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People Flow in Buildings

Siikonen, Marja-Liisa


1. Auflage Oktober 2021
448 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-54556-9
John Wiley & Sons

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Discover how to measure, control, model, and plan people flow within modern buildings with this one-stop resource from a leading professional

People Flow in Buildings delivers a comprehensive and insightful description of people flow, analysis with software-based tools. The book offers readers an up-to-date overview of mathematical optimization methods used in control systems and transportation planning methods used to manage vertical and horizontal transportation.

The text offers a starting point for selecting the optimal transportation equipment for new buildings and those being modernized. It provides insight into making passenger journeys pleasant and smooth, while providing readers with an examination of how modern trends in building usage, like increasingly tall buildings and COVID-19, effect people flow planning in buildings.

People Flow in Buildings clearly defines the terms and symbols it includes and then moves on to deal with the measurement, control, modelling, and planning of people flow within buildings of all kinds. Each chapter contains an introduction describing its contents and the background of the subject. Included appendices describe measured passenger data and performed analyses.

Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of:
* A thorough introduction to people-counting methods, including counting technology inside and outside buildings, passenger traffic components, and manual people-counting
* An examination of the passenger arrival process in building, including the Poisson arrival process and probability density function, and passenger arrivals in batches
* A consideration of daily vertical passenger traffic profiles, including two-way traffic profiles and the effects of inter-floor traffic
* An exploration of people flow solutions, including stairs, escalators, and elevators with collective and destination group control systems, as well as double-deck and multicar system
* People flow calculation and simulation models
* Elevator planning with ISO simulation method
* Elevator planning and evacuation of tall buildings

Perfect for software designers in the private sector and academia, People Flow in Buildings will also earn a place in the libraries of elevator consultants, manufacturers, and architects who seek a one-stop reference for transportation devices from a functional and design perspective, as opposed to a hardware perspective.

