John Wiley & Sons Introduction to Plastics Engineering Cover The authoritative introduction to all aspects of plastics engineering -- offering both academic and .. Product #: 978-1-119-53657-4 Regular price: $154.21 $154.21 Auf Lager

Introduction to Plastics Engineering

Stokes, Vijay K.

Wiley-ASME Press Series

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1. Auflage Mai 2020
1064 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-53657-4
John Wiley & Sons

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The authoritative introduction to all aspects of plastics engineering -- offering both academic and industry perspectives in one complete volume.

Introduction to Plastics Engineering provides a self-contained introduction to plastics engineering. A unique synergistic approach explores all aspects of material use -- concepts, mechanics, materials, part design, part fabrication, and assembly -- required for converting plastic materials, mainly in the form of small pellets, into useful products. Thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, and advanced composites, the four disparate application areas of polymers normally treated as separate subjects, are covered together.

Divided into five parts -- Concepts, Mechanics, Materials, Part Processing and Assembly, and Material Systems -- this inclusive volume enables readers to gain a well-rounded, foundational knowledge of plastics engineering. Chapters cover topics including the structure of polymers, how concepts from polymer physics explain the macro behavior of plastics, evolving concepts for plastics use, simple mechanics principles and their role in plastics engineering, models for the behavior of solids and fluids, and the mechanisms underlying the stiffening of plastics by embedded fibers. Drawing from his over fifty years in both academia and industry, Author Vijay Stokes uses the synergy between fundamentals and applications to provide a more meaningful introduction to plastics.
* Examines every facet of plastics engineering from materials and fabrication methods to advanced composites
* Provides accurate, up-to-date information for students and engineers both new to plastics and highly experienced with them
* Offers a practical guide to large number of materials and their applications
* Addresses current issues for mechanical design, part performance, and part fabrication

Introduction to Plastics Engineering is an ideal text for practicing engineers, researchers, and students in mechanical and plastics engineering and related industries.

