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Design and Order

Perceptual Experience of Built Form - Principles in the Planning and Making of Place

Lewis, Nigel C.

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1. Auflage August 2020
656 Seiten, Softcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-53951-3
John Wiley & Sons

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Teaches the principles behind the successful planning and creation of inspired built forms and urban places

This book offers an integrated understanding of both the principles and the perception of the design of built environments and public spaces. It outlines the fundamental characteristics that are evident in the creation of built form and illustrates how they determine the experience of resultant places. It also consolidates the key criteria that need to be taken into consideration in the development of these areas. All of the above-mentioned aims to provide designers with a solid understanding of the implications of their decisions on perception and behavior during the creation of new spaces.

Design and Order: Perceptual experience of built form - Principles in the Planning and Making of Place starts by examining the designing of natural environments and the affect that they have on humans. It teaches readers how people experience and are shaped by a space--via their eyes, brain, and overall perception. It then instructs on proper grammar of form and syntax so that designers can understand how to pursue design processes systematically. The book then takes readers through this process of designing, informing them on the principles of form, function, configuration, communication, organization, color and contrasts, building structures, good practice and more.
* Seeks to improve the methodological approach to the planning and design of buildings
* Broadly address all of the functions that impact the realization of new built and urban form
* Outlines the fundamental characteristics that are evident in the design of built forms and illustrates how these characteristics determine the experience of the resultant places
* Comprehensively covers the ideas, principles, and the perception of design
* Teaches designers to make informed decisions about applying or discarding principles when creating spaces.

Design and Order is a unique book that will appeal to students and professionals in architecture, urban design and planning, as well as designers and developers.

