John Wiley & Sons Fundamentals of IoT and Wearable Technology Design Cover Explore this indispensable guide covering the fundamentals of IOT and wearable devices from a leadin.. Product #: 978-1-119-61753-2 Regular price: $107.48 $107.48 Auf Lager

Fundamentals of IoT and Wearable Technology Design

Raad, Haider

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1. Auflage März 2021
304 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-61753-2
John Wiley & Sons

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Explore this indispensable guide covering the fundamentals of IOT and wearable devices from a leading voice in the field

Fundamentals of IoT and Wearable Technology Design delivers a comprehensive exploration of the foundations of the Internet of Things (IoT) and wearable technology. Throughout the textbook, the focus is on IoT and wearable technology and their applications, including mobile health, environment, home automation, and smart living. Readers will learn about the most recent developments in the design and prototyping of these devices.

This interdisciplinary work combines technical concepts from electrical, mechanical, biomedical, computer, and industrial engineering, all of which are used in the design and manufacture of IoT and wearable devices. Fundamentals of IoT and Wearable Technology Design thoroughly investigates the foundational characteristics, architectural aspects, and practical considerations, while offering readers detailed and systematic design and prototyping processes of typical use cases representing IoT and wearable technology.

Later chapters discuss crucial issues, including PCB design, cloud and edge topologies, privacy and health concerns, and regulatory policies. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of:
* A thorough introduction to the applications of IoT and wearable technology, including biomedicine and healthcare, fitness and wellbeing, sports, home automation, and more
* Discussions of wearable components and technologies, including microcontrollers and microprocessors, sensors, actuators and communication modules
* An exploration of the characteristics and basics of the communication protocols and technologies used in IoT and wearable devices
* An overview of the most important security challenges, threats, attacks and vulnerabilities faced by IoT and wearable devices along with potential solutions

Perfect for research and development scientists working in the wearable technology and Internet of Things spaces, Fundamentals of IoT and Wearable Technology Design will also earn a place in the libraries of undergraduate and graduate students studying wearable technology and IoT, as well as professors and practicing technologists in the area.

About the Author xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgment xxi

1 Introduction and Historical Background 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 IoT and Wearables Market Size 2

1.1.2 The World of IoT and Wearables 2

1.1.2.1 What Is an IoT Device? 3

1.1.2.2 Characteristics of IoT Systems 3

1.1.2.3 What Exactly Is a Wearable Device? 4

1.1.2.4 Characteristics of Wearable Devices 7

1.1.2.5 IoT vs. M2M 7

1.1.2.6 IoT vs. Wearables 8

1.1.3 IoT: Historical Background 10

1.1.4 Wearable Technology: Historical Background 12

1.1.4.1 The Wearables We Know Today 15

1.1.5 Challenges 19

1.1.5.1 Security 19

1.1.5.2 Privacy 20

1.1.5.3 Standards and Regulations 21

1.1.5.4 Energy and Power Issues 21

1.1.5.5 Connectivity 22

1.2 Conclusion 22

Problems 22

Interview Questions 23

Further Reading 24

2 Applications 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 IoT and Wearable Technology Enabled Applications 27

2.2.1 Health care 27

2.2.2 Fitness and Well-being 29

2.2.3 Sports 30

2.2.4 Entertainment and Gaming 31

2.2.5 Pets 32

2.2.6 Military and Public Safety 33

2.2.7 Travel and Tourism 34

2.2.8 Aerospace 34

2.2.9 Education 35

2.2.10 Fashion 36

2.2.11 Business, Retail, and Logistics 36

2.2.12 Industry 37

2.2.12.1 The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) 37

2.2.13 Home Automation and Smart Living 38

2.2.14 Smart Grids 39

2.2.15 Environment and Agriculture 40

2.2.16 Novel and Unusual Applications 41

2.3 Smart Cities 42

2.4 Internet of Vehicles (IoV) 44

2.5 Conclusion 44

Problems 45

Interview Questions 46

Further Reading 46

3 Architectures 53

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 IoT and Wearable Technology Architectures 54

