John Wiley & Sons Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy Systems Cover The Updated Third Edition Provides a Systems Approach to Sustainable Green Energy Production and Con.. Product #: 978-1-119-57332-6 Regular price: $135.51 $135.51 Auf Lager

Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy Systems

Keyhani, Ali

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3. Auflage September 2019
800 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-57332-6
John Wiley & Sons

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The Updated Third Edition Provides a Systems Approach to Sustainable Green Energy Production and Contains Analytical Tools for the Design of Renewable Microgrids

The revised third edition of Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy Systems integrates three areas of electrical engineering: power systems, power electronics, and electric energy conversion systems. The book also addresses the fundamental design of wind and photovoltaic (PV) energy microgrids as part of smart-bulk power-grid systems.

In order to demystify the complexity of the integrated approach, the author first presents the basic concepts, and then explores a simulation test bed in MATLAB® in order to use these concepts to solve a basic problem in the development of smart grid energy system. Each chapter offers a problem of integration and describes why it is important. Then the mathematical model of the problem is formulated, and the solution steps are outlined. This step is followed by developing a MATLAB® simula-tion test bed. This important book:
* Reviews the basic principles underlying power systems
* Explores topics including: AC/DC rectifiers, DC/AC inverters, DC/DC converters, and pulse width modulation (PWM) methods
* Describes the fundamental concepts in the design and operation of smart grid power grids
* Supplementary material includes a solutions manual and PowerPoint presentations for instructors

Written for undergraduate and graduate students in electric power systems engineering, researchers, and industry professionals, the revised third edition of Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy Systems is a guide to the fundamental concepts of power grid integration on microgrids of green energy sources.