Outline xix

Preface xxiii

Section I The Environment 1

Part I The Environment - Natural, Ecological and Historical (Topography) 3

1 Natural Sites and Places 5

1.1 Nature and Landscape 5

1.2 Natural Places and Characteristics 5

1.3 Creation of Man-Made Places 6

1.4 Existential Space and Place 7

1.5 Natural Landscape and Sensing 9

Further Reading 10

2 Ecological and Climatic Context and Basic Protection Needs 11

2.1 Primitive Needs 11

2.2 Climatic Zones and Natural Materials for Shelter 11

2.3 Shelter Types, Uses and Purposes 13

2.4 Socio-Cultural Factors and Human Needs 14

2.5 Theory of Human Needs 15

Exhibit 2.1 Basic Human Needs 18

Further Reading 19

3 Historical and Regional Development 21

3.1 Historic Eras and Development 21

3.2 Regional Variations, Early Cultures and Settlements 22

3.3 Topography, Climate and Materials - Form Determinants 23

Exhibit 3.1 Individual Dwelling Types 24

Further Reading 27

Section II Human Behaviour and Design 29

Part II Human Behaviour (Neuro-Physiology) 31

4 The Brain, the Mind and Sensing 33

4.1 The Brain and Neurological Systems - Seeing, Touching and Hearing 33

4.2 Seeing - Visual Processing and Memory 33

4.3 Touching and Hearing 35

4.4 The Mind - Mental Learning and Thinking - Cognition 36

4.5 The Mind - Visceral Feelings - Emotion and Motivation 38

4.6 Consciousness and Self 39

4.7 Human Body and the Sensing of Form 40

4.8 Meaning, Intentionality and Imagination 41

4.9 Metaphor and Consciousness 42

Exhibit 4.1 The Human Brain - Neurological Sensing 45

Further Reading 52

5 The Eyes and the Visual System 55

5.1 Visual Perception 55

5.2 Visual World and Visual Field 57

5.3 Visual Perception and Affordances 61

5.4 Perceptual Experience - Visual System 62

5.5 Visual System and Optic Arrays 63

5.6 Recognition, Eye Movements and Analogue Theory 65

Exhibit 5.1 The Human Eye 66

Exhibit 5.2 Affordances 72

Exhibit 5.3 Perspective - Sensory Shifts 73

Further Reading 74

6 The Senses 75

6.1 The System of Senses 75

6.2 The Senses 76

6.3 Further Senses 78

6.4 The Senses and Multi-Sensory Experience 81

6.5 Multi-Sensory Emotions, Feelings and Aspirations 83

6.6 Pleasure 85

Exhibit 6.1 The Human Ear 86

Exhibit 6.2 The Human Senses 88

Further Reading 89

Part III Perceptual Experience of Form (Psychology and Phenomenology) 91

7 Aesthetic Theories and Perception of Built Form 93

7.1 Perception 93

7.2 Theories of Perception 93

7.3 Schematisation and Phenomena 94

7.4 Equilibrium, Wholes and Re-centring 96

7.5 Parts and the 'Whole' 96

7.6 Perceptual Properties 98

7.7 Perception of Form 98

7.8 Psychology of Form 99

7.9 Dynamics of Space 100

7.10 Perception and Cognition 102

7.11 Meaning and Symbols 104

7.12 Synopsis - Perceptual Experience 106

Exhibit 7.1 Principles of Configuration 108

Exhibit 7.2 Perspective 111

Further Reading 113

Part IV Grammar and Syntax of Form, and Composition 115

8 Architectural Ordering, Composition, Form and Beauty 117

8.1 Order 117

8.2 Grammar of Design and Syntax 118

8.3 Composition and Characteristics 122

8.4 Rhythm and Harmony 124

8.5 Purposiveness 125

8.6 Objects and Arrangements 125

8.7 Composition and Type 126

8.8 Ways of Ordering 127

8.9 Objective Properties 129

Exhibit 8.1 Principles of Composition 130

Exhibit 8.2 Basic Rules of Composition for Order and Unity 132

Further Reading 140

Part V Planning and Design Process, and Programme Requirements (Methodology) 141

9 Design Framework, Methods and Approaches 143

9.1 Problem Formulation 143

9.2 Setting 143

9.3 Fitness and Fit 144

9.4 Self-Conscious Design Approach 145

9.5 Affordances and Behaviour Settings 146

9.6 Programme Requirements 146

9.7 Designing and Design Approaches 147

9.8 Design Process, Reflection and Appraisal 149

9.9 Intended Results and Evaluation 155

9.10 Design of 'Good' Form 157

Exhibit 9.1 Nature of Design Requirements, Invention and Making 158

Exhibit 9.2 Modern Design Approach - Programme, Brief and Process 161

Further Reading 164

10 'Pattern Language' Approach 167

10.1 Form Language 167

10.2 Order and Life - 'Wholeness' 169

10.3 Life-Creating Transformations of Centres 171

10.4 Language of Form 173

10.5 Fundamental Maxim - 'Unity' of the 'Whole' 175

Exhibit 10.1 Pattern Language - Properties 176

Exhibit 10.2 Rules of Scale in Order 180

Exhibit 10.3 Ambience 184

Exhibit 10.4 'Well' Building 186

Further Reading 188

Section III Form, Function and Fit 189

Part VI Form and Fit 191

11 Physical Built Form in Space 193

11.1 Form - Mass and Spatial Volume 193

11.2 Transformation of Form 193

11.3 Additive Form 194

11.4 Integration of Forms 196

11.5 Form and Space 196

11.6 Horizontal Planes 197

11.7 Vertical Planes 197

11.8 Architectural Space, Enclosures and Vistas 200

11.9 Spatial Qualities and Layout 201

11.10 Light, Sound and Atmospheric Qualities in Built Form 202

Exhibit 11.1 Principles of Articulation and Conjugation 204

Further Reading 205

12 Geometrical Layout and Organisation - Axes, Shapes and Repeating Patterns 207

12.1 Datum and Axes 207

12.2 Ordering Principles 207

12.3 Hierarchy and Scale 208

12.4 Rhythm and Repetition 208

12.5 Symmetry 208

12.6 Transformations 209

12.7 Generative Design Processes 211

12.8 Fractals 212

12.9 Other Forms of Geometry - Non-Euclidean 212

12.10 Patterns of Repeating Elements for Decoration 213

Exhibit 12.1 Principles in the Design of Decorative, Geometric and Motif Patterns 214