3.2.1 Introduction 54

3.2.1.1 The Motivations Behind New Architectures 54

3.2.1.2 Edge Computing 56

3.2.1.3 Cloud, Fog, and Mist 57

3.2.2 IoT Architectures 59

3.2.2.1 The OSI Model 60

3.2.2.2 Why Does the OSI Model Matter? 60

3.2.2.3 Data Flow Across the OSI Model 62

3.2.2.4 Common IoT Architectures 62

3.2.2.5 Layer 1: Perception and Actuation (Sensors and Actuators) 67

3.2.2.6 Layer 2: Data Conditioning and Linking (Aggregation, Digitization, and Forwarding) 67

3.2.2.7 Layer 3: Network Transport (Preprocessing, Preliminary Analytics, and Routing) 68

3.2.2.8 Layer 4: Application (Analytics, Control, and Archiving) 69

3.2.3 Wearable Device Architecture 69

3.3 Conclusion 70

Problems 71

Technical Interview Questions 72

Further Reading 72

4 Hardware 77

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Hardware Components Inside IoT and Wearable Devices 77

4.2.1 Sensors 78

4.2.1.1 Sensor Properties 79

4.2.1.2 MEMS Sensors 80

4.2.1.3 Commonly Used Sensors in IoT and Wearable Devices 81

4.2.1.4 Wireless Sensors 83

4.2.1.5 Multisensor Modules 84

4.2.1.6 Signal Conditioning for Sensors 85

4.2.2 Actuators 85

4.2.3 Microcontrollers, Microprocessors, SoC, and Development Boards 86

4.2.3.1 Selecting the Right Processing Unit for Your IoT or Wearable Device 89

4.2.4 Wireless Connectivity Unit 90

4.2.5 Battery Technology 91

4.2.5.1 Power Management Circuits 94

4.2.6 Displays and Other User Interface Elements 95

4.2.7 Microphones and Speakers 95

4.3 Conclusion 95

Problems 96

Technical Interview Questions 97

Further Reading 97

5 Communication Protocols and Technologies 101

5.1 Introduction 101

5.2 Types of Networks 101

5.3 Network Topologies 103

5.3.1 Mesh 103

5.3.2 Star 104

5.3.3 Bus 104

5.3.4 Ring 104

5.3.5 Point to Point 104

5.4 Protocols 105

5.4.1 Application Layer Protocols 105

5.4.1.1 Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) 106

5.4.1.2 Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) 106

5.4.1.3 Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) 106

5.4.1.4 Data Distribution Service (DDS) 106

5.4.1.5 AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol) 107

5.4.2 Transport Layer Protocols 107

5.4.2.1 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) 107

5.4.2.2 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) 107

5.4.3 Network Layer Protocols 107

5.4.3.1 IPv4 and IPv6 107

5.4.3.2 6LoWPAN 107

5.4.3.3 RPL 108

5.4.3.4 Thread 108

5.4.3.5 LoRaWAN 108

5.4.4 Protocols and Technologies in Physical and Data Link Layers 108

5.4.4.1 Short Range 109

5.4.4.2 Medium Range 110

5.4.4.3 Long Range 110

5.5 Conclusion 112

Problems 112

Technical Interview Questions 113

Further Reading 114

6 Product Development and Design Considerations 119

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Product Development Process 119

6.2.1 Ideation and Research 120

6.2.2 Requirements/Specifications 120

6.2.3 Engineering Analysis 120

6.2.3.1 Hardware Design 120

6.2.3.2 Software Development 121

6.2.3.3 Mechanical Design 121

6.2.3.4 PCB Design 122

6.2.4 Prototyping 122

6.2.5 Testing and Validation 123

6.2.5.1 Review and Design Verification 123

6.2.5.2 Unit Testing 123

6.2.5.3 Integration Testing 123

6.2.5.4 Certification and Documentation 124

6.2.5.5 Production Review 124

6.2.6 Production 124

6.3 IoT and Wearable Product Requirements 124

6.3.1 Form Factor 125

6.3.2 Power Requirements 126

6.3.2.1 Energy Budget 126

6.3.3 Wireless Connectivity Requirements 127

6.3.3.1 RF Design and Antenna Matching 127

6.3.3.2 Link Budget 128

6.3.4 Cost Requirements 131

6.4 Design Considerations 131

6.4.1 Operational Factors 131

6.4.2 Durability and Longevity 131

6.4.3 Reliability 132

6.4.4 Usability and User Interface 132

6.4.5 Aesthetics 132

6.4.6 Compatibility 132

6.4.7 Comfort and Ergonomic Factors 133

6.4.8 Safety Factors 133

6.4.9 Washing Factors (Wash-ability) 133

6.4.10 Maintenance Factors 134

6.4.11 Packaging and Material Factors 134

6.4.12 Security Factors 134

6.4.13 Technology Obsolescence 135

6.5 Conclusion 135

Problems 135

Interview Questions 136

Further

Reading 137

7 Cloud and Edge: Architectures, Topologies, and Platforms 139

7.1 Introduction 139

7.2 Cloud 140

7.2.1 Why Cloud? 140

7.2.2 Types of Cloud 140

7.2.2.1 Private Cloud 140

7.2.2.2 Public Cloud 141

7.2.2.3 Hybrid Cloud 141

7.2.2.4 Community Cloud 141

7.2.3 Cloud Services 141

7.2.3.1 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 141

7.2.3.2 Software as a Service (SaaS) 142

7.2.3.3 Platform as a Service (PaaS) 142

7.2.3.4 Functions as a Service (FaaS) 142

7.2.4 OpenStack Architecture 142

7.2.4.1 Components of OpenStack 142

7.3 Edge and Fog 144

7.3.1 The OpenFog Reference Architecture 145

7.3.2 Fog Topologies 147

7.4 Platforms 148

7.4.1 Criteria for Choosing a Platform 150

7.5 Data Analytics and Machine Learning 151

7.6 Conclusion 151

Problems 152

Technical Interview Questions 152

References 153

Further Reading 154

8 Security 157

8.1 Introduction 157

8.2 Security Goals 158

8.3 Threats and Attacks 159

8.3.1 Threat Modeling 160

8.3.2 Common Attacks 161

8.4 Security Consideration 162

8.4.1 Blockchain 164

8.5 Conclusion 166

Problems 166

Technical Interview Questions 167

Further Reading 168

9 Concerns, Risks, and Regulations 171

9.1 Introduction 171

9.2 Privacy Concerns 171

9.3 Psychological and Social Concerns 173

9.3.1 Psychological Concerns 174

9.3.2 Social Concerns 176

9.4 Safety Concerns 177

9.5 Health Concerns 177

9.5.1 Electromagnetic Radiation and Specific Absorption Rate 177

9.5.2 Diseases and Effects 181

9.5.2.1 Cancer 181

9.5.2.2 Fertility 182

9.5.2.3 Vision and Sleep Disorders 182

9.5.2.4 Pain and Discomfort 182

9.5.2.5 Other Risks 183

9.5.3 Recommendations 183

9.6 Regulations 184

Further Reading 186

10 Detailed Product Design and Development: From Idea to Finished Product 189
Scott Tattersall, Mustafa Kamoona, and Haider Raad

10.1 Introduction 189

10.2 Product I (IoT): Vineyard Monitor 189

10.2.1 Product Requirements and Design Considerations 190

10.2.2 Communication Network/Technology Selection 190

10.2.3 Hardware Selection and Breadboarding 191

10.2.3.1 Breadboarding Example 192

10.2.4 Prototyping 196

10.2.4.1 Fritzing 196

10.2.5 Power Consumption 197

10.2.6 Software, Cloud, Platforms, API, etc. 198

10.2.6.1 Sigfox Callback 198

10.2.6.2 RESTful Web Services 199

10.2.7 Microcontroller Coding 201

10.2.7.1 Sigfox Messages 203

10.2.7.2 Bit Packing 205

10.2.7.3 IFTTT Integration 207

10.2.8 From Breadboard to PCB 207

10.2.8.1 Hand Soldering the Surface Mount Components (SMCs) 209

10.2.9 Testing and Iteration 212

10.2.10 PCB to Finished Product 216

10.3 Product II (Wearable): Fall Detection Device 220

10.3.1 Product Requirements and Design Considerations 220

10.3.2 Design Block Diagram 220

10.3.3 Flowchart 222

10.3.4 Unified Modeling Language (UML) 223

10.3.5 Hardware Selection 223

10.3.6 Hardware Implementation and Connectivity 225

10.3.6.1 Hardware Modules and Interfaces Overview 229

10.3.7 Software Implementation 229

10.3.7.1 Fall Detection Algorithm 234

10.3.8 Smartphone iOS App 238

10.3.9 Cloud Solution 243

10.3.9.1 Cloud versus Edge Computing 244

10.3.10 Security 245

10.3.11 Power Consumption 245

10.3.12 Delivery 247

10.4 Conclusion 247

References 247

Further Reading 249

Index 251

Solution Manual 257
HAIDER RAAD, PhD, is Associate Professor of Engineering Physics and the Director of the Engineering Physics Program in the Department of Physics at Xavier University. He is the Director of Xavier Wearable Electronics Research Center.