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Optical Fibre Sensors

Fundamentals for Development of Optimized Devices

Del Villar, Ignacio / Matias, Ignacio R. (Herausgeber)

IEEE Press Series on Sensors

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1. Auflage Januar 2021
544 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-53476-1
John Wiley & Sons

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The most complete, one-stop reference for fiber optic sensor theory and application

Optical Fiber Sensors: Fundamentals for Development of Optimized Devices constitutes the most complete, comprehensive, and up-to-date reference on the development of optical fiber sensors. Edited by two respected experts in the field and authored by experienced engineers and scientists, the book acts as a guide and a reference for an audience ranging from graduate students to researchers and engineers in the field of fiber optic sensors.

The book discusses the fundamentals and foundations of fiber optic sensor technology and provides real-world examples to illuminate and illustrate the concepts found within. In addition to the basic concepts necessary to understand this technology, Optical Fiber Sensors includes chapters on:
* Distributed sensing with Rayleigh, Raman and Brillouin scattering methods
* Biomechanical sensing
* Gas and volatile organic compound sensors
* Application of nanotechnology to optical fiber sensors
* Health care and clinical diagnosis.
* And others

Graduate students as well as professionals who work with optical fiber sensors will find this volume to be an indispensable resource and reference.

1. Introduction

2. Propagation of light through optical fiber

2.1 Geometric optics

2.2 Wave theory

2.2.1 Scalar analysis

2.2.2 Vectorial analysis

2.3 Fiber losses and dispersion

2.4 Propagation in microstructured optical fiber

2.5 Propagation in specialty optical fibers focused on sensing

2.6 Conclusion

3. Optical fiber sensor setup elements

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Light sources

3.2.1 Light-emitting diode

3.2.2 Laser diode

3.2.3 Super radiation laser diode (SLD)

3.2.4 ASE source

3.2.5 Narrow line broadband sweep source

3.2.6 Other sources

3.3 Optical detectors

3.3.1 Basic principles of optical detectors

3.3.2 Main characteristics of optical detectors

3.3.3 Optical Spectrometer

3.4 Light coupling technology

3.4.1 Coupling of fiber and light source

3.4.2 Direct coupling of fiber and fiber

3.4.3 Multimode fiber coupled through a lens

3.5 Fiber optic device

3.5.1 Fiber coupler

3.5.2 Optical Isolator

3.5.3 Optical circulator

3.5.4 Fiber attenuator

3.5.5 Fiber polarizer

3.5.6 Optical switch

3.6 Optical modulation and interrogation of optical fiber optic sensors

3.6.1 Intensity modulated optical fiber sensing technology

3.6.2 Wavelength modulation optical fiber sensing technology

3.6.3 Phase modulation optical fiber sensing technology

4. Basic detection techniques

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Overview of interrogation methods

4.3 Intensity-based sensors

4.4 Polarization-based sensors

4.5 Fiber-optic interferometers

4.5.1 Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based fiber sensors

4.5.2 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) based fiber sensors

4.5.3 Single-multi-single mode (SMS) interferometer-based fiber sensors

4.6 Grating-based sensors

4.6.1 Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)

4.6.2 FBG arrays

4.6.3 Tilted and chirped FBG

4.6.4 Lon-period grating (LPG)

4.6.5 FBG fabrication

4.7 Conclusions

5. Structural Health monitoring using distributed fiber optic sensors

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Fundamentals of distributed fiber optic sensors