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvi

About the Companion Website xvii

1 Energy and Civilization 1

1.1 Introduction: Motivation 1

1.2 Fossil Fuel 2

1.3 Energy Use and Industrialization 2

1.4 Nuclear Energy 4

1.5 Global Warming 5

1.6 The Age of the Electric Power Grid 9

1.7 Green and Renewable Energy Sources 10

1.8 Hydrogen 11

1.9 Solar and Photovoltaic 11

1.9.1 Wind Power 12

1.9.2 Geothermal 13

1.10 Biomass 13

1.11 Ethanol 13

1.12 Energy Units and Conversions 13

1.13 Estimating the Cost of Energy 17

1.14 New Oil Boom-Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking) 20

1.15 Estimation of Future CO2 21

1.16 The Paris Agreement | UNFCCC 22

1.17 Energy Utilization and Economic Growth 23

1.18 Conclusion 23

Problems 24

Further Reading 26

2 Power Grids 28

2.1 Introduction 28

2.2 Electric Power Grids 29

2.2.1 Background 29

2.2.2 The Construction of a Power Grid System 29

2.3 Basic Concepts of Power Grids 33

2.3.1 Common Terms 33

2.3.2 Calculating Power Consumption 33

2.4 Load Models 49

2.5 Transformers in Electric Power Grids 53

2.5.1 A Short History of Transformers 54

2.5.2 Transmission Voltage 54

2.5.3 Transformers 55

2.6 Modeling a Microgrid System 59

2.6.1 The Per Unit System 60

2.7 Modeling Three-Phase Transformers 69

2.8 Tap-Changing Transformers 72

2.9 Modeling Transmission Lines 74

Problems 87

References 92

3 Modeling of Converters in Power Grid Distributed Generation Systems 93

3.1 Introduction 93

3.2 Single-Phase DC/AC Inverters with Two Switches 94

3.3 Single-Phase DC/AC Inverters with a Four-Switch Bipolar Switching Method 106

3.3.1 Pulse Width Modulation with Unipolar Voltage Switching for a Single-Phase Full-Bridge Inverter 110

3.4 Three-Phase DC/AC Inverters 113

3.5 Pulse Width Modulation Methods 114

3.5.1 The Triangular Method 114

3.5.2 The Identity Method 119

3.6 Analysis of DC/AC Three-Phase Inverters 120

3.7 Microgrid of Renewable Energy Systems 130

3.8 DC/DC Converters in Green Energy Systems 133

3.8.1 The Step-Up Converter 134

3.8.2 The Step-Down Converter 144

3.8.3 The Buck-Boost Converter 151

3.9 Rectifiers 156

3.10 Pulse Width Modulation Rectifiers 160

3.11 A Three-Phase Voltage Source Rectifier Utilizing Sinusoidal PWM Switching 163

3.12 The Sizing of an Inverter for Microgrid Operation 167

3.13 The Sizing of a Rectifier for Microgrid Operation 169

3.14 The Sizing of DC/DC Converters for Microgrid Operation 170

Problems 171

References 176

4 Smart Power Grid Systems 177

4.1 Introduction 177

4.2 Power Grid Operation 178

4.3 Vertically and Market-Structured Power Grid 184

4.4 The Operations Control of a Power Grid 187

4.5 Load Frequency Control 187

4.6 Automatic Generation Control 193

4.7 Operating Reserve Calculation 198

4.8 Basic Concepts of a Smart Power Grid 199

4.9 The Load Factor 206

4.10 The Load Factor and Real-Time Pricing 209

4.11 A Cyber-Controlled Smart Grid 212

4.12 Smart Grid Development 214

4.13 Smart Microgrid Renewable and Green Energy Systems 216

4.14 A Power Grid Steam Generator 223

4.15 Power Grid Modeling 234

Problems 240

References 245

5 Solar Energy Systems 247

5.1 Introduction 247

5.2 The Solar Energy Conversion Process: Thermal Power Plants 251

5.3 Photovoltaic Power Conversion 253

5.4 Photovoltaic Materials 253

5.5 Photovoltaic Characteristics 255

5.6 Photovoltaic Efficiency 258

5.7 The Design of Photovoltaic Systems 262

5.8 The Modeling of a Photovoltaic Module 277

5.9 The Measurement of Photovoltaic Performance 278

5.10 The Maximum Power Point of a Photovoltaic Array 278

5.11 A Battery Storage System 292

5.12 A Storage System Based on a Single-Cell Battery 294

5.13 The Energy Yield of a Photovoltaic Module and the Angle of Incidence 317

5.14 The State of Photovoltaic Generation Technology 318

Problems 318

References 326

6 Microgrid Wind Energy Systems 328

6.1 Introduction 328

6.2 Wind Power 329

6.3 Wind Turbine Generators 331

6.4 The Modeling of Induction Machines 334

6.4.1 Calculation of Slip 343

6.4.2 The Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Machine 343

6.5 Power Flow Analysis of an Induction Machine 346

6.6 The Operation of an Induction Generator 351

6.7 Dynamic Performance 366

6.8 The Doubly Fed Induction Generator 372

6.9 Brushless Doubly Fed Induction Generator Systems 375

6.10 Variable-Speed Permanent Magnet Generators 376

6.11 A Variable-Speed Synchronous Generator 377

6.12 A Variable-Speed Generator with a Converter Isolated from the Grid 378

Problems 380

References 384

7 Load Flow Analysis of Power Grids and Microgrids 386

7.1 Introduction 386

7.2 Voltage Calculation in Power Grid Analysis 387

7.3 The Power Flow Problem 391

7.4 Load Flow Study as a Power System Engineering Tool 392

7.5 Bus Types 392

7.6 General Formulation of the Power Flow Problem 397

7.7 Algorithm for Calculation of Bus Admittance Model 400

7.7.1 The History of Algebra, Algorithm, and Number Systems 400

7.7.2 Bus Admittance Algorithm 402

7.8 The Bus Impedance Algorithm 403

7.9 Formulation of the Load Flow Problem 404

7.10 The Gauss-Seidel YBUS Algorithm 407

7.11 The Gauss-Seidel ZBUS Algorithm 412

7.12 Comparison of the YBUS and ZBUS Power Flow Solution Methods 419

7.13 The Synchronous and Asynchronous Operation of Microgrids 420

7.14 An Advanced Power Flow Solution Method: The Newton-Raphson Algorithm 422

7.14.1 The Newton-Raphson Algorithm 425

7.15 General Formulation of the Newton-Raphson Algorithm 430

7.16 The Decoupled Newton-Raphson Algorithm 434

7.17 The Fast Decoupled Load Flow Algorithm 435

7.18 Analysis of a Power Flow Problem 436

Problems 448

References 461

8 Power Grid and Microgrid Fault Studies 462

8.1 Introduction 462

8.2 Power Grid Fault Current Calculation 464

8.3 Symmetrical Components 468

8.4 Sequence Networks for Power Generators 473

8.5 The Modeling of Wind and PV Generating Stations 476

8.6 Sequence Networks for Balanced Three-Phase Transmission Lines 477

8.7 Ground Current Flow in Balanced Three-Phase Transformers 479

8.8 Zero Sequence Network 481

8.8.1 Transformers 481

8.8.2 Load Connections 482

8.8.3 Power Grid 484

8.9 Fault Studies 487

8.9.1 Balanced Three-Phase Fault Analysis 490

8.9.2 Unbalanced Faults 508

8.9.3 Single-Line-to-Ground Faults 508

8.9.4 Double-Line-to-Ground Faults 511

8.9.5 Line-to-Line Faults 513

Problems 527

References 533

9 Smart Devices and Energy Efficiency Monitoring Systems 534

9.1 Introduction 534

9.2 Kilowatt-Hour Measurements 535

9.3 Current and Voltage Measurements 536

9.4 Power Measurements at 60 or 50HZ 537

9.5 Analog-to-Digital Conversions 538

9.6 Root Mean Square (RMS) Measurement Devices 538

9.7 Energy Monitoring Systems 539

9.8 Smart Meters 539

9.9 Power Monitoring and Scheduling 540

9.10 Communication Systems 541

9.11 Network Security and Software 543

9.12 Smartphone Applications 546

9.13 Summary 546

Problems 547

Further Reading 548

10 Load Estimation and Classification 549

10.1 Introduction 549

10.2 Load Estimation of a Residential Load 549

10.3 Service Feeder and Metering 557

10.3.1 Assumed Wattages 557

Problems 560

References 562

11 Energy Saving and Cost Estimation of Incandescent and Light-Emitting Diodes 563

11.1 Building Lighting with Incandescent Bulbs 563

11.2 Comparative Performance of LED, Incandescent, and LFC Lighting 564

11.3 Building Load Estimation 566

11.4 Led Energy Saving 569

11.5 Return on Investment on LED Lighting 571

11.6 Annual Carbon Emissions 572

Problems 572

References 572

Appendix A Complex Numbers 573

Appendix B Transmission Line and Distribution Typical Data 576

Appendix C Energy Yield of Photovoltaic Panels and Angle of Incidence 581

Appendix D Wind Power 594

Index 599
Ali Keyhani, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Ohio State University. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and a recipient of Ohio State University, College of Engineering Research Award for 1989, 1999, and 2003. He has worked for Columbus and Southern Electric Power Company, Hewlett-Packard Co., Foster Wheeler Engineering, and TRW.