John Wiley & Sons Heating, Cooling, Lighting Cover The essential guide to environmental control systems in building design For over 25 years Heating, .. Product #: 978-1-119-58574-9 Regular price: $120.56 $120.56 Auf Lager

Heating, Cooling, Lighting

Sustainable Design Strategies Towards Net Zero Architecture

Lechner, Norbert M. / Andrasik, Patricia

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5. Auflage Dezember 2021
832 Seiten, Hardcover
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ISBN: 978-1-119-58574-9
John Wiley & Sons

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The essential guide to environmental control systems in building design

For over 25 years Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Strategies Towards Net Zero Architecture has provided architects and design professionals the knowledge and tools required to design a sustainable built environment at the schematic design stage. This Fifth Edition offers cutting-edge research in the field of sustainable architecture and design and has been completely restructured based on net zero design strategies. Reflecting the latest developments in codes, standards, and rating systems for energy efficiency, Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Strategies Towards Net Zero Architecture includes three new chapters:
* Retrofits: Best practices for efficient energy optimization in existing buildings
* Integrated Design: Strategies for synergizing passive and active design
* Design Tools: How to utilize the best tools to benchmark a building's sustainability and net zero potential

Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Strategies Towards Net Zero Architecture is a go-to resource for practicing professionals and students in the fields of environmental systems technology or design, environmental design systems, construction technology, and sustainability technology.

Foreword to the Fifth Edition

Foreword to the First Edition

Part 1: Fundamentals

Chapter 1: Background: Architecture in a Warming World

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Indigenous and Vernacular Architecture

1.3 Formal Architecture

1.4 Architecture and Energy

1.5 The Architectural Approach to Low-Energy Design

1.6 Climate And Architecture

1.7 Dynamic Versus Static Buildings

1.8 Form, Color and Ornamentation

1.9 Biophilic Design

1.10 Resilient Design

1.11 Sustainability Codes and Voluntary Programs

1.12 The Moral Imperative

1.13 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 2: Climate Change: The Key Sustainability Issue

2.1 Easter Island: Learning from the Past

2.2 Sustainable Design and Climate Change

2.3 Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, and Regenerate by Design

2.4 The Sustainability Movement

2.5 The Basic Causes of Environmental Problems

2.6 Growth

2.7 Exponential Growth

2.8 The Amoeba Analogy

2.9 Supply Versus Efficiency

2.10 Sustainable-Design Issues

2.11 Embodied Energy

2.12 Climate Change

2.13 The Ozone Hole

2.14 Efficiency Versus Renewable Energy

2.15 Energy Sources

2.16 Energy Use in Ancient Greece

2.17 Nonrenewable Fossil Energy Sources

2.18 Nuclear Energy

2.19 Renewable Energy Sources

2.20 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 3: Basic Principles: The Physics of Heat Flow for Heating and Cooling Buildings

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Heat

3.3 Sensible Heat

3.4 Latent Heat

3.5 Evaporative Cooling

3.6 Convection

3.7 Transport

3.8 Energy-Transfer Mediums

3.9 Radiation

3.10 Greenhouse Effect

3.11 Equilibrium Temperature of a Surface

3.12 Mean Radiant Temperature

3.13 Heat Flow

3.14 Heat Sink

3.15 Heat Capacity

3.16 Thermal Resistance

3.17 Heat-Flow Coefficient

3.18 Time Lag

3.19 Insulating Effect of Mass

3.20 Energy Conversion

3.21 Combined Heat and Power

3.22 Off-Site Versus On-Site Renewable Energy

3.23 The Game Changers: Heat Pumps and Batteries

3.24 Net-Zero Buildings

3.25 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Chapter 4: Climate: Its Significant Impact on Buildings

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Climate

4.3 Microclimate

4.4 Climatic Anomalies

4.5 Climate Regions in a Time of Climate Change

4.6 Explanations of the Climatic Data Tables

4.7 Relative Heating and Cooling Loads

4.8 Climatic Data Tables

4.9 Design Strategies

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 5: Psychometrics: Thermal Comfort

5.1 Biological Machine

5.2 Thermal Barriers

5.3 Metabolic Rate

5.4 Thermal Conditions of the Environment

5.5 The Psychrometric Chart

5.6 Dew Point and Wet-Bulb Temperatures

5.7 Heat Content of Air

5.8 Thermal Comfort

5.9 Shifting of the Comfort Zone

5.10 Adaptive Comfort

5.11 Clothing and Comfort

5.12 Strategies

5.13 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 6: Solar Geometry: The Most Powerful Element of Design

