John Wiley & Sons Skin Microbiome Handbook Cover The idea to compile and edit the book is the result of over a decade of work by the editor, Dr. Nava.. Product #: 978-1-119-59223-5 Regular price: $195.24 $195.24 Auf Lager

Skin Microbiome Handbook

From Basic Research to Product Development

Dayan, Nava (Herausgeber)

Cover

1. Auflage Oktober 2020
432 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-59223-5
John Wiley & Sons

Jetzt kaufen

Preis: 205,00 €

Preis inkl. MwSt, zzgl. Versand

Weitere Versionen

epubmobipdf

The idea to compile and edit the book is the result of over a decade of work by the editor, Dr. Nava Dayan, on various projects related to skin barrier, innate immunity, microbiome, developing products, testing methods and paths of products to the market, both for pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industries.

The book is a summary of current status of knowledge, research tools and approaches in skin microbiome, in health and disease. It contains the following categories: healthy skin microbiome and oral-skin interaction, skin microbiome observational research, skin microbiome in disequilibrium and disease, skin's innate immunity, testing and study design, regulatory and legal aspects for skin microbiome related products.

The 18 chapters of the book are written by carefully selected leaders in the academia, industry exhibiting extensive experience and understanding in the areas of interest.

Preface xvii

Part 1: Healthy Skin Microbiome and Oral-Skin Interactions 1

1 The Microbiome of Healthy Skin 3

Samantha Samaras and Michael Hoptroff

1.1 Introduction 3

1.1.1 Retrospective 3

1.1.2 Next Generation Sequencing 6

1.2 The Skin Microbiome in Health 7

1.2.1 Composition 7

1.2.2 Diversity 10

1.2.3 Uniqueness 13

1.3 Healthy Skin is the Foundation of a Balanced Skin Microbiome 14

1.3.1 Physical Aspects of Skin Impacting the Microbiome 14

1.3.2 Biochemical and Defensive Aspects of Skin Impacting the Microbiome 16

1.3.2.1 The Acid Mantle 16

1.3.2.2 Antimicrobial Lipids (AMLs) 16

1.3.2.3 Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) 17

1.3.3 Nutritional and Microenvironmental Aspects of Skin Impacting the Microbiome 18

1.3.3.1 Amino Acids 18

1.3.3.2 Sebaceous Lipids 19

1.3.3.3 Organic Acids and Other Materials 19

1.4 A Balanced Skin Microbiome Supports the Normal Functioning of Healthy Skin 20

1.4.1 Pathogen Exclusion 20

1.4.2 Contribution to Skin pH 20

1.4.3 Microbial Contribution to Skin Barrier Integrity 21

1.5 Conclusion 22

Acknowledgments 23

References 23

2 The Gut Microbiome-Skin Axis: Impact on Skin and Systemic Health 33

David Drake

2.1 Introduction 34

2.2 The Gut-Skin Microbiome Axis 35

2.3 The Gut-Skin Microbiome Axis: Principle Pathways 35

2.4 Dysbiosis of the Gut Microbiome and Skin Dyshomeostasis 37

2.4.1 Acne Vulgaris 38

2.4.2 Atopic Dermatitis 39

2.5 Summary and Future Directions 39

References 40

3 The Skin and Oral Microbiome: An Examination of Overlap and Potential Interactions between Microbiome Communities 45

Sandra Buerger

