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Dynamic Spectrum Access Decisions

Local, Distributed, Centralized, and Hybrid Designs

Elmasry, George F.

Wiley - IEEE

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1. Auflage September 2020
752 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-57376-0
John Wiley & Sons

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Optimize your dynamic spectrum access approach using the latest applications and techniques

Dynamic Spectrum Access Decisions: Local, Distributed, Centralized and Hybrid Designs prepares engineers to build optimum communications systems by describing at the outset what type of spectrum sensing capabilities are needed. Meant for anyone who has a basic understanding of wireless communications and networks and an interest in the physical and MAC layers of communication systems, this book has a tremendous range of civilian and military applications.

Dynamic Spectrum Access Decisions provides fulsome discussions of cognitive radios and networks, but also DSA technologies that operate outside the context of cognitive radios. DSA has applications in:
* Licensed spectrum bands
* Unlicensed spectrum bands
* Civilian communications
* Military communications

Consisting of a set of techniques derived from network information theory and game theory, DSA improves the performance of communications networks. This book addresses advanced topics in this area and assumes basic knowledge of wireless communications.

About the Author

Preface

List of Acronyms

Part 1: DSA Basic Design Concept

1 Introduction

1.1 Summary of DSA decision making processes

1.2 The hierarchy of DSA decision making

1.3 The impact of DSA control traffic

1.4 The involvement of DSA decision making

1.5 The pitfalls of DSA decision making

1.6 Concluding remarks

1.7 1Exercises

Bibliography

2 Spectrum Sensing Technique

2.1 Multidimensional spectrum sensing and sharing

2.2 Time, frequency and power spectrum sensing

2.3 Energy detection sensing

2.3.1 Energy detection sensing of a communications signal (same-channel in-band sensing)

2.3.2 Time domain energy detection

2.3.3 Frequency domain energy detection

2.4 Signal characteristics spectrum sensing

2.4.1 Matched filter based spectrum sensing

2.4.2 Autocorrelation based spectrum sensing

2.4.3 Spreading code spectrum sensing

2.4.4 Frequency hopping spectrum sensing

2.4.5 Orthogonality based spectrum sensing

2.4.6 Waveform based spectrum sensing

2.4.7 Cyclostationarity based spectrum sensing

2.5 Euclidean space based detection

2.5.1 Geographical space detection

2.5.2 Angle of RF beam detection

2.6 Other sensing techniques

2.7 Concluding remarks

2.8 Exercises

Bibliography

3 Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) and Decision Fusion

3.1 Basic ROC model adaptation for DSA

3.2 Adapting the ROC model for same-channel in-band sensing

3.3 Decision fusion

3.3.1 Local decision fusion

3.3.1.1 Local decision fusion for same-channel in-band sensing

3.3.1.2 Local decision fusion with directional energy detection

3.3.2 Distributed and centralized decision fusion

3.4 Concluding remarks

3.5 Exercises

Appendix A: Basic principles of the ROC model

A1. The ROC curve as connecting points

A2. The ROC curve classifications

Bibliography

4 Designing a Hybrid DSA System

4.1 Reasons for using hybrid DSA design approach

4.2 Decision fusion cases

4.3 The role of other cognitive processes

4.4 How far can distributed cooperative DSA design go?

4.5 Using a centralized DSA arbitrator

4.6 Concluding remarks

4.7 Exercises

Bibliography

Part 2: Case Studies

5 DSA as a Set of Cloud Services

5.1 DSA services in the hierarchy of heterogeneous networks

5.2 The generic DSA cognitive engine skeleton

5.2.1 The main thread in the central arbitrator DSA cognitive engine

5.2.2 A critical thread in the gateway DSA cognitive engine

5.2.3 The gateway cognitive engine propagation of fused information to the central arbitrator thread

5.3 DSA cloud services metrics

5.3.1 DSA cloud services metrics model

5.3.2 DSA cloud services metrology

5.3.3 Examples of DSA cloud services metrics

5.3.3.1 Response time

5.3.3.2 Hidden node

5.3.3.3 Meeting traffic demand

5.3.3.4 Rippling