Further Reading 216

13 Proportion, Symmetry and Harmony 217

13.1 Proportion - History 217

13.2 Proportion and Physical Relationships 220

13.3 Symmetry 220

13.4 Human Proportions 222

13.5 Room Proportions 222

13.6 Regulating Lines 224

13.7 Latent Geometric Relationships 226

13.8 Good Proportioning 226

13.9 Anthropometrics and Human Factors 227

13.10 Scale 227

13.11 Harmony 228

13.12 Expressions of Form 229

Exhibit 13.1 Principles of Proportion and Symmetry 230

Exhibit 13.2 Types of Series, Proportion, Symmetry and Natural Growth 233

Exhibit 13.3 Principles of Rhythm and Harmony 249

Exhibit 13.4 Essay on Harmony as It Relates to Building - Robert Morris 251

Exhibit 13.5 Musical Harmony 252

Exhibit 13.6 Rhythm and Syncopation in Built Form by Era 257

Further Reading 258

Photos 259

14 Organisational Forms and Layout 261

14.1 Linear Organisation 261

14.2 Centralised Organisation 261

14.3 Radial Organisation 261

14.4 Grid 262

14.5 Clustered Organisation 263

14.6 Interior Enclosed Space 264

Exhibit 14.1 Principles of Organisation and Arrangement 265

Exhibit 14.2 The Modulor 267

Exhibit 14.3 Japanese Design Arrangements for Dwelling 271

Further Reading 272

15 Functional Purpose and Use of Space 275

15.1 Function 275

15.2 Utility, Significance and Purposefulness 275

15.3 Use, Activities and Spatial Requirements 275

15.4 Structural System and Components 276

15.5 Materials 277

15.6 Personal Space 278

15.7 Territoriality 279

15.8 Defensible Space 280

Exhibit 15.1 Principles of Function and Purpose 283

Exhibit 15.2 Purposiveness 285

Exhibit 15.3 Principles of Universal Design 286

Further Reading 286

16 Circulation, Plan and Elevation 287

16.1 Approach 287

16.2 Entrance 287

16.3 Dynamic Spatial Experience 288

16.4 Configuration for Communication 289

16.5 Access Paths 289

16.6 Internal Circulation 289

16.7 Stairs and Staircases 290

16.8 Built Section 290

Exhibit 16.1 Principles of Communication and Circulation 292

Further Reading 293

17 Colour and Contrast 295

17.1 Light and Spectrum 295

17.2 Colour Pigments 295

17.3 Pigments for Printing 297

17.4 Complementary Colours 299

17.5 Features of Colour 300

17.6 Colour Circle, Sphere and Star 303

17.7 Perceptual Basis of Colour 304

17.8 Colour Interaction 307

17.9 Colour Serialisation 308

Exhibit 17.1 Principles of Colour and Contrast 309

Exhibit 17.2 Colour Parameters and Principles 311

Exhibit 17.3 Contrast in Colour 317

Further Reading 319

Part VII Building Structure and Types 321

18 Structure 323

18.1 Beginnings 323

18.2 Laws of Nature 323

18.3 Lateral Stability 324

18.4 Materials 324

18.5 Design Methods 325

18.6 Connections and Jointing 325

18.7 Structural Types 326

18.8 Maintainability and Sustainability 328

18.9 Generative Parametrics 328

18.10 Resiliency 328

Exhibit 18.1 Principles of Structure 329

Further Reading 331

Photos 331

Section IV Built and Urban Form 335

Part VIII 'Good' Practice - Built Form 337

19 Buildings and Dwellings 339

19.1 Space and Human Interaction 339

19.2 Creation of 'Place' 340

19.3 'Good' Building 341

19.4 Built Form Determinants 342

19.5 Re-Use 345

19.6 Use Types of Buildings 346

