fertilisers 515

20.4.7 Livestock 516

20.4.8 Soil Erosion 516

20.4.9 Wetland Drainage (Polders) 517

20.4.10 Improvements in Lake Water Quality 518

20.4.11 Management Impacts on Fish Stocks 520

20.5 Future Implications 522

20.5.1 Land Use and Population Change 522

20.5.2 Climate Change 524

20.6 Conclusion 526

References 527

21 Management of Water Resources on the Han River, Korea 533
Hwirin Kim

21.1 Introduction 533

21.2 Short Historical Synopsis 535

21.2.1 Dams, Weirs, Reservoirs, and Related Institutions in the Han River Basin 535

21.2.2 The Dam and Weir Conjunctive Operation Council 538

21.3 Current Issues 539

21.3.1 Flooding in 2006 539

21.3.2 Drought in 2016-2018 542

21.3.3 Dam Water Use for River Water Quality Improvement-2018 543

21.4 Future Challenges 546

22 Dispute Resolution in the Cauvery Basin, India 549
Neha Khandekar and Veena Srinivasan

22.1 Introduction 549

22.1.1 Background 549

22.1.2 The Cauvery Water Conflict 552

22.2 History of the Dispute 553

22.2.1 Colonial Times 553

22.2.2 Post-independence Origins of Inter-State Dispute (1974-1990) 555

22.2.3 Tribunal Process (1990-2007) 555

22.2.4 Different States Have Different Positions About Principles 556

22.2.4.1 Karnataka's Position 556

22.2.4.2 Tamil Nadu's Position 557

22.2.5 2007 Agreement 558

22.2.5.1 Principles of Allocation 558

22.2.5.2 Surface Water Allocation 558

22.2.5.3 Groundwater Allocation 558

22.2.5.4 Environmental Flow 560

22.2.5.5 Release Schedule 560

22.2.6 Post-tribunal Conflicts (2007-2018) 561

22.2.7 The 2018 Verdict 561

22.3 Analysis of the Cauvery Dispute 562

22.3.1 Problems with Scientific Basis of Tribunal Allocation 563

22.3.1.1 Premise of Allocation Is Flawed 563

22.3.1.2 No Guidance on Shortage Sharing in Drought Years 564

22.3.1.3 No Clarity on Wastewater Ownership 564

22.3.2 Data Gaps 564

22.3.2.1 Sparse Data on Water Availability 564

22.3.2.2 Inconsistent and Inadequate Data on Agricultural Water Use 565

22.3.2.3 Data on 'Green Water' and Evapotranspiration Is Unavailable 565

22.3.2.4 Data on Urban Water Use Is Fragmented 566

22.3.2.5 Inadequate Public Information on Water Infrastructure Plans 566

22.3.2.6 Missing Data on Water Infrastructure Operations 566

22.3.2.7 Reservoir Sedimentation Is Not Accounted for 566

22.3.2.8 Water Quality Data Are Inadequate 567

22.4 Science-Policy Gaps 567

22.4.1 Changing Nature of Demand and Supply 568

22.5 Political Challenges 569

22.5.1 Identity Politics 569

22.5.2 Poor Public Communication 569

22.6 Dispute Resolution Approaches 569

22.6.1 Cauvery Management Board 570

22.6.2 Direct Dialogue 571

22.7 Summary and Way Forward 571

Acknowledgements 573

References 573

23 The Future for Catchment Management 579
Alan Jenkins and Robert C. Ferrier

23.1 Climate Change 579

23.2 Biodiversity 580

23.3 Land Use 581

23.4 Coasts 582

23.5 Ecosystem Goods and Services 582

23.6 People and Management 583

23.7 Science 584

23.8 Challenges for the Next Decade 585

References 585

Index 589
About the Editors

Robert C. Ferrier is Director of the Centre of Expertise for Waters (CREW) at the Hydro Nation International Centre, James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland.

Alan Jenkins is Deputy Director and Director of Science at the UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, UK.

R. C. Ferrier, Hydro Nation International Centre, James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland; A. Jenkins, UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, UK