5.3.3.5 Co-site interference impact

5.3.3.6 Other metrics

5.3.3.7 Generalizing a metric description

5.4 Concluding remarks

5.5 Exercises

Bibliography

6 Dynamic Spectrum Management for 5G Cellular Systems

6.1 Basic concepts of 5G

6.2 Spatial modeling and the impact of 5G dense cell deployment

6.2.1 Spatial modeling and SIR

6.2.2. SIR and connectivity

6.2.3 Generl case connectivity and coverage

6.2.3.1 Transmission capacity

6.2.3.2 5G cell overlay

6.3 Stages of 5G SI cancellation

6.4 5G and cooperative spectrum sensing

6.4.1 The macrocell as the main fusion center

6.4.2 Spectrum agents (SAs) operate autonomously

6.4.3 The end user as its own arbitrator

6.5 Power control, orthogonality and 5G spectrum utilization

6.6 The role of the cell and end user devices in 5G DSM

6.7 Concluding remarks

6.8 Exercises

Bibliography

7 DSA and 5G Adaptation to Military Communications

7.1 Multilayer security enhancements of 5G

7.2 MIMO design considerations

7.2.1 The use of MU MIMO

7.2.2 The use of MIMO channel training symbols for LPD/LPI

7.2.3 The use of MIMO channel feedback mechanism for LPD/LPI

7.2.4 The use of MU MIMO for Multipath hopping

7.2.5 The use of MU MIMO to avoid eavesdroppers

7.2.6 The use of MU MIMO to discover jammers

7.2.7 Beamforming and LPI/LPD

7.3 Multifaceted optimization of MU MIMO channel in military applications

7.4 Other security approaches

7.4.1 Bottom up deployment approach

7.4.2 Switching a network to an anti-jamming (AJ) waveform

7.5 Concluding remarks

7.6 Exercises

Bibliography

8 DSA and Co-site Interference Mitigation

8.1 Power spectral density lobes

8.2 Co-site interference between frequencies in different bands

8.3 Co-site interference for unlicensed frequency blocks

8.4 Adapting the platform's co-site interference analysis process for DSA services

8.5 Adapting the external systems' co-site interference analysis for DSA

8.6 Considering the inter-system co-site interference impact

8.7 Using lookup tables as weighted metrics

8.8 Co-site interference incorporation in decision fusion and fine-tuning of co-site impact

8.9 DSA system's co-site interference impact on external systems

8.10 The locations where co-site interference lookup tables and metrics are utilized

8.11 Concluding Remarks

Bibliography

Part 3: TECHNIQUES FOR SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS

Page

PREFACE iv

INTRODUCTION v

Chapter 1 OVERVIEW 1-1

Electromagnetic Spectrum 1-1

Definition 1-3

Objective 1-4

Core Functions 1-5

Army Spectrum Management Operations Process 1-5

Chapter 2 TACTICAL STAFF ORGANIZATION AND PLANNING 2-1

Spectrum Management Operations for Corps and Below 2-1

Division, Brigade and Battalion Spectrum Operations 2-3

Spectrum Managers Assigned to Cyber Electromagnetic Activity

Working Group 2-3

Cyber Electromagnetic Activities Element 2-4

Tips for Spectrum Managers 2-6

The Military Decisionmaking Process 2-7

Support to the MDMP Steps 2-8

The Common Operational Picture 2-10

Chapter 3 SUPPORT TO THE WARFIGHTING FUNCTIONS 3-1

Movement and Maneuver 3-1

Intelligence 3-1

Fires 3-1

Sustainment 3-2

Mission Command 3-2

Protection 3-4

Chapter 4 JOINT TASK FORCE CONSIDERATIONS 4-1

Inputs and Products of Joint Task Force Spectrum Managers 4-1

Joint Frequency Management Office 4-1

Joint Spectrum Management Element 4-3

Spectrum Management Support to Defense Support of Civil

Authorities 4-6

Chapter 5 SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS TOOLS 5-1

Tool Considerations 5-1

Joint Spectrum Interference Resolution Online 5-11

Joint Spectrum Data Repository 5-11

Appendix A SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT TASK LIST A-1

Appendix B CAPABILITIES AND COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN TOOLS B-1

Appendix C SPECTRUM PHYSICS C-1

Appendix D SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT LIFECYCLE D-1

Appendix E MILITARY TIME ZONE DESIGNATORS E-1

Part 4: THE IEEE STANDARDS 1900x - 2019 -- Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks Standards Committee (DySPAN-SC)

IEEE Standard for Definitions and Concepts for Dynamic Spectrum Access: Terminology Relating to Emerging Wireless Networks, System Functionality, and Spectrum Management