Series Preface xxix

Preface xxxi

Part I Introduction 1

Outlines for Chapters 1 and 2

1 Introductory Survey 3

1.1 Background 3

1.2 Synergy Between Materials Science and Engineering 4

1.3 Plastics Engineering as a Process (the Plastics Engineering Process) 7

1.4 Types of Plastics 9

1.5 Material Characteristics Determine Part Shapes 11

1.6 Part Fabrication (Part Processing) 27

1.7 Part Performance 28

1.8 Assembly 32

1.9 Concluding Remarks 33

2 Evolving Applications of Plastics 35

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 Consumer Applications 36

2.3 Medical Applications 67

2.4 Automotive Applications 70

2.5 Infrastructure Applications 77

2.6 Wind Energy 88

2.7 Airline Applications 90

2.8 Oil Extraction 91

2.9 Mining 92

2.10 Concluding Remarks 93

Part II Mechanics 95

Outlines for Chapters 3 through 8

3 Introduction to Stress and Deformation 97

3.1 Introduction 97

3.2 Simple Measures for Load Transfer and Deformation 97

3.3 *Strains as Displacement Gradients 99

3.4 *Coupling Between Normal and Shear Stresses 101

3.5 *Coupling Between Normal and Shear Strains 102

3.6 **Two-Dimensional Stress 103

3.7 Concluding Remarks 105

4 Models for Solid Materials 107

4.1 Introduction 107

4.2 Simple Models for the Mechanical Behavior of Solids 107

4.3 Elastic Materials 108

4.4 *Anisotropic Materials 109

4.5 Thermoelastic Effects 111

4.6 Plasticity 113

4.7 Concluding Remarks 116

5 Simple Structural Elements 119

5.1 Introduction 119

5.2 Bending of Beams 119

5.3 Deflection of Prismatic Beams 123

5.4 Torsion of Thin-Walled Circular Tubes 127

5.5 Torsion of Thin Rectangular Bars and Open Sections 129

5.6 Torsion of Thin-Walled Tubes 130

5.7 *Torsion of Multicellular Sections 131

5.8 Introduction to Elastic Stability 133

5.9 *Elastic Stability of an Axially Loaded Column 138

5.10 Twist-Bend Buckling of a Cantilever 142

5.11 Stress Concentration 142

5.12 The Role of Numerical Methods 145

5.13 Concluding Remarks 145

6 Models for Liquids 147

6.1 Introduction 147

6.2 Simple Models for Heat Conduction 147

6.3 Kinematics of Fluid Flow 149

6.4 Equations Governing One-Dimensional Fluid Flow 151

6.5 Simple Models for the Mechanical Behavior of Liquids 157

6.6 Simple One-Dimensional Flows 159

6.7 Polymer Rheology 171

6.8 Concluding Remarks 173

7 Linear Viscoelasticity 175

7.1 Introduction 175

7.2 Phenomenology of Viscoelasticity 176

7.3 Linear Viscoelasticity 179

7.4 Simple Models for Stress Relaxation and Creep 182

7.5 Response for Constant Strain Rates 189

7.6 *Sinusoidal Shearing 190

7.6.1 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) 191

7.6.1.1 DMA Curves for Three-Parameter Model 192

7.6.2 *Energy Storage and Loss 192

7.7 Isothermal Temperature Effects 193

7.7.1 Thermorheologically Simple Materials 194

7.7.2 Physical Interpretation for Time-Temperature Shift 195

7.8 *Variable Temperature Histories 195

7.9 *Cooling of a Constrained Bar 196

7.10 Concluding Remarks 196

8 Stiffening Mechanisms 199

8.1 Introduction 199

8.2 Continuous Fiber Reinforcement 199

8.3 Discontinuous Fiber Reinforcement 203

8.4 The Halpin-Tsai Equations 211

8.5 Reinforcing Materials 211

8.6 Concluding Remarks 213

Further Reading 213

Part III Materials 215

Outlines for Chapters 9 through 15

9 Introduction to Polymers 217

9.1 Introduction 217

9.2 Thermoplastics 217

9.3 Molecular Weight Distributions 226

9.4 Thermosets 227

9.5 Concluding Remarks 227

10 Concepts from Polymer Physics 229

10.1 Introduction 229

10.2 Chain Conformations 229

10.3 Amorphous Polymers 234

10.4 Semicrystalline Polymers 240

10.5 Liquid Crystal Polymers 243

10.6 Concluding Remarks 245

11 Structure, Properties, and Applications of Plastics 247

11.1 Introduction 247

11.2 Resin Grades 248

11.3 Additives and Modifiers 248

11.4 Polyolefins 251

11.5 Vinyl Polymers 254

11.6 High-Performance Polymers 258

11.7 High-Temperature Polymers 265

11.8 Cyclic Polymers 271

11.9 Thermoplastic Elastomers 272

11.10 Historical Notes 273

11.11 Concluding Remarks 274

12 Blends and Alloys 277

12.1 Introduction 277

12.2 Blends 278

12.3 Historical Notes 282

12.4 Concluding Remarks 282

13 Thermoset Materials 285

13.1 Introduction 285

13.2 Thermosetting Resins 285

13.3 High-Temperature Thermosets 296

13.4 Thermoset Elastomers 304

13.5 Historical Notes 309

13.6 Concluding Remarks 311

14 Polymer Viscoelasticity 313

14.1 Introduction 313

14.2 Phenomenology of Polymer Viscoelasticity 313

14.3 Time-Temperature Superposition 319

14.4 Sinusoidal Oscillatory Tests 323

14.5 Concluding Remarks 328

15 Mechanical Behavior of Plastics 331

15.1 Introduction 331

15.2 Deformation Phenomenology of Polycarbonate 332

15.3 Tensile Characteristics of PEI 360

15.4 Deformation Phenomenology of PBT 363

15.5 Stress-Deformation Behavior of Several Plastics 376

15.6 Phenomenon of Crazing 387

15.7 *Multiaxial Yield 393

15.8 *Fracture 401

15.9 Fatigue 403