Symbols and Abbreviations


Scope of the book


1. Building design population

1.1 Office building population

1.2 Number of inhabitants in residential buildings

1.3 Number of hotel guests

1.4 People arriving from parking areas

1.5 Population in hospitals

1.6 Other types of populated buildings

2. People counting methods

2.1. Counting technology inside and outside buildings

2.2. Passenger traffic components

2.3. Manual people-counting

2.4. Use of optical vision

2.5. Visitor-counting with photocell signals and infra-red beams

2.6. People-counting with access control system

2.7. Passenger-counting by load-weighing device

2.8. Elevator monitoring systems

2.9. External traffic measurement devices

2.10. Smart sensing and mobile computing

3. Passenger arrival process in buildings

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Poisson arrival process

3.2.1 Probability density function

3.2.2 Example of passenger arrivals through security cages

3.3 Passenger arrivals in batches

3.3.1 Batch arrivals in elevator lobbies

3.3.2 Batch arrivals in escalators

3.3.3 Observed batch size distributions in several building types

3.3.4 Batch size variation in elevator lobbies during the day

3.3.5 Modelling of batch size distribution

4. Daily vertical passenger traffic profiles

4.1 Introduction

4.1 Vertical building traffic components

4.1 Two-way traffic profiles

4.1 Effect of inter-floor traffic

4.1 Occupancy in buildings

4.2 Passenger trips with elevators

4.3 People flow in office buildings

4.3.1 Traffic in offices

4.3.2 Observed daily two-way traffic profiles

4.3.3 Daily traffic profiles with interfloor traffic

4.4 People flow in hotels

4.4.1 Traffic in hotels

4.4.2 Daily traffic profiles in hotels

4.5 People flow in residential buildings

4.5.1 Traffic in residential buildings

4.5.2 Traffic profiles in residential buildings

4.6 People flow profiles in hospitals

4.6.1 Hospital traffic

4.6.2 Daily traffic in hospitals

4.7 People flow in commercial and public buildings

4.7.1 Traffic in commercial and public buildings

4.7.2 Daily people flow in escalators

4.7.3 Daily people flow in elevators in shopping centers

4.7.4 Duration of a visit in a shopping centre

4.7.5 People flow by GPS in public buildings

4.8 People flow on cruise ships

4.8.1 Traffic in cruisers

4.8.2 Daily traffic profiles for typical days

5. Monitored elevator traffic data

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Service quality parameters

5.3 Measured passenger service level

5.3.1 Measured passenger traffic with external device

5.3.2 Call time distribution

5.3.3 Waiting time distribution with destination control

5.3.4 Monthly service times

5.4 Measured elevator performance

5.4.1 Number of starts during a month

5.4.2 Correlation between cycle time and round trip time

Part II: People flow solutions

6. Historical overview

7. Push button control systems

7.1 Signal operation

7.2 Single-button collective control

7.3 Down collective control

7.4 Interconnected full collective control principle

8. Collective group control system

8.1 Software-based collective control system

8.2 Bunching

8.3 Next car up

8.4 Dynamic sub-zoning

8.5 Channeling

8.6 Queue selective control system

9. Intelligent group control systems

9.1 Performance requirements

9.2 Control system architectures

10. Artificial Intelligence in elevator dispatching

10.1 Introduction

10.2 AI architectures

10.3 Traffic forecasting

10.4 Fuzzy logic

10.5 Genetic algorithm

10.6 Neural networks

10.7 Optimization objective functions

10.8 Elevator lobby with collective control system

10.9 Hospital service modes

11. Destination control system

11.1 Adaptive call allocation algorithm

11.2 Destination control system

11.3 Hybrid destination control system

11.4 "Harmonized" elevator dispatching

11.5 Elevator lobby with destination control system

12. Multi-car control systems

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Paternoster

12.3 Odyssey

12.4 Double-deck elevators

12.4.1 Functional principle of double-deck elevators

12.4.2 Double-deck collective control

12.4.3 Double-deck destination control

12.4.4 Harmonized dispatching for double-deck elevators

12.5 TWIN

12.6 MULTI

12.7 Other possible multi-car elevator control systems

13. Access control systems

2.11. Application areas

2.12. Access control by an external provider

2.13. Access control embedded in an elevator control

14. Architectural considerations of elevators

14.1 Layouts with conventional control

14.2 Layouts with destination control system

14.3 Dimensions of passenger elevators

14.1 Vertical elevator dimensions

14.2 Lobby arrangement with double-deck elevators

15. Architectural considerations of other people flow solutions

15.1 Escalator arrangements

15.2 Horizontal escalator dimensions

15.3 Vertical escalator dimensions

15.4 Dimensions of moving walkways

15.5 Staircase dimensions

15.6 Building door types

Part III: People flow calculation methods

16. Introduction

17. Elevator traffic calculation methods

17.1 Elevator performance parameters

17.2 Elevator handling capacity equation

17.3 Elevator kinematics

17.3.1 Elevator rated speed

17.3.2 Flight time calculation

17.4 Up-peak roundtrip time equations

17.4.1 Uniform passenger arrivals

17.4.2 Poisson arrival process

17.4.3 Uniform arrival process for r-floor elevator jumps

