John Wiley & Sons Electric Power Principles Cover A revised and updated text that explores the fundamentals of the physics of electric power handling .. Product #: 978-1-119-58517-6 Regular price: $85.89 $85.89 Auf Lager

Electric Power Principles

Sources, Conversion, Distribution and Use

Kirtley, James L.

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2. Auflage Februar 2020
424 Seiten, Hardcover
Fachbuch

ISBN: 978-1-119-58517-6
John Wiley & Sons

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A revised and updated text that explores the fundamentals of the physics of electric power handling systems

The revised and updated second edition of Electric Power Principles: Sources, Conversion, Distribution and Use offers an innovative and comprehensive approach to the fundamentals of electric power. The author - a noted expert on the topic - provides a thorough grounding in electric power systems, with an informative discussion on per-unit normalisations, symmetrical components and iterative load flow calculations. The text covers the most important topics within the power system, such as protection and DC transmission, and examines both traditional power plants and those used for extracting sustainable energy from wind and sunlight.

The text explores the principles of electromechanical energy conversion and magnetic circuits and synchronous machines - the most important generators of electric power. The book also contains information on power electronics, induction and direct current motors. This new second edition includes:
* A new chapter on energy storage, including battery modeling and how energy storage and associated power electronics can be used to modify system dynamics
* Information on voltage stability and bifurcation
* The addition of Newton's Method for load flow calculations
* Material on the grounding transformer connections added to the section on three phase transformer
* An example of the unified power flow controller for voltage support

Written for students studying electric power systems and electrical engineering, the updated second edition of Electric Power Principles: Sources, Conversion, Distribution and Use is the classroom-tested text that offers an understanding of the basics of the physics of electric power handling systems.

