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Copper, Brass, and Bronze Surfaces

A Guide to Alloys, Finishes, Fabrication, and Maintenance in Architecture and Art

Zahner, L. William

Architectural Metals Series

Cover

1. Auflage April 2020
368 Seiten, Softcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-54166-0
John Wiley & Sons

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A FULL-COLOR GUIDE FOR ARCHITECTS AND DESIGN PROFESSIONALS TO THE SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF COPPER, BRASS, AND BRONZE

Copper, Brass, and Bronze Surfaces, third in Zahner's Architectural Metals Series, provides a comprehensive and authoritative treatment of copper, brass, and bronze applications in architecture and art. If offers architecture and design professionals the information they need to ensure proper maintenance and fabrication techniques through detailed information and full-color images. It covers everything from the history of the metals and choosing the right alloy, to detailed information on a variety of surface and chemical finishes and corrosion resistance. The book also features case studies that offer strategies for designing and executing successful projects using copper, brass, and bronze.

Copper, Brass, and Bronze Surfaces is filled with illustrated case studies that present comprehensive coverage of how each metal is used in creating surfaces for building exteriors, interiors, and art finishes. All the books in Zahner's Architectural Metals Series offer in-depth coverage of today's most commonly used metals in architecture and art. This visual guide:
* Features full-color images of a variety of copper, brass, and bronze finishes, colors, textures, and forms
* Includes case studies with performance data that feature strategies on how to design and execute successful projects using copper, brass, and bronze
* Offers methods to address corrosion, before and after it occurs
* Explains the significance of the different alloys and the forms available to the designer
* Discusses what to expect when using copper, brass, and bronze in various exposures

Written for architecture professionals, metal fabricators and developers, architecture students, designers, and artists working with metals, Copper, Brass, and Bronze Surfaces offers a logical framework for the selection and application of copper, brass, and bronze in all aspects of architecture.

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Introduction--Element 29 1

Introduction 1

Color 6

Colors of Alloys 8

Copper Minerals 12

History 13

The Modern Copper Production Process 19

Sustainability, Environmental, and Hygienic Concerns 22

Copper and Water 23

Health and Safety 24

Copper: The Antimicrobial Metal 25

Copper Alloys for the Arts 26

Chapter 2 Copper and Its Alloys 31

Introduction 31

The Rich History of Copper Alloys 31

Elements Added to Copper 33

Alloy Designation System 34

The Unified Numbering System 34

Tempers 36

Wrought Copper Alloys 38

Brasses 40

Leaded Brasses 49

Tin Brasses 54

Phosphor-Bronze Alloys 56

Aluminum-Bronze Alloys 58

Silicon-Bronze Alloys 60

Copper-Nickel and Nickel-Silver Alloys 61

Cast Alloys 66

Red Brasses 69

Yellow Brasses 71

Silicon-Bronze Alloys 73

A Tin-Bronze Alloy 76

Nickel-Silver Alloys 77

A Manganese-Bronze Alloy 78

Chapter 3 Surface Finishes 79

Introduction 79

Mill Surfaces 80

Mechanical Finishes and Temporary Protection 81

Color from Oxidation and Chemical Reactions 91

Textures 123

Tin-Coated Copper 135

Melted Copper Alloy Surfacing 136

Copper and Glass 137

Protecting the Surface 138

Chapter 4 Expectations of the Visual Surface 139

Introduction 139

Intent: An Unchanged Surface Appearance 143

Intent: A Surface Appearance That Changes Naturally 154

Flatness 155

Texturing the Surface 160

Initial Oxidation on Copper Alloys 161

In Situ Patination 163

Prepatination 164

The Effect of Sealants 166

The Cast Surface 167

Arriving at the Best Possible Outcome 167

Chapter 5 Designing with the Available Forms 173

A Brief History 173

Wrought Forms 176

The Cast Form 204

Chapter 6 Fabrication Processes and Techniques 211

Introduction 211

Forming 213

V-cutting 215

Cutting Copper Alloys 220

Machining 227

Soldering, Brazing, and Welding 231

Casting 241

Chapter 7 Corrosion Characteristics 251

General Information 251

Categories of Corrosion 260

Environmental Exposures 279

Acids and Bases 283

Copper Alloy Surface Categories 286

Chapter 8 Maintaining the Copper Alloy Surface 295

Introduction 295

Protecting the New Copper Alloy Surface 296

Achieving Physical Cleanliness 296

Achieving Chemical Cleanliness 311

Achieving Mechanical Cleanliness 320

Repairing Patinas 326

Protecting the Surfaces of Copper and Copper Alloys 328

Cleaning the Copper Surface 333

Removing Copper Stains from Other Substances 334

Deteriorating Patinas 335

Appendix A Comparative Attributes of Metals Used in Art and Architecture 337

Appendix B Hardware Finish Codes and Descriptions 341

Appendix C Numbering Systems Used for Copper Alloys 345

Further Reading 347

Index 349
L. WILLIAM ZAHNER, is president and CEO of A. Zahner Company, Inc. and chairman of Metalabs LLC, and is an internationally recognized expert on the design and use of architectural metals. He is the author of Architectural Metal Surfaces and Architectural Metals: A Guide to Selection, Specification, and Performance, both from Wiley.

L. W. Zahner, A. Zahner Company, Kansas City, MO