5.2.1 Raman DTS

5.2.2 Brillouin DTSS

5.3 DFOS in civil and geotechnical engineering

5.3.1 Bridges

5.3.2 Tunnels

5.3.3 Geotechnical structures

5.4 DFOS in hydraulic structures

5.5 DFOS in the electric grid

5.6 Conclusions

6. Distributed sensors for oil and gas industry

6.1 The late life cycle of a hydrocarbon molecule.

6.1.1 Upstream

6.1.1.1 Exploration

6.1.1.2 Well construction

6.1.1.3 Formation and Reservoir evaluation

6.1.1.4 Production

6.1.1.5 Production of methane hydrates

6.1.1.6 Well abandonment

6.1.2 Midstream: Transportation

6.1.3 Downstream: Refinery and distribution

6.2 Challenges in the application of optical fibres to the hydrocarbon

6.2.1 Conditions

6.2.2 Conveyance methods

6.2.2.1 Temporary installations (intervention services)

6.2.2.2 Permanent fibre installations

6.2.3 Fibre reliability

6.2.4 Fibre types

6.3 Applications and take up

6.3.1 Steam assisted recovery; SAGD

6.3.2 Flow allocation - conventional wells

6.3.3 Injector monitoring

6.3.4 Thermal tracer techniques

6.3.5 Water flow between wells

6.3.6 Gas-lift valves

6.3.7 Vertical seismic profiling (VSP)

6.3.8 Hydraulic fracturing Monitoring (HFM)

6.3.9 Sand production

6.4 Summary

7. Biomechanical sensors

7.1 Optical fiber sensors in biomechanics - Introduction and review

7.2 Optical sensors: from experimental phantons to in vivo applications

7.2.1 Experimental phantons and models

7.2.2 In vitro

7.2.3 Ex vivo

7.2.4 In vivo

7.2.5 In situ

7.3 FBG sensors integrated into mechanical systems

7.3.1 FBG sensors glued with polymer

7.3.2 Polymer-integrated FBG sensor

7.3.3 Smart fiber reinforced polymer (SFRP)

7.4 Future perspective

8. Optical Fibre Chemical Sensors

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Principles and mechanisms of fiber optic based chemical sensing

8.2.1 Principle of chemical sensor response

8.2.2 Absorption-based sensors

8.2.3 Luminescence-based sensors

8.2.4 Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR)-based sensors

8.2.5 Fiber grating sensors

8.3 Sensor Design and Applications

8.3.1 Optical Fiber pH Sensors

8.3.1.1 Principle of Fluorescence-Based pH Measurements

8.3.1.2 pH Sensor Design

8.3.1.3 Setup of a pH Sensor System

8.3.1.4 Evaluation of the pH Sensor Systems

8.3.1.5 Comments

8.3.2 Optical Fiber Mercury Sensor

8.3.2.1 Sensor design and mechanism

8.3.2.2 Evaluation of the mercury sensor system

8.3.2.3 Comments

8.3.3 Optical Fiber Cocaine Sensor

8.3.3.1 Sensing Methodology

8.3.3.2 Design of a Cocaine Sensor System

8.3.3.3 Evaluation of the Cocaine Sensor System

8.3.3.4 Comments

8.3.4 Conclusions and Future Outlook

9. Application of Nanotechnology to Optical Fiber Sensors: Recent Advancements and New Trends

9.1 Introduction

9.2 A view Back

9.3 Nanofabrication techniques on the fiber tip for biochemical applications

9.3.1 Direct approaches

9.3.2 Indirect approaches

9.3.3 Self-assembly

9.3.4 Smart Materials integration

9.4 Nanofabrication techniques on the fiber tip for opto-mechanical applications

9.5 Conclusions

10. From Refractometry to Biosensing with Optical Fibers

10.1 Basic sensing concepts and parameters for OFSs

10.1.1 Parameters of general interest

10.1.2 Parameters related to volume RI sensing

10.1.3 Parameters related to surface RI sensing

10.2 Optical fiber refractometers

10.2.1 Optical Interferometers

10.2.2 Grating-based Structures

10.2.3 Other Resonance-based Structures

10.3 Optical fiber biosensors

10.3.1 Immuno-based biosensors

10.3.2 Oligonucleotide-based biosensors

10.3.3 Whole cell/microorganism-based biosensors

10.4 Fiber-optics towards advanced diagnostics and future perspectives

11. Humidity, gas and volatile organic compound sensors

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Optical fiber sensor specific features for gases and VOCs detection.