Preface xv

About the Companion Website xvii

1 Electric Power Systems 1

1.1 Electric Utility Systems 2

1.2 Energy and Power 3

1.2.1 Basics and Units 3

1.3 Sources of Electric Power 5

1.3.1 Heat Engines 5

1.3.2 Power Plants 6

1.3.2.1 Environmental Impact of Burning Fossil Fuels 7

1.3.3 Nuclear Power Plants 8

1.3.4 Hydroelectric Power 9

1.3.5 Wind Turbines 10

1.3.6 Solar Power Generation 12

1.4 Electric Power Plants and Generation 14

1.5 Problems 15

2 AC Voltage, Current, and Power 17

2.1 Sources and Power 17

2.1.1 Voltage and Current Sources 17

2.1.2 Power 18

2.1.3 Sinusoidal Steady State 18

2.1.4 Phasor Notation 19

2.1.5 Real and Reactive Power 19

2.1.5.1 Root Mean Square (RMS) Amplitude 20

2.2 Resistors, Inductors, and Capacitors 20

2.2.1 Reactive Power and Voltage 22

2.2.1.1 Example 22

2.2.2 Reactive Power Voltage Support 22

2.3 Voltage Stability and Bifurcation 23

2.3.1 Voltage Calculation 24

2.3.2 Voltage Solution and Effect of Reactive Power 25

2.4 Problems 26

3 Transmission Lines 33

3.1 Modeling: Telegrapher's Equations 33

3.1.1 Traveling Waves 35

3.1.2 Characteristic Impedance 35

3.1.3 Power 36

3.1.4 Line Terminations and Reflections 36

3.1.4.1 Examples 37

3.1.4.2 Lightning 38

3.1.4.3 Inductive Termination 39

3.1.5 Sinusoidal Steady State 41

3.2 Problems 44

4 Polyphase Systems 47

4.1 Two-phase Systems 47

4.2 Three-phase Systems 48

4.3 Line-Line Voltages 51

4.3.1 Example: Wye- and Delta-connected Loads 52

4.3.2 Example: Use of Wye-Delta for Unbalanced Loads 53

4.4 Problems 55

5 Electrical and Magnetic Circuits 59

5.1 Electric Circuits 59

5.1.1 Kirchhoff's Current Law 59

5.1.2 Kirchhoff's Voltage Law 60

5.1.3 Constitutive Relationship: Ohm's Law 60

5.2 Magnetic Circuit Analogies 62

5.2.1 Analogy to KCL 62

5.2.2 Analogy to KVL: Magnetomotive Force 62

5.2.3 Analogy to Ohm's Law: Reluctance 63

5.2.4 Simple Case 64

5.2.5 Flux Confinement 64

5.2.6 Example: C-Core 65

5.2.7 Example: Core with Different Gaps 66

5.3 Problems 66

6 Transformers 71

6.1 Single-phase Transformers 71

6.1.1 Ideal Transformers 72

6.1.2 Deviations from an Ideal Transformer 73

6.1.3 Autotransformers 75

6.2 Three-phase Transformers 76

6.2.1 Example 78

6.2.2 Example: Grounding or Zigzag Transformer 80

6.3 Problems 81

7 Polyphase Lines and Single-phase Equivalents 87

7.1 Polyphase Transmission and Distribution Lines 87

7.1.1 Example 89

7.2 Introduction to Per-unit Systems 90

7.2.1 Normalization of Voltage and Current 90

7.2.2 Three-phase Systems 91

7.2.3 Networks with Transformers 92

7.2.4 Transforming from One Base to Another 92

7.2.5 Example: Fault Study 93

7.2.5.1 One-line Diagram of the Situation 93

7.3 Appendix: Inductances of Transmission Lines 95

7.3.1 Single Wire 95

7.3.2 Mutual Inductance 96

7.3.3 Bundles of Conductors 97

7.3.4 Transposed Lines 98

7.4 Problems 98

8 Electromagnetic Forces and Loss Mechanisms 103

8.1 Energy Conversion Process 103

8.1.1 Principle of Virtual Work 104

8.1.1.1 Example: Lifting Magnet 106

8.1.2 Co-energy 107

8.1.2.1 Example: Co-energy Force Problem 107

8.1.2.2 Electric Machine Model 108

8.2 Continuum Energy Flow 109

8.2.1 Material Motion 110

8.2.2 Additional Issues in Energy Methods 111

8.2.2.1 Co-energy in Continuous Media 111

8.2.2.2 Permanent Magnets 112

8.2.2.3 Energy in the Flux-Current Plane 113

8.2.3 Electric Machine Description 115

8.2.4 Field Description of Electromagnetic Force: The Maxwell Stress Tensor 117

8.2.5 Tying the Maxwell Stress Tensor and Poynting Approaches Together 119

8.2.5.1 Simple Description of a Linear Induction Motor 120

8.3 Surface Impedance of Uniform Conductors 122

8.3.1 Linear Case 123

8.3.2 Iron 125

8.3.3 Magnetization 126

8.3.4 Saturation and Hysteresis 126

8.3.5 Conduction, Eddy Currents, and Laminations 129

8.3.5.1 Complete Penetration Case 129

8.3.6 Eddy Currents in Saturating Iron 131