1. Overview 12

1.1 Scope 12

1.2 Purpose 12

2. Acronyms and abbreviations 13

3. Definitions of advanced radio system concepts 14

3.1 Adaptive radio 14

3.2 Cognitive radio 15

3.3 Hardware-defined radio 15

3.4 Hardware radio 15

3.5 Intelligent radio 16

3.6 Policy-based radio 16

3.7 Reconfigurable radio 16

3.8 Software-controlled radio 16

3.9 Software-defined radio 16

4. Definitions of radio system functional capabilities 17

4.1 Adaptive modulation 17

4.2 Cognition 17

4.3 Cognitive control mechanism 17

4.4 Cognitive process 17

4.5 Cognitive radio system 18

4.6 Frequency agility 18

4.7 Geolocation capability 18

4.8 Location awareness 18

4.9 Policy-based control mechanism 18

4.10 Policy conformance reasoner 19

4.11 Policy enforcer 19

4.12 Radio awareness 19

4.13 Software controlled 19

4.14 Software defined 19

4.15 System strategy reasoning capability 19

4.16 Transmit power control 20

5. Definitions of decision-making and control concepts that support advanced radio system technologies 20

5.1 Coexistence policy 20

5.2 DSA policy language 20

5.3 Formal policy 20

5.4 Meta-policy 20

5.5 Model-theoretic computational semantics 20

5.6 Policy language 20

5.7 Reasoner 21

6. Definitions of network technologies that support advanced radio system technologies 21

6.1 Cognitive radio network 21

6.2 Dynamic spectrum access networks 21

6.3 Reconfigurable networks 21

7. Spectrum management definitions 21

7.1 Allocation 21

7.2 Clear channel assessment function 22

7.3 Coexistence 22

7.4 Coexistence mechanism 22

7.5 Cognitive interference avoidance 22

7.6 Collaboration 22

7.7 Collaborative decoding 22

7.8 Cooperation 23

7.9 Data archive 23

7.10 Distributed radio resource usage optimization 23

7.11 Distributed sensing 23

7.12 Dynamic channel assignment 23

7.13 Dynamic frequency selection 23

7.14 Dynamic frequency sharing 24

7.15 Dynamic spectrum access 24

7.16 Dynamic spectrum assignment 24

7.17 Dynamic spectrum management 25

7.18 Electromagnetic compatibility 25

7.19 Frequency hopping 25

7.20 Frequency sharing 25

7.21 Hierarchical spectrum access 25

7.22 Horizontal spectrum sharing 26

7.23 Interference 26

7.24 Opportunistic spectrum access 26

7.25 Opportunistic spectrum management 26

7.26 Policy authority 26

7.27 Policy traceability 27

7.28 Radio environment map 27

7.29 RF environment map 27

7.30 Sensing control information 27

7.31 Sensing information 27

7.32 Sensor 27

7.33 Spectral opportunity 27

7.34 Spectrum access 27

7.35 Spectrum broker 28

7.36 Spectrum efficiency 28

7.37 Spectrum etiquette 28

7.38 Spectrum leasing 28

7.39 Spectrum management 28

7.40 Spectrum overlay 29

7.41 Spectrum owner 29

7.42 Spectrum pooling 29

7.43 Spectrum sensing 29

7.44 Cooperative spectrum sensing 30

7.45 Collaborative spectrum sensing 30

7.46 Spectrum sharing 30

7.47 Spectrum underlay 30

7.48 Spectrum utilization 30

7.49 Spectrum utilization efficiency 31

7.50 Vertical spectrum sharing 31

7.51 White space 32

7.52 White space database 32

7.53 White space frequency band 32

7.54 White space spectrum band 32

8. Glossary of ancillary terminology 32

8.1 Air interface 32

8.2 Digital policy 32

8.3 Domain 33

8.4 Interference temperature 33

8.5 Interoperability 33

8.6 Machine learning 33

8.7 Machine-understandable policies 33

8.8 Ontology 33

8.9 Policy 34

8.10 Quality of service 34

8.11 Radio 34

8.12 Radio node 35

8.13 Radio spectrum 35

8.14 Receiver 35

8.15 Software 35

8.16 Transmitter 35

8.17 Waveform 35

8.18 Waveform processing 36

Annex A (informative) Implications of advanced radio system technologies for spectrum 37

Annex B (informative) Explanatory notes on advanced radio system technologies and advanced spectrum management concepts 41

Annex C (informative) List of deleted terms from the previous versions of IEEE Std 1901.1 66