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Sun

6.3 Elliptical Orbit

6.4 Tilt of the Earth's Axis

6.5 Consequences of the Altitude Angle

6.6 Winter

6.7 The Sun Revolves Around the Earth!

6.8 The Sky Dome

6.9 Determining Altitude and Azimuth Angles

6.10 Solar Time

6.11 Horizontal Sun-Path Diagrams

6.12 Vertical Sun-Path Diagrams

6.13 Drawing Sunbeams

6.14 Sun-Path Models

6.15 Solar Heat Gain

6.16 Solar Site-Evaluation Tools

6.17 Heliodons

6.18 Sundials for Model Testing

6.19 Conceptually Clear Heliodons

6.20 Solar Responsive Design Strategies

6.20 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Part 2: Passive Design Strategies

Chapter 7: Passive Heating Systems: The Solar Potential of Natural Heating

7.1 History

7.2 Solar in America

7.3 Solar Hemicycle

7.4 Latest Rediscovery of Passive Solar

7.5 Passive Solar

7.6 Direct-Gain Systems

7.7 Design Guidelines for Direct-Gain Systems

7.8 Example

7.9 Trombe Wall Systems

7.10 Design Guidelines for Trombe Wall Systems

7.11 Example

7.12 Sunspaces

7.13 Balcomb House

7.14 Sunspace Design Guidelines

7.15 Comparison of the Three Main Passive Heating Systems

7.16 General Considerations for Passive Solar Systems

7.17 Heat-Storage Materials

7.18 Other Passive Heating Systems

7.19 Maximizing Passive Solar

7.20 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 8: Solar Rejection: Shading and Light Colors

8.1 Introduction to Solar Rejection

8.2 History of Shading And Light Colors

8.3 Shading Myths

8.4 Shading Basics

8.5 Fixed Exterior Shading Devices

8.6 Dynamic (Movable) Shading Devices

8.7 Shading Periods of the Year

8.8 Overhangs

8.9 Design of Horizontal Overhangs: Basic Graphical Method

8.10 Shading Design Strategies for South Windows

8.11 Shading Design Strategies for East and West Windows

8.12 Design of Fins on North Windows

8.13 Design Guidelines for Eggcrate Shading Devices

8.14 Special Shading Strategies

8.15 Shading Outdoor Spaces

8.16 Using Physical Models for Shading Design

8.17 Glazing as the Shading Element

8.18 Interior Shading Devices

8.19 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient

8.20 Roof and Wall Reflectivity

8.21 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 9: Passive Cooling: Natural Cooling, Raising the Comfort Zone, and Heat Avoidance

9.1 Introduction to Cooling

9.2 Historical and Indigenous Use of Passive Cooling

9.3 Passive Cooling Systems

9.4 Comfort Ventilation Versus Night-Flush Cooling

9.5 Basic Principles of Airflow

9.6 Airflow Through Buildings

9.7 Example of Ventilation Design

9.8 Comfort Ventilation

9.9 Night-Flush Cooling

9.10 Double-Skin Facades and Operable Roofs

9.11 Radiant Cooling

9.12 Evaporative Cooling

9.13 Cool Towers

9.14 Earth Cooling

9.15 Dehumidification with a Desiccant

9.16 Solar Chimney

9.17 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 10: Site Analysis: Orientation, Landscape and Context in Net-Zero Design

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Analysis

10.3 Site Selection

10.4 Solar Access

10.5 Shadow Patterns

10.6 Site Planning

10.7 Solar Zoning

10.8 Physical Models

10.9 Wind and Site Design

10.10 Plants and Vegetation

10.11 Vegetated Roofs

10.12 Lawns

10.13 Landscaping

10.14 Community Design

10.15 Cooling Our Communities

10.16 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 11: Light: Color, Vision, and Perception

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Light

11.3 Reflectance/Transmittance

11.4 Color

11.5 Vision

11.6 Perception

11.7 Performance of a Visual Task

11.8 Characteristics of the Visual Task

11.9 Illumination Level

11.10 Brightness Ratios

11.11 Glare

11.12 Equivalent Spherical Illumination

11.13 Activity Needs

11.14 Biological Needs

11.15 Light and Health

11.16 The Poetry of Light

11.17 Rules for Lighting Design

11.18 Career Possibilities

11.19 Conclusion

Exective Summary

References

Chapter 12: Daylighting: Architectural Control for Natural Beauty, Comfort, and Energy Reduction