3.1 Introduction 45

3.1.1 Focus of the Chapter 45

3.1.2 Definition of Skin Microbiome 47

3.1.3 Definition of Oral Microbiome 48

3.2 Characterization of the Microbiome 48

3.2.1 Variability and Stability of Skin and Oral Microbiome 48

3.2.2 Microbial Community 49

3.2.2.1 Permeant Mutualistic or Commensal Microbes 49

3.2.2.2 Non-Pathogenic Transient Microbes 50

3.2.2.3 Pathogenic Microbes 50

3.3 The Core Skin and Oral Microbiomes 51

3.3.1 Taxonomic Methodology 51

3.3.2 Subgroups of the Microbiome 52

3.3.2.1 Bacteriome 52

3.3.2.2 Mycobiome (and Other Eukaryotic Microbial Members) 52

3.3.2.3 Virome 53

3.4 Interactions Between Skin and Oral Microbiomes 54

3.4.1 Potential for Interactions 54

3.4.2 Quorum Sensing 54

3.4.3 Immune System Development 54

3.4.4 Future Directions 55

3.5 Conclusion 55

Acknowledgments 56

References 56

Part 2: Skin Microbiome Observational Research 59

4 Skin Microbiome Alterations in Skin Diseases 61

Travis Whitfill, Gilles R. Dubé and Julia Oh

4.1 Introduction and Background 61

4.2 Interactions Between Microbes and Host 62

4.3 Summary of Known Associations Between Skin Dysbioses and Skin Diseases 64

4.3.1 The Role of S. Aureus in Skin Disease 64

4.3.2 Atopic Dermatitis 64

4.3.3 Acne Vulgaris 66

4.3.4 Psoriasis 67

4.4 Skin Dysbioses in Skin Health 68

4.5 Other Skin Conditions 68

4.6 Therapeutic Approaches to Dysbiosis-Associated Skin Diseases 69

4.6.1 Traditional Methods of Treating Dysbiosis-Associated Skin Diseases 69

4.6.1.1 Atopic Dermatitis 69

4.6.1.2 Acne Vulgaris 69

4.6.2 Emerging Therapeutic Approaches to Treating Dysbiosis-Associated Skin Diseases 70

4.7 Conclusion and Future Directions 71

Acknowledgements 71

References 71

5 The Axillary Microbiome and its Relationship with Underarm Odor 79

Alexander Gordon James

5.1 Introduction 80

5.2 Composition of the Axillary Microbiome 86

5.3 16-Androstene Steroids and Axillary Malodour 95

5.4 The Axillary Microbiome, VFAs and Malodour 96

5.5 The Axillary Microbiome, Thioalcohols and Malodour 100

5.6 Perturbation of the Axillary Microbiome 108

5.7 Human Genetics - Influence on Malodour and the Axillary Microbiome 112

5.8 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 115

Acknowledgements 122

References 122

6 Infant Skin Microbiome 131

Georgios N. Stamatas

6.1 Introduction 131

6.2 Infant Skin Maturation 132

6.3 Infant Immune System Maturation 133

6.4 Infant Skin Microbiome Dynamics 134

6.5 Mother-Infant Microbial Transmission 137

6.6 Conclusion 138

References 139

Part 3: Skin Microbiome in Disequilibrium and Disease 143

7 Microbiome of Compromised Skin 145

Sara Farahmand

7.1 Atopic Dermatitis 146

7.2 Psoriasis 148

7.2.1 Diversity 149

7.2.2 Microbiome Composition 151

7.3 Acne 152

7.4 Rosacea 153

7.5 Seborrheic Dermatitis and Dandruff 155

7.6 Exposome, Skin Barrier, and Skin Microbiome 157

7.6.1 Skin Irritation and Microbiome 157

7.6.2 Diaper Dermatitis 157

7.6.3 Occupational Hand Dermatitis 158

7.6.4 Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) and Skin Microbiome 159

7.7 Conclusion 160

References 163

8 Human Cutaneous Ectoparasites: A Brief Overview and Potential Therapeutic Role for Demodex 171

Stephen L. Strobel

8.1 Introduction 171

8.2 Chiggers (Trombiculidae) 172

8.3 Bedbugs (Cimex lectularius and Hemipterus) 173

8.4 Lice 173

8.5 Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei) 174

8.6 Demodex 175

8.7 The Association Between Demodex, Rosacea and Blepharitis 176

8.8 Hypothesis 177

8.9 Demodex Folliculorum as a Drug Delivery Agent for Early Skin Cancer 177

8.10 Limitations 179

8.11 Conclusion 180

8.12 Future Considerations 181

References 182

9 Dysbiosis of the Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis 185

Joyce Cheng and Tissa Hata

9.1 Introduction 185

9.2 The Healthy Skin Microbiome 186

9.3 The Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis 187

9.4 Microbiome-Targeted Treatment Strategies 195

9.5 Conclusion 196

References 196

10 The Skin Microbiome of Inverse Psoriasis 203

Jennifer Chung, Bruce E. Strober and George M. Weinstock

10.1 Introduction 204

10.2 Methods 205

10.2.1 Subject Population 205

10.2.2 Patient Diagnosis and Characteristics of Populations 206

10.2.3 Specimen Collection 206

10.2.4 Sample DNA Extraction and Sequencing 207

10.2.5 Downstream Sequence Processing and Analysis 207

10.3 Results 208

10.3.1 Cohort Metadata 208

10.3.2 Sequencing Information 208

10.3.3 The Skin Microbiome of Intertriginous Lesion and Non-Lesional Sites on Inverse Psoriasis Subjects 208

10.3.3.1 Psoriasis Lesional Status is Associated with Relative Abundance and Presence of Specific Species 208

10.3.3.2 Psoriatic Lesions Trend to Decrease Taxonomic Diversity 210

10.3.3.3 Psoriatic Lesions are Characterized by Greater Intragroup Variability 212

10.3.4 Inverse Psoriasis vs. Plaque Psoriasis vs. Healthy (All Non-Lesion Sites) 212

10.4 Conclusions & Future Plans 212

Acknowledgements 213

References 214

Part 4: Skin's Innate Immunity 217

11 Effects of Endogenous Lipids on the Skin Microbiome 219

Carol L. Fischer and Philip W. Wertz

11.1 Introduction 219

11.2 Sebaceous Lipids -- Source of Fatty Acids 221

11.3 Stratum Corneum Lipids - Source of Long-Chain Bases 223

11.4 Antimicrobial Activity of Fatty Acids 226

11.5 Antimicrobial Activity of Long-Chain Bases 230

11.6 Conclusion 231

References 231

12 Innate Immunity in Epidermis 237

Miroslav Blumenberg

12.1 Introduction 237

12.2 Skin Acts as an Anatomical Physical and Chemical Barrier to Infectious Agents 238

12.3 Epidermal Cells Recognize Conserved Features of Pathogens, as well as the Indicators of Tissue Damage 239

12.4 Defensive Antimicrobial Proteins AMPs 240

12.5 Cytokines, Specific Signals that Activate Inflammation and Further Cellular Protective Mechanisms 242

12.6 Specialized White Blood Cells Identify and Remove Pathogens 243

12.7 Complement System 246

12.8 Innate Immune System Activates the Adaptive Immune System 246

12.9 Antiviral Defenses 247

12.10 Innate Immunity Memory? 247

12.11 Cutaneous Microbiome: A Newly Surfaced Contributor to Innate Immunity 248

12.12 Conclusion 251

12.13 Future Perspectives 252

References 254

Part 5: Testing and Study Design 261

13 Next Generation Sequencing Reveals the Skin Microbiome 263

Niamh B O'Hara

13.1 Introduction 263

13.2 Current Approaches to Test the Microbiome 265

13.3 The Genomics Revolution and Metagenomics 266

13.4 Metagenomics and the Skin Microbiome 267

13.5 Our Work at Biotia 268

13.6 Challenges and Solutions in Metagenomics 269

13.7 The Microbial World is our Oyster 272

13.8 The Future of Metagenomics 273

Acknowledgements 273

References 274

14 Three-Dimensional Human Skin Models to Investigate Skin Innate and Immune-Mediated Responses to Microorganisms 277

Marisa Meloni and Silvia Balzaretti

14.1 State-of-the-Art and Limits of Skin Microbiota Research 277

14.2 Mechanism-Based Approach to Study Host Response to Associated Microbiome: 3D Skin Models 279

14.3 Understanding S. epidermidis and S. aureus Behavior

and Role on Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) 281

14.4 Immuno-Competent Atopic Dermatitis Model 284

14.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 286

References 286

15 Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) In-Vivo Reduction Assay: A Pre-Clinical Pharmacodynamic Assay for Evaluating Antimicrobial/Antibiotic Agents in Development for Acne Treatment 289

Stuart R. Lessin and James J. Leyden

15.1 Acne Pathogenesis and the Role of Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) 290

15.1.1 Introduction 290

15.1.2 Pathogenesis 290

15.1.3 The Role of C. acnes and its Microbiome 290

15.2 Current Therapies and Regulatory Approval 293

15.3 In-Vivo C. acnes Reduction Assay 294

15.4 Correlations of C. acnes Reduction and Clinical Efficacy 297

15.5 Conclusion 300

References 300

Part 6: Regulatory and Legal Aspects for Skin Microbiome Related Products 303

16 Intellectual Property Tools for Protecting, Developing and Growing a Skin Microbiome Brand 305

Jeffrey K. Mills

16.1 Introduction 305

16.2 The Tools of Intellectual Property 306

16.2.1 Patents 306

16.2.2 Trademarks 307

16.2.3 Copyrights 308

16.2.4 Trade Secrets/Know-How 309

16.3 Building an Intellectual Property Portfolio for a Skin Microbiome Brand 310

16.3.1 Patents to Define "The Fence" 310

16.3.1.1 Patents "As Sticks" - Enforcement of Infringement 313

16.3.1.2 Patents "As Financial Boosts" - Licensing and Other Agreements 314

16.3.2 Trademarks to Establish Brand Recognition 315

16.3.3 Copyrights to Maintain Information 317

16.3.4 Trade Secrets/Know-How to Keep A Competitive Edge 318

16.4 Conclusion 320

17 Regulatory Aspects of Probiotics and Other Microbial Products Intended for Skin Care: The European Approach 321

Atte von Wright

17.1 Introduction 322

17.2 The Governing Bodies and Decision-Making in the EU 322

17.2.1 The Legal Instruments of the EU 323

17.3 Probiotic Foods and the European Regulations 324

17.3.1 The Safety Assessment of Microorganisms by EFSA, The QPS Concept 324

17.3.1.1 The Safety Assessment of Non-QPS Microorganisms 327

17.3.2 The Case of GMMs 328

17.3.3 Microorganisms as Novel Foods 329

17.3.4 Human Probiotics and Functional Claims 329

17.4 Probiotic Skin Care Products as Pharmaceuticals 330

17.4.1 The Authorization Procedure for Medicines 331

17.4.1.1 The Centralized Procedure 332

17.4.1.2 National Authorizations and Authorizations by Mutual Recognition or Decentralized Procedures 333

17.4.2 Bacteria as Medical Devices 334

17.5 Probiotics in Cosmetics 335

17.5.1 Safety Aspects 336

17.5.1.1 Microorganisms on Skin - Problems of Safety Evaluation 337

17.5.2 The Permissible Cosmetic Claims in the EU 338

17.6 Conclusions 338

References 340

Legal Acts and Guidance Documents 340

18 Regulation of Probiotic and Other Live Biologic Products: The United States Approach 343

Ronie M. Schmelz

18.1 Introduction 343

18.1.1 U.S. Legislative Landscape 344

18.1.2 Foods 345

18.1.2.1 Permissible Food Claims 350

18.1.2.2 Additional Regulatory Considerations 354

18.1.3 Dietary Supplements 355

18.1.3.1 Permissible Dietary Supplement Claims 357

18.1.3.2 Additional Regulatory Considerations 359

18.1.4 Drugs 360

18.1.4.1 Drug Approval Process 361

18.1.4.2 Additional Regulatory Considerations 364

18.1.5 Cosmetics 364

18.2 Summary of Product Categorization and Regulatory Requirements 365

18.3 Resources 369

18.4 Endnotes 369

19 A Future Research Perspective Is There a Connection Between Sun Exposure, Microbiome and Skin Cancer? 377

Nava Dayan

19.1 Introduction 378

19.2 Ultraviolet Light (UV) - The Skin Microbiome and Cancer 378

19.3 Conclusion 386

Acknowledgment 386

References 387

Glossary 389

Index 399
Nava Dayan Ph.D. Pharm D. is a research scientist who has specialized in skin product development for nearly 3 decades. She is the owner of Dr. Nava Dayan L.L.C, a skin science and research consultancy serving the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and personal care industries; dermal and transdermal. The uniqueness of Dr. Dayan's approach is in its comprehensiveness since she covers biology, physics, efficacy, toxicology, formulations product development, and bio-availability. With her many years of experience in the skin care sector, she has produced more than 150 publication credits in numerous industry-respected journals and in four books. Her research focus is on feasibility in skin care, composition of R&D plans covering efficacy and toxicology; planning, execution and data interpretation into claims, formulations, delivery for improved efficacy and attenuated toxicity, drug-skin interaction, bio-markers, skin/age related sensitivities, inflammatory skin disorders, innate immunity and skin microbiome. This is her fifth book and her 2nd with the Wiley-Scrivener imprint.