Annex D (informative) Bibliography 73

IEEE Recommended Practice for the Analysis of In-Band and Adjacent Band Interference and Coexistence Between Radio Systems

1. Overview 1

1.1 Relationship to traditional spectrum management 1

1.2 Introduction to this recommended practice 2

1.3 Scope 2

1.4 Purpose 3

1.5 Rationale 3

2. Normative references 5

3. Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations 5

3.1 Definitions 5

3.2 Acronyms and abbreviations 7

4. Key concepts 8

4.1 Interference and coexistence analysis 8

4.2 Measurement event 8

4.3 Interference event 9

4.4 Harmful interference 9

4.5 Physical and logical domains 9

5. Structure of analysis and report 10

5.1 Structure for analysis 10

5.2 Process flow--divergence, reduction, and convergence 12

5.3 Report structure 14

6. Scenario definition 14

6.1 General 14

6.2 Study question 16

6.3 Benefits and impacts of proposal 16

6.4 Scenario(s) and usage model 16

6.5 Case(s) for analysis 25

7. Criteria for interference 25

7.1 General 25

7.2 Interference characteristics 26

7.3 Measurement event 28

7.4 Interference event 28

7.5 Harmful interference criteria 28

8. Variables 32

8.1 General 32

8.2 Variable selection 34

9. Analysis--modeling, simulation, measurement, and testing 35

9.1 General 35

9.2 Selection of the analysis approach, tools, and techniques 36

9.3 Matrix reduction 37

9.4 Performing the analysis 38

9.5 Quantification of benefits and interference 38

9.6 Analysis of mitigation options 38

9.7 Analysis uncertainty 38

10. Conclusions and summary 39

10.1 Benefits and impacts 39

10.2 Summation 39

Annex A (informative) Propagation modeling 40

Annex B (informative) Audio interference 48

Annex C (informative) Spectrum utilization efficiency 51

Annex D (informative) Sample analysis--selection of listen-before-talk threshold 55

Annex E (informative) Sample analysis--effect of out-of-band emissions on a LBT band 63

Annex F (informative) Sample analysis--Low-power radios operating in the TV band 70

Annex G (informative) Sample analysis--RF test levels for ANSI C63.9 [B3] 81

Annex H (normative) Glossary 89

Annex I (informative) Bibliography 93

IEEE Standard for Architectural Building Blocks Enabling Network-Device Distributed Decision Making for Optimized Radio Resource Usage in Heterogeneous Wireless Access Networks

1. Overview 1

1.1 Scope 1

1.2 Purpose 1

1.3 Document overview 1

2. Normative references 2

3. Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations 3

3.1 Definitions 3

3.2 Acronyms and abbreviations 5

4. Overall system description 5

4.1 System overview 5

4.2 Summary of use cases 7

4.3 Assumptions 8

5. Requirements 9

5.1 System requirements 9

5.2 Functional requirements 12

5.3 Information model requirements 14

6. Architecture 14

6.1 System description 14

6.2 Functional description 18

7. Information model 24

7.1 Introduction 24

7.2 Information modeling approach 25

7.3 Information model classes 25

8. Procedures 32

8.1 Introduction 32

8.2 Generic procedures 36

8.3 Examples of use case realization 49

Annex A (informative) Use cases 53

A.1 Dynamic spectrum assignment 53

A.2 Dynamic spectrum sharing 59

A.3 Distributed radio resource usage optimization 61

Annex B (normative) Class definitions for information model 63

B.1 Notational tools 63

B.2 Common base class 64

B.3 Policy classes 64

B.4 Terminal classes 66

B.5 CWN classes 74

B.6 Relations between terminal and CWN classes 82

Annex C (normative) Data type definitions for information model 84

C.1 Function definitions 84

C.2 ASN.1 type definitions 86

Annex D (informative) Information model extensions and usage example 93

D.1 Functions for external management interface 93

D.2 Additional utility classes 94

D.3 Additional ASN.1 type definitions for utility classes 103

D.4 Example for distributed radio resource usage optimization use case 104

Annex E (informative) Deployment examples 109

E.1 Introduction 109

E.2 Deployment examples for single operator scenario 109

E.3 Multiple operator scenario 1 (NRM is inside operator) 114

E.4 Multiple operator scenario 2 (NRM is outside operator) 115

Annex F (informative) Bibliography 117

IEEE Standard for Policy Language Requirements and System Architectures for Dynamic Spectrum Access Systems