11.3 Sensing materials

11.3.1 Organic Chemical dyes

11.3.2 Metal Organic Framework (MOFs) materials

11.3.3 Metallic oxides

11.4 Detection of single gases

11.5 Relative Humidity measurement

11.6 Devices for VOCs sensing and identification

11.7 Artificial systems for complex mixtures of VOCs: optoelectronic noses

11.8 Conclusions

12. Interaction of light with matter in optical fiber sensors: a biomedical engineering perspective

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Energy content in light and its effect in chemical processes.

12.3 Relevance of Wien's law to physicochemical processes.

12.4 Absorption of light molecules

12.5 The role of electron spin and state multiplicity in spectroscopy

12.6. Molecular orbitals, bond conjugation and photoisomerization

12.7 De-excitation processes through competing pathways: their effect on lifetimes and quantum yield

12.8 Energy level diagrams and vibrational sublevels.

12.9 Distinction between absorption and action spectra

12.10 Light scattering processes

12.10.1 Elastic scattering

12.10.2 Inelastic scattering

12.11 Induction of nonlinear optical processes

12.12 Concentrating fields to maximize energy exchange in the measurement process using slow light

12.12.1 Slow light using atomic resonances and electromagnetically induced transparency

12.12.2 Slow light using photonic resonances

12.13 Field enhancement and improved sensitivity through whispering gallery mode structures

12.14 Emergent technological trends facilitating multi-parametric interactions of light with matter

12.14.1 Integration of optical fibres with microfluidic devices and MEMS

12.14.2 Pump-probe spectroscopy

12.15 Prospects of molecular control using femtosecond fibre lasers

12.15.1 Femtosecond pulse shaping

12.15.2 New opportunities for coherent control of molecular processes

12.15.3 Developments in evolutionary algorithms for molecular control

13. Detection in harsh environments

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Optical fiber sensors for harsh environments

13.3 Need for harsh environment sensing based on optical fibres

13.4 General requirements for harsh environment OFSs

13.5 Silica-glass optical fibres for harsh environment sensing

13.6 Polymer optical fibres for harsh environment sensing

13.7 Chalcogenide-glass and polycrystalline-silver-halide optical fibres for harsh environment sensing

13.8 Monocrystalline-sapphire optical fibres for harsh environment sensing

13.9 Future trends

14. FIBRE OPTIC SENSING: PAST REFLECTIONS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

14.1 Introductory comments

14.2Reflections on Achievements to Date

14.3Photonics - How is it Changing?

14.4Some Future Speculation

14.4.1Photonic Integrated and Plasmonic Circuits

14.4.2Metamaterials in Sensing

14.4.3More Variations on the Nano Story

14.4.4Improving the Signal to Noise Ratio

14.4.5Quantum Sensing, Entanglement and the Like

14.4.6The Many Prospects in Fibre Design and Fabrication

14.4.7Technologies other than Photonics

14.4.8Societal Aspirations in Sensor Technology

14.4.9The Future and - A Quick Look at the Sensing Alternatives

14.4.10 So What Has Fibre Sensing Achieved to Date

14.5Concluding Observations
IGNACIO DEL VILLAR, PhD, is a lecturer in the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department at the Public University of Navarra, Spain, where he teaches on electronics and industrial communications. He is Associate Editor of different journals and has participated in multiple research projects and co-authored more than one hundred papers, conferences and book chapters related to fiber optic sensors.

IGNACIO R. MATIAS, PhD, is a Professor in the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department at the Public University of Navarra, Spain. He was one of the Associate Editors who founded the IEEE Sensors Journal, promoting fiber optic sensors since then through conferences, special issues, awards, books, etc. He has coauthored more than 500 book chapters, journal and conference papers related to optical fiber sensors. He is currently member-at-large at the IEEE Sensors Council AdCom.