17.4.4 Poisson arrival process for r-floor elevator jumps

17.4.5 Uniform arrival process for elevator jumps between floor pairs

17.4.6 Poisson arrival process for elevator jumps between floor pairs

17.4.7 A generalized roundtrip time formula

17.5 Round trip time related equations

17.5.1 Shuttle elevators

17.5.2 Express zones

17.5.3 Dynamic zoning in up-peak

17.5.4 Unsymmetric elevator groups

17.5.5 Multiple entrance floors

17.5.6 Two-way traffic

17.6 Multicar traffic analysis

17.6.1 Paternoster performance

17.6.2 Double-deck performance

17.6.3 Number of MULTI cabins and shafts

18. Passenger service level

18.1 Queuing theoretical approach

18.1.1 Waiting times

18.1.2 Transit times

18.1.3 Journey time

18.2 Queuing at hot spots

18.3 Egress time with elevators

19. Pedestrian traffic

19.1 People flow density

19.1.1 Level of Service

19.1.2 Human body size

19.1.3 Passenger characteristics

19.1.4 Passenger space demand in elevators

19.2 Escalator handling capacity

19.3 Handling capacity of moving walkways

19.4 People flow in walkways

19.5 People flow in staircases

19.6 People flow in corridors and doorways

19.7 Handling capacities of turnstiles and ticket counters

19.8 Number of destination operation panels

Part IV: People flow simulation methods

20. Introduction

21. Traffic simulation methods

21.1 Monte Carlo simulation

21.2 Passenger traffic generation

21.3 Traffic simulation of an elevator group

21.4 Building traffic simulation

21.5 People flow simulation

21.5.1 Simulation software architecture

21.5.2 Passenger routing model

22. Simulation procedure

22.1 Simulated handling capacity

22.2 Initial transient

22.3 Stepwise or ramp arrival profiles

22.4 Traffic patterns

22.4.1 Introduction

22.4.2 Office traffic templates

22.4.3 Hotel traffic templates

22.4.4 Traffic templates of residential buildings

23. Validation of elevator traffic simulation software

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Verification of simulator models

23.3 Validation of the elevator traffic simulator

24. Simulated elevator performance and passenger service level

24.1 Introduction

24.1 Up-peak boosting

24.1.1 Traffic boosting with destination control

24.1.2 Boosting with double-deck system

24.1.3 Effect of elevator group size

24.2 Traffic simulations with diverse control systems

24.2.1 Simulation setup for an example building

24.2.2 Conventional control with single-car elevator system

24.2.3 Destination control with single-car elevator system

24.2.4 Conventional control double-deck system

24.2.5 Destination control double-deck system

24.3 Comparison handling capacities

24.4 Service time distributions with conventional system

Part V: People flow planning and evacuation

25. Introduction

26. ISO 8100-32

26.1 Background

26.2 Design process

26.3 ISO calculation method

26.1 ISO simulation method

26.2 Selection of rated load based on mass

26.3 Selection of rated load based on area and mass

27. Design criteria

27.1 ISO 8100-32 design criteria

27.2 BCO design criteria for offices

27.3 Other design criteria

28. Elevatoring low and mid-rise buildings

28.1 Offices

28.2 Hotels

28.3 Residential buildings

28.4 Hospitals

28.5 Parking areas

29. People transportation in commercial and public buildings

29.1 Mass transits

29.2 Public transportation buildings

29.3 Commercial buildings

29.4 Observation decks

30. Elevatoring tall buildigs

30.1 Background

30.2 Zoning of supertall buildings

30.3 Example zonings of a supertall building

30.4 Arrangements with zoning from the ground

30.4.1 Elevator arrangement selection with ISO simulation method

30.4.2 Elevator group lobby layouts

30.4.3 Main entrance core areas

30.5 Sky lobby arrangement

30.5.1 Double-deck shuttle elevators

30.5.2 Multi-car shuttle elevators

30.5.3 Elevator selection with ISO simulation method

30.5.4 Elevator group loofbby layouts

30.5.5 Main entrance core areas for sky lobby arrangements

31. Core space of different arrangements

32. Building evacuation

32.1 Introduction

32.2 Egress time calculation in building design

32.2.1 Background

32.2.2 Egress by stairs

32.2.3 Egress by elevators

32.3 Generic emergency evacuation types

32.3.1 Non-fire emergency evacuation

32.3.2 Fire evacuation modes

32.3.3 Scenatio configuration from BMS

32.4 Elevator evacuation-related standards and guidelines

32.4.1 Evacuation elevator requirements

32.4.2 Firefighters lifts - EN 81-72:2015

32.4.3 Evacuation of disabled persons using lifts - CEN/TS 81-76:2011

32.4.4 Occupant Evacuation Operation - ASME A17.1:2013

32.4.5 Elevators used to assist in building evacuation - ISO/TS 18870:2014

32.5 Evacuation strategies of megatall buildings

32.5.1 Introduction

32.5.2 Jeddah Tower

32.5.3 Shanghai Tower

32.5.4 Royal Clock Tower, Makkah

32.5.5 One World Trade Center, New York

33. How high can we go?



Dr. Marja-Liisa Siikonen (née Jokela), PhD, is the CEO of MLS Lift Consulting. Earlier she worked as a Director of People Flow Planning in KONE Corporation, Finland. She received her M.Sc. in technical physics, and Lic.Sc. (Tech.) and D.Sc. (Tech.) degree in applied mathematics from the Helsinki University of Technology. She has published around 100 articles and holds 250 patents in the field of elevator control systems and energy consumption, elevator traffic planning, building traffic simulation and evacuation, and people flow in buildings.