John Wiley & Sons Paleoclimatology Cover Life on our planet depends upon having a climate that changes within narrow limits - not too hot for.. Product #: 978-1-119-59138-2 Regular price: $74.19 $74.19 Auf Lager

Paleoclimatology

From Snowball Earth to the Anthropocene

Summerhayes, Colin P.

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1. Auflage August 2020
560 Seiten, Softcover
Lehrbuch

ISBN: 978-1-119-59138-2
John Wiley & Sons

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Life on our planet depends upon having a climate that changes within narrow limits - not too hot for the oceans to boil away nor too cold for the planet to freeze over. Over the past billion years Earth's average temperature has stayed close to 14-15°C, oscillating between warm greenhouse states and cold icehouse states. We live with variation, but a variation with limits. Paleoclimatology is the science of understanding and explaining those variations, those limits, and the forces that control them. Without that understanding we will not be able to foresee future change accurately as our population grows. Our impact on the planet is now equal to a geological force, such that many geologists now see us as living in a new geological era - the Anthropocene.

Paleoclimatology describes Earth's passage through the greenhouse and icehouse worlds of the past 800 million years, including the glaciations of Snowball Earth in a world that was then free of land plants. It describes the operation of the Earth's thermostat, which keeps the planet fit for life, and its control by interactions between greenhouse gases, land plants, chemical weathering, continental motions, volcanic activity, orbital change and solar variability. It explains how we arrived at our current understanding of the climate system, by reviewing the contributions of scientists since the mid-1700s, showing how their ideas were modified as science progressed. And it includes reflections based on the author's involvement in palaeoclimatic research.

The book will transform debate and set the agenda for the next generation of thought about future climate change. It will be an invaluable course reference for undergraduate and postgraduate students in geology, climatology, oceanography and the history of science.

Author Biography xi

Acknowledgement xiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 What is Palaeoclimatology? 1