1. Overview 1

1.1 Scope 1

1.2 Purpose 1

1.3 Document overview 2

2. Normative references 2

3. Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations 2

3.1 Definitions 2

3.2 Acronyms and abbreviations 6

4. Architecture requirements for policy-based control of DSA radio systems 8

4.1 General architecture requirements 8

4.2 Policy management requirements 9

5. Architecture components and interfaces for policy-based control of DSA radio systems 10

5.1 Policy management point 12

5.2 Policy conformance reasoner 12

5.3 Policy enforcer (PE) 14

5.4 Policy repository 15

5.5 System strategy reasoning capability (SSRC) 16

6. Policy language and reasoning requirements 17

6.1 Language expressiveness 18

6.2 Reasoning about policies 27

Annex A (informative) Use cases 29

Annex B (informative) Illustrative examples of DSA policy-based architecture 31

Annex C (informative) Relation of IEEE 1900.5 policy architecture to other policy architectures 33

Annex D (informative) Characteristics of imperative (procedural) and declarative languages for satisfying language requirements for cognitive radio systems 35

Annex E (informative) Example sequence diagrams of IEEE 1900.5 system 36

E.1 Overview 36

E.2 Assumptions 36

E.3 Sequence diagram organization 37

Annex F (informative) Bibliography 41

IEEE Standard for Spectrum Sensing Interfaces and Data Structures for Dynamic Spectrum Access and Other Advanced Radio Communication Systems

1. Overview 1

1.1 Scope 2

1.2 Purpose 2

1.3 Interfaces and sample application areas 2

1.4 Conformance keywords 4

2. Normative references 4

3. Definitions, acronyms and abbreviations 5

3.1 Definitions 5

3.2 Acronyms and abbreviations 7

4. System model 8

4.1 Scenario 1: Single CE/DA and single Sensor 8

4.2 Scenario 2: Single CE/DA and multiple Sensors 9

4.3 Scenario 3: Multiple CE/DA and single Sensor 10

5. The IEEE 1900.6 reference model 11

5.1 General description 11

5.2 An implementation example of the IEEE 1900.6 reference model 14

5.3 Service access points (SAPs) 15

6. Information description 70

6.1 Information categories 70

6.2 Data types 73

6.3 Description of sensing-related parameters 75

6.4 Data representation 88

7. State diagram and generic procedures 95

7.1 State description 95

7.2 State transition description 96

7.3 Generic procedures 98

7.4 Example procedures for use cases 101

Annex A (informative) Use cases 107

Annex B (informative) Use case classification 143

Annex C (informative) Implementation of distributed sensing 148

Annex D (informative) IEEE 1900.6 DA: Scope and usage 153

Annex E (informative) Analysis of available/future technologies 157

Annex F (informative) Bibliography 15

IEEE Standard for Radio Interface for White Space Dynamic Spectrum Access Radio Systems Supporting Fixed and Mobile Operation

1. Overview 1

1.1 Scope 1

1.2 Purpose 1

2. Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations 2

2.1 Definitions 2

2.2 Acronyms and abbreviations 2

3. Reference model 3

4. MAC sublayer 4

4.1 Architecture of the MAC sublayer 4

4.2 Type definition 4

4.3 MAC frame formats 4

4.4 MAC sublayer service specification 9

4.5 MAC functional description 24

5. PHY layer 37

5.1 PHY layer service specification 37

5.2 CRC method 42

5.3 Channel coding (including interleaving and modulation) 42

5.4 Mapping modulated symbols to carriers 47

5.5 Transmitter requirements 53

Annex A (informative) Coexistence considerations 5
GEORGE F. ELMASRY, Principal Engineer, Rockwell Collins Advanced Technology Center, CA, USA. George Elmasry is a graduate of the New Jersey Institute of Technology with a Ph.D. in Electrical and Computer Engineering. George has extensive industry and academic experience and is involved with R&D projects, presentations, patents, publications and grant-proposal activities. He has in-depth knowledge of telecommunication systems; experience with technical task lead, team building, and management. He is the winner of the prestigious Hashimoto Prize for achievement and academic excellence in electrical and computer engineering. He has over 50 peer reviewed journal and conference papers, is a reviewer for a variety of Communications and Signal Processing journals and conferences and has been a member of the technical committee of the IEEE Military Communications Conference since 2003.

G. F. Elmasry, DSCI