15.10 Impact Loading 412

15.11 Creep 419

15.12 Stress-Deformation Behavior of Thermoset Elastomers 419

15.13 Concluding Remarks 420

Further Reading 420

Part IV Part Processing and Assembly 421

Outlines for Chapters 16 through 21

16 Classification of Part Shaping Methods 423

16.1 Introduction 423

16.2 Part Fabrication (Processing) Methods for Thermoplastics 424

16.3 Evolution of Part Shaping Methods 429

16.4 Effects of Processing on Part Performance 431

16.5 Bulk Processing Methods for Thermoplastics 439

16.6 Part Processing Methods for Thermosets 440

16.7 Part Processing Methods Advanced Composites 442

16.8 Processing Methods for Rubber Parts 443

16.9 Concluding Remarks 445

17 Injection Molding and Its Variants 447

17.1 Introduction 447

17.2 Process Elements 447

17.3 Fountain Flow 462

17.4 Part Morphology 473

17.5 Part Design 475

17.6 Large- Versus Small-Part Molding 493

17.7 Molding Practice 504

17.8 Variants of Injection Molding 526

17.8.7 In-Mold Decoration and Lamination 552

17.9 Concluding Remarks 553

References 553

18 Dimensional Stability and Residual Stresses 555

18.1 Introduction 555

18.2 Problem Complexity 556

18.3 Shrinkage Phenomenology 556

18.4 Pressure-Temperature Volumetric Data 563

18.5 Simple Model for How Processing Affects Shrinkage 567

18.6 *Solidification of a Molten Layer 578

18.7 **Viscoelastic Solidification Model 585

18.8 **Warpage Induced by Differential Mold-Surface Temperatures 602

18.9 Concluding Remarks 609

19 Alternatives to Injection Molding 615

19.1 Introduction 615

19.2 Extrusion 615

19.3 Blow Molding 627

19.4 Rotational Molding 643

19.5 Thermoforming 659

19.6 Expanded Bead and Extruded Foam 669

19.7 3D Printing 670

19.8 Concluding Remarks 672

20 Fabrication Methods for Thermosets 675

20.1 Introduction 675

20.2 Gel Point and Curing 675

20.3 Compression Molding 678

20.4 Transfer Molding 681

20.5 Injection Molding 681

20.6 Reaction Injection Molding (RIM) 683

20.7 Open Mold Forming 685

20.8 Fabrication of Advanced Composites 686

20.9 Fabrication of Rubber Parts 698

20.10 Concluding Remarks 708

21 Joining of Plastics 711

21.1 Introduction 711

21.2 Classification of Joining Methods 712

21.3 Mechanical Fastening 713

21.4 Adhesive Bonding 721

21.5 Welding 722

21.6 Thermal Bonding 723

21.7 Friction Welding 741

21.8 Electromagnetic Bonding 762

21.9 Concluding Remarks 770

Part V Material Systems 771

Outlines for Chapters 22 through 25

22 Fiber-Filled Material Materials - Materials with Microstructure 773

22.1 Introduction 773

22.2 Fiber Types 773

22.3 Processing Issues 774

22.4 Material Complexity 774

22.5 Tensile and Flexural Moduli 780

22.6 Short-Fiber-Filled Systems 784

22.7 Long-Fiber Filled Systems 817

22.8 *Fiber Orientation 833

22.9 Concluding Remarks 851

23 Structural Foams -Materials with Millistructure 853

23.1 Introduction 853

23.2 Material Complexity 855

23.3 Foams as Nonhomogeneous Continua 856

23.4 Effective Bending Modulus for Thin-Walled Prismatic Beams 860

23.5 Skin-Core Models for Structural Foams 863

23.6 Stiffness and Strength of Structural Foams 866

23.7 The Average Density and the Effective Tensile and Flexural Moduli of Foams 879

23.8 Density and Modulus Variation Correlations 884

23.9 Flexural Modulus 887

23.10 **Torsion of Nonhomogeneous Bars 890

23.11 Implications for Mechanical Design 898

23.12 Concluding Remarks 899

24 Random Glass Mat Composites -Materials with Macrostructure 901

24.1 Introduction 901

24.2 GMT Processing 901

24.3 Problem Complexity 904

24.4 Effective Tensile and Flexural Moduli of Nonhomogeneous Materials 906

24.5 Insights from Model Materials 909

24.6 Characterization of the Tensile Modulus 921

24.7 Characterization of the Tensile Strength 924

24.8 Statistical Characterization of the Tensile Modulus Experimental Data 934

24.9 Statistical Properties of Tensile Modulus Data Sets 943

24.10 Gauge-Length Effects and Large-Scale Material Stiffness 946

24.11 Methodology for Predicting the Stiffness of Parts 951

24.12 *Statistical Approach to Strength 962

24.13 Implications for Mechanical Design 969

24.14 Concluding Remarks 969

25 Advanced Composites -Materials with Well-Defined Reinforcement Architectures 973

25.1 Introduction 973

25.2 Resins, Fibers, and Fabrics 974

25.3 Advanced Composites 977

25.4 Rubber-Based Composites 990

25.5 Concluding Remarks 1008

Index 1011
Vijay Kumar Stokes, PhD, joined IIT Kanpur in 1964, where he served as the Head of the Mechanical Engineering Department (1974-1977) and as the Convener of the Nuclear Engineering and Technology Program (1977-1978). In 1978, he joined GE Corporate Research & Development, where for 15 years he worked on plastics. Professor Stokes is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and Fellow of the Society of Plastics Engineers. He is a recipient of the Dushman and Coolidge Awards from GE Corporate Research & Development.