1.2 What Can Palaeoclimatology Tell Us About Future Climate Change? 2

1.3 Using Numerical Models to Aid Understanding 4

1.4 The Structure of This Book 4

1.5 Why is This History Not More Widely Known? 6

References 7

2 The Great Cooling 9

2.1 The Founding Fathers 9

2.2 Charles Lyell, 'Father of Palaeoclimatology' 13

2.3 Agassiz Discovers the Ice Age 19

2.4 Lyell Defends Icebergs 22

References 28

3 Ice Age Cycles 31

3.1 The Astronomical Theory of Climate Change 31

3.2 James Croll Develops the Theory 33

3.3 Lyell Responds 35

3.4 Croll Defends His Position 36

3.5 Even More Ancient Ice Ages 37

3.6 Not Everyone Agrees 38

References 39

4 Trace Gases Warm The Planet 41

4.1 De Saussure's Hot Box 41

4.2 William Herschel's Accidental Discovery 41

4.3 Discovering Carbon Dioxide 42

4.4 Fourier, the 'Newton of Heat' Discovers the 'Greenhouse Effect' 43

4.5 Tyndall Shows How the 'Greenhouse Effect' Works 44

4.6 Arrhenius Calculates How CO2 Affects Air Temperature 47

4.7 Chamberlin's Theory of Gases and Ice Ages 49

References 53

5 Changing Geography Through Time 57

5.1 The Continents Drift 57

5.2 The Sea Floor Spreads 63

5.3 The Dating Game 71

5.4 Base Maps for Palaeoclimatology 72

5.5 The Evolution of the Modern World 74

References 77

6 Mapping Past Climates 81

6.1 Climate Indicators 81

6.2 Palaeoclimatologists Get to Work 82

6.3 Refining Palaeolatitudes 86

6.4 Oxygen Isotopes to the Rescue 87

6.5 Cycles and Astronomy 88

6.6 Pangaean Palaeoclimates (Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic) 91

6.7 Post-Break Up Palaeoclimates (Jurassic, Cretaceous) 97

6.8 Numerical Models Make Their Appearance 104

6.9 From Wegener to Barron 110

References 110

7 Into the Icehouse 117

7.1 Climate Clues from the Deep Ocean 117

7.2 Palaeoceanography 118

7.3 The World's Freezer 124

7.4 The Drill Bit Turns 126

7.5 Global Cooling 131

7.6 Arctic Glaciation 138

References 141

8 Greenhouse Gas Theory Matures 147

8.1 CO2 in the Atmosphere and Ocean (1930-1955) 147

8.2 CO2 in the Atmosphere and Ocean (1955-1979) 149

8.3 CO2 in the Atmosphere and Ocean (1979-1983) 161

8.4 Biogeochemistry: The Merging of Physics and Biology 166

8.5 The Carbon Cycle 167

8.6 Ocean Carbon 170

8.7 A Growing International Emphasis 173

8.8 Reflection on Developments 174

References 176

9 Measuring and Modelling CO2 Back Through Time 183

9.1 CO2 - The Palaeoclimate Perspective 183

9.2 Modelling CO2 Back Through Time 187

9.3 The Critics Gather 191

9.4 Fossil CO2 197

9.5 Measuring CO2 Back Through Time 199

9.6 CO2, Temperature, Solar Luminosity, and the Ordovician Glaciation 204

9.7 Some Summary Remarks 215

References 216

10 The Pulse of the Earth 223

10.1 Climate Cycles and Tectonic Forces 223

10.2 Ocean Chemistry 232

10.3 Black Shales 235

10.4 Sea Level 238

10.5 Biogeochemical Cycles, Gaia and Cybertectonic Earth 240

10.6 Meteorite Impacts 242

10.7 Massive Volcanic Eruptions and Biological Extinctions 246

10.8 An Outrageous Hypothesis: Snowball Earth 252

References 259

11 Numerical Climate Models and Case Histories 267

11.1 CO2 and General Circulation Models 267

11.2 Climate Sensitivity 270

11.3 CO2 and Climate in the Early Cenozoic 272

11.4 The First Great Ice Sheet 276

11.5 Hyperthermal Events 280

11.6 Case History - The Palaeocene - Eocene Boundary 282

11.7 Case History - The Mid - Miocene Climatic Optimum 287

11.8 Case History - The Pliocene 296

References 305

12 Solving the Ice Age Mystery - The Deep Ocean Solution 315

12.1 Astronomical Drivers 315

12.2 An Ice Age Climate Signal Emerges from the Deep Ocean 317

12.3 Flip-Flops in the Conveyor 324

12.4 Ice Age CO2 Signal Hidden on Deep Sea Floor 326

12.5 A Surprise Millennial Signal Emerges 327

12.6 Ice Age Productivity 331

12.7 Observations on Deglaciation and Past Interglacials 333

12.8 Sea Level 335

12.9 Natural Climatic Envelopes 337

References 338

13 Solving the Ice Age Mystery - The Ice Core Tale 345

13.1 The Great Ice Sheets 345

13.2 The Greenland Story 347

13.3 Antarctic Ice 350

13.4 Seesaws 354

13.5 CO2 in the Ice Age Atmosphere 362

13.6 The Ultimate Climate Flicker - The Younger Dryas Event 373

13.7 Problems in the Milankovitch Garden 374

13.8 The Mechanics of Change 377

References 395

14 The Holocene Interglacial 403

14.1 Holocene Climate Change 403

14.2 The Role of Greenhouse Gases - Carbon Dioxide and Methane 417

14.3 Climate Variability 427

References 432

15 The Late Holocene and the Anthropocene 437

15.1 The Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age 437

15.2 Solar Activity and Cosmic Rays 455

15.3 Volcanoes and Climate 466

15.4 Sea Level 468

15.5 The End of the Little Ice Age 476

15.6 The Anthropocene 490

References 494

16 Putting It All Together 507

16.1 A Fast Evolving Subject 507

16.2 Natural Envelopes of Climate Change - Earth's Thermostat 508

16.3 Evolving Knowledge 510

16.4 Where is Climate Headed? 515

16.5 Some Final Remarks 518

16.6 What Can Be Done? 520

References 523

Appendix 1: Further Reading 527

Appendix 2: List of Figure Sources and Attributions 529

Index 539
About the Author

Colin P. Summerhayes is an Emeritus Associate of the Scott Polar Research Institute of Cambridge University. He has carried out research and managed research programmes on aspects of past climate change in academia, in government laboratories, in intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and in industry since obtaining a PhD in Geochemistry from Imperial College, London, in 1970.

The cover shows a view of some the numerous small crevassed glaciers typical of the Antarctic Peninsula, which are seen here cutting across the Mid-Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous volcanic rocks of the exposed magmatic core of the ancient island arc underlying the Peninsula, on the east side of the northern entrance to the Lemaire Channel.

C. P. Summerhayes, Southampton Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, UK