12.1 History of Daylighting

12.2 Why Daylighting?

12.3 The Nature of Daylight

12.4 Conceptual Model

12.5 Illumination and the Daylight Factor

12.6 Light Without Heat?

12.7 Cool Daylight

12.8 Goals of Daylighting

12.9 Basic Daylighting Strategies

12.10 Basic Window Strategies

12.11 Advanced Window Strategies

12.12 Window Glazing Materials

12.13 Top Lighting

12.14 Skylight Strategies

12.15 Clerestories, Monitors, and Light Scoops

12.16 Special Daylighting Techniques

12.17 Translucent Walls and Roofs

12.18 Electric Lighting as a Supplement to Daylighting

12.19 Physical Modeling

12.20 Guidelines for Daylighting

12.21 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 13: The Thermal Envelope: Keeping Warm and Staying Cool

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Heat Loss

13.3 Heat Gain

13.4 Solar Reflectivity (Albedo)

13.5 Compactness, Exposed Area, and Thermal Planning

13.6 Insulation Materials

13.7 The Thermal Envelope

13.8 Heat Bridges

13.9 Windows

13.10 Dynamic Insulation

13.11 Insulating Effect from Thermal Mass

13.12 Earth Sheltering

13.13 Infiltration and Ventilation

13.14 Water: The Enemy of Architecture

13.15 Radon

13.16 Appliances

13.17 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 14: Retrofits: Energy Efficiency Upgrades for Existing Buildings

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Goals for the Energy Upgrade

14.3 Envelope Upgrades

14.4 Lighting

14.5 Mechanical Equipment

14.6 Hot Water

14.7 Appliances

14.8 Renewable Energy

14.9 Miscellaneous

14.10 Case Studies

Exective Summary

Chapter 15: Tropical Architecture: Not Your Temperate Architecture

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Traditional Tropical Architecture

15.3 The Tropical Climate

15.4 The Solar Geometry of the Tropics

15.5 Shading in Tropical Climates

15.6 Daylighting in the Tropics

15.7 Passive Cooling

15.8 Air-Conditioned Buildings in the Tropics

15.9 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Part 3: Active Design Strategies

Chapter 16: Electric Lighting: To Complement Daylight and at Night

16.1 Introduction

16.2 History of Light Sources

16.3 Light Sources

16.4 Incandescent and Halogen Lamps

16.5 Discharge Lamps

16.6 Fluorescent Lamps

16.7 High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

16.8 Light-Emitting Diodes (Leds)

16.9 Comparison of the Major Lighting Sources

16.10 Luminaires

16.11 Lenses, Diffusers, and Baffles

16.12 Lighting Systems

16.13 Remote-Source Lighting Systems

16.14 Visualizing Light Distribution

16.15 Architectural Lighting

16.16 Outdoor Lighting

16.17 Emergency Lighting

16.18 Controls

16.19 Maintenance

16.20 Rules for Energy-Efficient Electric Lighting Design

16.21 Laws and Standards

16.22 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 17: Photovoltaics and Solar Thermal

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Almost Ideal Energy Source

17.3 History of PV

17.4 The PV Cell

17.5 Types of PV Systems

17.6 Balance of System Equipment

17.7 Site-Integrated Photovoltaics

17.8 Glazing and PV

17.9 Orientation and Tilt

17.10 Design Guidelines

17.11 The Promise of PV

17.12 Sizing a PV System

17.13 The Cost-Effectiveness of PV versus Solar Thermal Applications

17.14 Solar Thermal Basics

17.15 Solar Thermal Swimming-Pool Heating

17.16 Solar Hot-Water Systems

17.17 Passive Solar Thermal Systems

17.18 Solar Hot-Air Collectors

17.19 Preheating of Ventilation Air

17.20 Designing a Solar Thermal System

17.21 The Future of Solar Thermal

17.22 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Chapter 18: Mechanical Equipment for Heating and Cooling