8.4 Semi-empirical Method of Handling Iron Loss 133

8.5 Problems 136

References 141

9 Synchronous Machines 143

9.1 Round Rotor Machines: Basics 144

9.1.1 Operation with a Balanced Current Source 145

9.1.2 Operation with a Voltage Source 145

9.2 Reconciliation of Models 147

9.2.1 Torque Angles 148

9.3 Per-unit Systems 148

9.4 Normal Operation 149

9.4.1 Capability Diagram 150

9.4.2 Vee Curve 150

9.5 Salient Pole Machines: Two-reaction Theory 151

9.6 Synchronous Machine Dynamics 155

9.7 Synchronous Machine Dynamic Model 155

9.7.1 Electromagnetic Model 156

9.7.2 Park's Equations 157

9.7.3 Power and Torque 160

9.7.4 Per-unit Normalization 160

9.7.5 Equivalent Circuits 163

9.7.6 Transient Reactances and Time Constants 164

9.8 Statement of Simulation Model 165

9.8.1 Example: Transient Stability 166

9.8.2 Equal Area Transient Stability Criterion 166

9.9 Appendix 1: Transient Stability Code 169

9.10 Appendix 2: Winding Inductance Calculation 172

9.10.1 Pitch Factor 175

9.10.2 Breadth Factor 175

9.11 Problems 177

10 System Analysis and Protection 181

10.1 The Symmetrical Component Transformation 181

10.2 Sequence Impedances 184

10.2.1 Balanced Transmission Lines 184

10.2.2 Balanced Load 185

10.2.3 Possibly Unbalanced Loads 186

10.2.4 Unbalanced Sources 187

10.2.5 Rotating Machines 189

10.2.6 Transformers 189

10.2.6.1 Example: Rotation of Symmetrical Component Currents 190

10.2.6.2 Example: Reconstruction of Currents 191

10.3 Fault Analysis 192

10.3.1 Single Line-Neutral Fault 192

10.3.2 Double Line-Neutral Fault 193

10.3.3 Line-Line Fault 193

10.3.4 Example of Fault Calculations 194

10.3.4.1 Symmetrical Fault 195

10.3.4.2 Single Line-Neutral Fault 195

10.3.4.3 Double Line-Neutral Fault 196

10.3.4.4 Line-Line Fault 197

10.3.4.5 Conversion to Amperes 198

10.4 System Protection 198

10.4.1 Fuses 199

10.5 Switches 199

10.6 Coordination 200

10.6.1 Ground Overcurrent 200

10.7 Impedance Relays 201

10.7.1 Directional Elements 202

10.8 Differential Relays 202

10.8.1 Ground Fault Protection for Personnel 203

10.9 Zones of System Protection 203

10.10 Problems 204

11 Load Flow 211

11.1 Two Ports and Lines 211

11.1.1 Power Circles 212

11.2 Load Flow in a Network 214

11.3 Gauss-Seidel Iterative Technique 216

11.4 Bus Types 217

11.5 Bus Admittance 217

11.5.1 Bus Incidence 217

11.5.2 Example Network 218

11.5.3 Alternative Assembly of Bus Admittance 219

11.6 Newton-Raphson Method for Load Flow 220

11.6.1 Generator Buses 222

11.6.2 Decoupling 222

11.6.3 Example Calculations 223

11.7 Problems 223

11.8 Appendix: Matlab Scripts to Implement Load Flow Techniques 226

11.8.1 Gauss-Seidel Routine 226

11.8.2 Newton-Raphson Routine 228

11.8.3 Decoupled Newton-Raphson Routine 230

12 Power Electronics and Converters in Power Systems 233

12.1 Switching Devices 233

12.1.1 Diodes 234

12.1.2 Thyristors 234

12.1.3 Bipolar Transistors 235

12.2 Rectifier Circuits 236

12.2.1 Full-wave Rectifier 237

12.2.1.1 Full-wave Bridge with Resistive Load 237

12.2.1.2 Phase-control Rectifier 238

12.2.1.3 Phase Control into an Inductive Load 240

12.2.1.4 AC Phase Control 242

12.2.1.5 Rectifiers for DC Power Supplies 242

12.3 DC-DC Converters 243

12.3.1 Pulse Width Modulation 246

12.3.2 Boost Converter 247

12.3.2.1 Continuous Conduction 247

12.3.2.2 Discontinuous Conduction 249

12.3.2.3 Unity Power Factor Supplies 250

12.4 Canonical Cell 251

12.4.1 Bidirectional Converter 251

12.4.2 H-Bridge 252

12.5 Three-phase Bridge Circuits 254

12.5.1 Rectifier Operation 254

12.5.2 Phase Control 257

12.5.3 Commutation Overlap 257

12.5.4 AC Side Current Harmonics 259

12.5.4.1 Power Supply Rectifiers 261

12.5.4.2 PWM Capable Switch Bridge 262

12.6 Unified Power Flow Controller 264

12.7 High-voltage DC Transmission 267

12.8 Basic Operation of a Converter Bridge 268

12.8.1 Turn-on Switch 268

12.8.2 Inverter Terminal 269