19.7 Goals of 'Good' Built Form 347

Exhibit 19.1 Principles of Assembly - Built Form 349

Exhibit 19.2 Selective Modern 'Good' Building Practice by Use Type 352

Exhibit 19.3 Examples of Built Type Forms 354

Exhibit 19.4 Modern Movements and Practitioners 358

Exhibit 19.5 Iconic Modern Buildings 360

Exhibit 19.6 Modern Iconic US Buildings 365

Further Reading 368

Photos 368

Part IX 'Good' Practice - Urban Form 375

20 Urban Form 377

20.1 Form Determinants in Urban Settlements - Natural and Man-Made Features 377

20.2 Historical Developments 379

20.3 Different Regional and Cultural Typologies 381

20.4 Multi-Nucleus and Mixed Development 383

20.5 Modern Developments 385

20.6 Elements of Urban Form 386

20.7 Legibility 388

20.8 Organisation 389

20.9 Life Space and Topology 391

20.10 Urban Form and Life 391

20.11 Layout of Urban Neighbourhoods 393

20.12 Development 395

20.13 'Good' City Form 396

20.14 Urban 'Open' Forms 398

20.15 Goals of 'Good' Urban Form 398

Exhibit 20.1 Principles of Emplacement - Urban Form 400

Exhibit 20.2 Urban Space Requirements 403

Exhibit 20.3 Selective Modern 'Good' Urbanistic Practice 406

Exhibit 20.4 Urban Type Forms by Use Purpose 410

Further Reading 411

Photos 412

Summary 419

Bibliography 423

Appendices - Part I 433

Appendix I.3.1 Ancient Settings - Europe, Near East, Asia and Americas 435

I.3.1.1 Neolithic Age 10 000-3000 BC - Mid East and Europe 435

I.3.1.2 Bronze Age 3000-1000 BC - Europe and Mid East 436

I.3.1.3 Ancient Iron Age 1000 BC to 0 AD - Mid East 437

I.3.1.4 Early Age 0-1000 AD - Europe and Mid East 439

I.3.1.5 Mesoamerica to 1500 AD 440

I.3.1.6 North America to 1500 AD 440

I.3.1.7 Asia and the Orient to 1500 AD 441

I.3.1.8 Africa to 1500 AD 443

I.3.1.9 Europe - Mediaeval Cities After 1000 AD 443

Further Reading 444

Photos 444

Appendix I.3.2 Ancient City Places 449

Further Reading 451

Appendices - Part II 453

Appendix II.6.1 Feelings of Space and Form in the Environment 455

II.6.1.1 Natural Light 455

II.6.1.2 Movement 455

II.6.1.3 Complementarity of Form 456

II.6.1.4 Balance 457

II.6.1.5 Individuality 457

II.6.1.6 Opaque Geometry and Occlusion 457

II.6.1.7 Sense of Spatial Perception 458

II.6.1.8 Form Sensing 459

Further Reading 459

Appendix II.6.2 Artificial Perception 461

Further Reading 462

Appendices - Part IV 463

Appendix IV.8.1 'The Classical Orders' 465

IV.8.1.1 The Orders 465

IV.8.1.2 Tuscan 467

IV.8.1.3 Doric 467

IV.8.1.4 Ionic 467

IV.8.1.5 Corinthian 467

IV.8.1.6 Composite 468

IV.8.1.7 Entasis 469

IV.8.1.8 Composition 469

IV.8.1.9 Language - Elements of Architecture 470

Further Reading 471

Photos 471

Appendix IV.8.2 Aesthetic Judgement and Beauty 473

IV.8.2.1 Utility and Delight 473

IV.8.2.2 Qualities 473

IV.8.2.3 Beauty 474

IV.8.2.4 Assessment of Beauty 475

IV.8.2.5 Interest and State of 'Disinterestedness' 476

IV.8.2.6 Form and Elegance 476

IV.8.2.7 Aesthetic Theories and Self-Conscious Design 478

IV.8.2.8 Sense of Beauty as Described in Different Eras 478

Further Reading 481

Appendices - Part V 483

Appendix V.9.1 Design Methods - Comparative Historical Design Approaches and Pedagogy 485

V.9.1.1 Classical Design 486

V.9.1.2 Renaissance Design 486

V.9.1.3 European Design Methods 487

V.9.1.4 Modern International Design Methods 491

V.9.1.5 Purist Design 493

V.9.1.6 Rational Geometric Design 496

V.9.1.7 Organicist Design 497

V.9.1.8 Modern Design Methods and Systems Approach 500

V.9.1.9 Generative Computerised Design 502

Further Reading 504

Appendix V.10.1 Pattern Language - Design and Human Needs (Illustration) 505

Further Reading 508

Appendices - Part VI 509

Appendix VI.13.1 Decoration - Patterns, Features, Motifs and Geometrics of Repeating Elements 511

VI.13.1.1 Decoration - Materials, Methods and Techniques 511

VI.13.1.2 Features 512

VI.13.1.3 Pattern Groups - Floral, Figurative, Geometric and Representational 512

VI.13.1.4 Pattern Arrangements - Lattices, Powdering, Borders and Features 514

VI.13.1.5 Emergent Forms 517

VI.13.1.6 Special Motifs and Symbols 521

Further Reading 524

Appendix VI.13.2 Ornament in Earlier Times and Historic Era 525

VI.13.2.1 Antiquity 525

VI.13.2.2 Mediaeval 526

VI.13.2.3 The Renaissance 527

VI.13.2.4 Recent 527

VI.13.2.5 'General principles in the arrangement of form and colour in architecture and the decorative arts', - The Grammar of Ornament - Owen Jones 529

VI.13.2.6 Moresque Principles of Ornament - Owen Jones 531

Further Reading 534

Appendices - Part VIII 535

Appendix VIII.19.1 Building Materials and House Types in Vernacular Britain 537

VIII.19.1.1 Walling 537

VIII.19.1.2 Roofing 540

VIII.19.1.3 Types - Plan and Section 542

Further Reading 546

Photos 547

Appendix VIII.19.2 Building Elements and Features 553

VIII.19.2.1 Floors, Walls and Ceilings 553

VIII.19.2.2 Windows and Doors 554

VIII.19.2.3 Mouldings 554

VIII.19.2.4 Assembly 555

Further Reading 555

Photos 556

Appendix VIII.19.3 Architectural Styles, Periods and Practitioners 565

VIII.19.3.1 Western Architecture 565

VIII.19.3.2 Religious Periods 566

VIII.19.3.3 Composition Methods - Theorists and Key Practitioners by Era 567

Appendix VIII.19.4 Historic Ecclesiastic and Civic Buildings; Geometric Modern and Iconic Modern US Buildings 569

VIII.19.4.1 Historic Ecclesiastical Buildings 569

VIII.19.4.2 Historic Civic Buildings 571

Photos 574

VIII.19.4.3 Modern Geometric Buildings 581

VIII.19.4.4 Modern Iconic Tower Buildings 588

Appendices - Part IX 593

Appendix IX.20.1 Urban Places 595

IX.20.1.1 Urban City Form - Historic Places 595

IX.20.1.2 Modern 20th Century Places 598

Appendix IX.20.2 Sustaining Principles 601

IX.20.2.1 'Ten Theses on Architecture' - Rob Krier 601

IX.20.2.2 'Ten Principles on Which We Can Build' - HRH The Prince of Wales 602

IX.20.2.3 'The Hannover Principles' - Expo 2000World Fair, William McDonough 603

IX.20.2.4 'One Planet - Living Communities Programme' 604

IX.20.2.5 Biophilic Design Principles 605

Further Reading 610

Appendix IX.20.3 Urban Settlement Models and Patterns 611

IX.20.3.1 Urban Form and Use Types 611

IX.20.3.2 Urban Layout Principles 613

IX.20.3.3 Organising Features 614

IX.20.3.4 Building Form Types 616

Index 617
NIGEL C. LEWIS is a designer initially trained at Arup, and he has been responsible for and involved in the planning, design, development and project management of major buildings and infrastructure projects worldwide. He holds a Master of City Planning (MCP) from the University of Pennsylvania, Master of Arts (MA Oxon) in Engineering Science & Economics and is a Chartered Engineer and Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Member of the Royal Town Planning Institute, and Member of the American Institute of Certified Planners.