16.1 Introduction

18.2 Heating

18.3 Thermal Zones

18.4 Heating Systems

18.5 Electric Heating

18.6 Hot-Water (Hydronic) Heating

18.7 Hot-Air Systems

18.8 Cooling

18.9 Refrigeration Cycles

18.10 Heat Pumps

18.11 Geo-Exchange

18.12 Cooling Systems

18.13 Air-Conditioning for Small Buildings

18.14 Air-Conditioning for Large Multistory Buildings

18.15 Design Guidelines for Mechanical Systems

18.16 Air Supply (Ducts and Diffusers)

18.17 Ventilation

18.18 Energy-Efficient Ventilation Systems

18.19 Air Filtration and Odor Removal

18.20 Special Systems

18.21 Integrated and Exposed Mechanical Equipment

18.22 Low-Energy Heating and Cooling

18.23 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Resources

Part 4: Integrated Design

Chapter 19: Synergies: When the Whole is Greater than the Sum of the Parts

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Strategies

19.3 Synergies

19.4 Case Studies

19.5 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Part 5: Tools

Chapter 20: Integrated Design Process

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Definition

20.3 Differences

20.4 Coordination

20.5 Documentation

20.6 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Chapter 21: Codes

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Sustainability Codes

21.3 History

21.4 Current Model Codes

21.5 Reference Standards

21.6 Government Initiatives

21.7 Non-Governmental Initiatives

21.8 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Chapter 22: Checklistfor Designing Net-Zero Buildings

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Site Selection

22.3 Form

22.4 Plan

22.5 Windows

22.6 Daylighting

22.7 Shading

22.8 Color

22.9 Thermal Envelope

22.10 Thermal Mass

22.11 Glazing

22.12 Air Barrier

22.13 Passive Systems

22.14 Electric Lighting

22.15 Mechanical Equipment

22.16 Behavioral Controls

22.17 Renewable Technology

Chapter 23: Assessment

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Global Rating Systems

23.3 Process

23.4 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Chapter 24: Digital

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Building Performance Analytics

24.3 Methodology

24.4 Challenges

24.5 Conclusion

Executive Summary

Appendix A:Horizontal Sun-Path Diagrams

Steps for Converting Sun-Path Charts for Use in the Southern Hemisphere

Appendix B:Vertical Sun-Path Diagrams

Steps for Converting Sun-Path Charts for Use in the Southern Hemisphere

Appendix C: Solar Altitude and Azimuth Angles

Appendix D: Methods for Estimating the Height of Trees, Buildings, and the Like

D.1 Proportional-Shadow Method

D.2 Similar-Triangle Method

D.3 45° Right-Triangle Method

D.4 Trigonometric Method

D.5 Tools for Measuring Vertical Angles

Appendix E:Sundials

Appendix F:Sun-Path Models

F.1 Introduction

F.2 Directions for Constructing a Sun-Path Model

Appendix G:The Water Table for Ventilation Studies

G.1 Introduction

G.2 Construction of a Water Table

Appendix H:Site Evaluation Tools

H.1 Introduction

H.2 The Solar Pathfinder

H.3 The Suneye

H.4 The Sun Locator

H.5 Do-It-Yourself Solar Site Evaluator

Appendix I:Heliodons

I.1 Introduction

I.2 The Sun Simulator Heliodon

I.3 The Sun Emulator Heliodon

I.4 The Tabletop Heliodon

I.5 The Bowling Ball Heliodon

Appendix J: Tables of R-Values

Appendix K:Resources

K.1 Journals

K.2 Videos

K.3 Organizations

K.5 Web-Based Resources

Appendix L:Conversion Factors Between the Inch-Pound (I-P) System and the International System of Units (SI)

Appendix M: Sizing a PV Array

M.1 Finding the PV Array Size for a Stand-Alone Building by the Short Calculation Method

M.3 Design Guidelines

Bibliography
NORBERT LECHNER, LEED AP (Chapel Hill, NC) Architect and Professor Emeritus of Architecture in the Building Science Department at Auburn University, is an expert in energy responsive architectural design with an emphasis on solar responsive design, including daylighting. He is a consultant for designing sustainable, low energy, and solar responsive buildings, and is the inventor of new types of heliodons that are invaluable for teaching and designing solar responsive buildings.

PATRICIA ANDRASIK, NCARB, AIA, IIDA, LEED BD+C, LEED O+M (Washington, D.C.) Associate Dean for Undergraduate Studies and Assistant Professor in the School of Architecture and Planning at The Catholic University of America, is a licensed architect in Washington, D.C. and is internationally recognized for her research in informing design through performance metrics and using performance metrics to inform O&M.