12.9 Achieving High Voltage 270

12.10 Problems 271

13 System Dynamics and Energy Storage 277

13.1 Load-Frequency Relationship 277

13.2 Energy Balance 277

13.2.1 Natural Response 278

13.2.2 Feedback Control 279

13.2.3 Droop Control 280

13.2.4 Isochronous Control 281

13.3 Synchronized Areas 282

13.3.1 Area Control Error 282

13.3.2 Synchronizing Dynamics 283

13.3.3 Feedback Control to Drive ACE to Zero 284

13.4 Inverter Connection 285

13.4.1 Overview of Connection 286

13.4.2 Filters 287

13.4.3 Measurement 288

13.4.4 Phase Locked Loop 289

13.4.5 Control Loops 290

13.4.6 Grid-following (Slave) Inverter 291

13.4.7 Grid-forming (Master) Inverter 291

13.4.8 Droop-controlled Inverter 292

13.5 Energy Storage 292

13.5.1 Time Scales 293

13.5.2 Batteries 293

13.5.2.1 Simplest Battery Model 294

13.5.2.2 Diffusion Model 294

13.5.2.3 Model Including State of Charge 295

13.6 Problems 296

14 Induction Machines 299

14.1 Introduction 299

14.2 Induction Machine Transformer Model 301

14.2.1 Operation: Energy Balance 307

14.2.1.1 Simplified Torque Estimation 309

14.2.1.2 Torque Summary 310

14.2.2 Example of Operation 310

14.2.3 Motor Performance Requirements 312

14.2.3.1 Effect of Rotor Resistance 312

14.3 Squirrel-cage Machines 313

14.4 Single-phase Induction Motors 314

14.4.1 Rotating Fields 314

14.4.2 Power Conversion in the Single-phase Induction Machine 315

14.4.3 Starting of Single-phase Induction Motors 316

14.4.3.1 Shaded Pole Motors 317

14.4.3.2 Split-phase Motors 317

14.4.4 Split-phase Operation 318

14.4.4.1 Example Motor 319

14.5 Induction Generators 321

14.6 Induction Motor Control 322

14.6.1 Volts/Hz Control 323

14.6.2 Field-oriented Control 323

14.6.3 Elementary Model 324

14.6.4 Simulation Model 325

14.6.5 Control Model 326

14.6.6 Field-oriented Strategy 327

14.7 Doubly-fed Induction Machines 329

14.7.1 Steady-state Operation 331

14.8 Appendix 1: Squirrel-cage Machine Model 334

14.8.1 Rotor Currents and Induced Flux 334

14.8.2 Squirrel-cage Currents 335

14.9 Appendix 2: Single-phase Squirrel-cage Model 339

14.10 Appendix 3: Induction Machine Winding Schemes 341

14.10.1 Winding Factor for Concentric Windings 344

14.11 Problems 345

References 350

15 DC (Commutator) Machines 351

15.1 Geometry 351

15.2 Torque Production 352

15.3 Back Voltage 353

15.4 Operation 354

15.4.1 Shunt Operation 355

15.4.2 Separately Excited 356

15.4.2.1 Armature Voltage Control 357

15.4.2.2 Field Weakening Control 357

15.4.2.3 Dynamic Braking 358

15.4.3 Machine Capability 358

15.5 Series Connection 359

15.6 Universal Motors 361

15.7 Commutator 362

15.7.1 Commutation Interpoles 362

15.7.2 Compensation 364

15.8 Compound-wound DC Machines 365

15.9 Problems 367

16 Permanent Magnets in Electric Machines 371

16.1 Permanent Magnets 371

16.1.1 Permanent Magnets in Magnetic Circuits 373

16.1.2 Load Line Analysis 373

16.1.2.1 Very Hard Magnets 374

16.1.2.2 Surface Magnet Analysis 375

16.1.2.3 Amperian Currents 376

16.2 Commutator Machines 376

16.2.1 Voltage 378

16.2.2 Armature Resistance 379

16.3 Brushless PM Machines 380

16.4 Motor Morphologies 380

16.4.1 Surface Magnet Machines 380

16.4.2 Interior Magnet, Flux-concentrating Machines 381

16.4.3 Operation 382

16.4.3.1 Voltage and Current: Round Rotor 382

16.4.4 A Little Two-reaction Theory 384

16.4.5 Finding Torque Capability 387

16.4.5.1 Optimal Currents 388

16.4.5.2 Rating 389

16.5 Problems 393

Reference 396

Index 397
JAMES L. KIRTLEY is Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. He has also worked for General Electric, Large Steam Turbine Generator Department, as an Electrical Engineer, for Satcon Technology Corporation as Vice President, Chief Scientist and General Manager of the Tech Center, USA, and was Gastdozent at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland.

J. L. Kirtley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology