John Wiley & Sons Maintenance, Reliability and Troubleshooting in Rotating Machinery Cover Maintenance, Reliability and Troubleshooting in ROTATING MACHINERY This broad collection of current.. Product #: 978-1-119-63164-4 Regular price: $167.29 $167.29 Auf Lager

Maintenance, Reliability and Troubleshooting in Rotating Machinery

Perez, Robert X. (Herausgeber)


1. Auflage August 2022
384 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-63164-4
John Wiley & Sons

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Maintenance, Reliability and Troubleshooting in ROTATING MACHINERY

This broad collection of current rotating machinery topics, written by industry experts, is a must-have for rotating equipment engineers, maintenance personnel, students, and anyone else wanting to stay abreast with current rotating machinery concepts and technology.

Rotating machinery represents a broad category of equipment, which includes pumps, compressors, fans, gas turbines, electric motors, internal combustion engines, and other equipment, that are critical to the efficient operation of process facilities around the world. These machines must be designed to move gases and liquids safely, reliably, and in an environmentally friendly manner. To fully understand rotating machinery, owners must be familiar with their associated technologies, such as machine design, lubrication, fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, rotordynamics, vibration analysis, condition monitoring, maintenance practices, reliability theory, and other topics.

The goal of the "Advances in Rotating Machinery" book series is to provide industry practitioners a time-savings means of learning about the most up-to-date rotating machinery ideas and best practices. This three-book series will cover industry-relevant topics, such as design assessments, modeling, reliability improvements, maintenance methods and best practices, reliability audits, data collection, data analysis, condition monitoring, and more.

Volume one began the series by focusing on design and analysis. Volume two continues the series by covering important machinery reliability concepts and offering practical reliability improvement ideas. Best-in-class production facilities require exceptional machinery reliability performance. In this volume, exceptional machinery reliability is defined as the ability of critical rotating machines to consistently perform as designed, without degradation or failure, until their next scheduled overhaul. Readers will find this volume chock-full of practical ideas they can use to improve the reliability and efficiency of their machinery.

Maintenance, Reliability and Troubleshooting in Rotating Machinery covers, among many other topics:
* General machinery reliablity advice
* Understanding failure data
* Design audits and improvement ideas
* Maintenace best practices
* Analyzing failures

Preface xvii

Acknowledgements xix

Part I: General Reliability Advice 1

1 Machinery Reliability Management in a Nutshell 3
By Robert X. Perez

Criticality 4

Environmental Consequences 6

Safety Consequences 6

Equipment History 7

Safeguards 12

Compressor Operating Limits 12

Compressor Flow Limits 12

Critical Speeds 14

Horsepower Limits 15

Temperatures 16

Layers of Machinery Protection 19

Machinery Reliability Assessment Example 20

Background 20

History 22

Safeguards 22

Conclusion 22

Closing Remarks 23

2 Useful Analysis Tools for Tracking Machinery Reliability 25
By Robert X. Perez

Commonly Used Metrics for Spared Machinery 28

Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) 28

Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) 28

Additional Reliability Assessment Tools for Spared Machines 29

Pareto Charts & 80-20 Rule 33

Cumulative Failure Trends 33

Metrics for Critical Machines 36

Availability 37

Critical Machine Events 38

Process Outage Trends 38

Process Outage Related to Machinery Outages 40

Planned Maintenance Percentage (PMP) 41

Reliability Analysis Capabilities of your CMMS Software 43

3 Improving the Effectiveness of Plant Operators 45
By Julien LeBleu

Look, Listen and Feel 47

Applying Look, Listen, and Feel Techniques to Troubleshooting 47

Why the Operator's Input is Important to the Troubleshooting Process 47

Operator Tools 48

Understanding the Equipment - Pumps, Seals and Sealing Support Systems 50

Centrifugal Pump Relationships to Remember 51

Positive Displacement Pump Relationships to Remember 52

Mechanical Seals 54

Capital Projects 55

Writing Quality Work Request 55

Procedures (Procedures and Decision Trees) 56

Must Give Operators Feedback 56

Must be Required to Use their Training 58

Discipline 58

Conclusion 59

Appendix A References 59

4 Spare Parts Strategies for Optimizing Rotating Machinery Availability 61
By Robert X. Perez

Some Stocking Examples 67

Capital Spares 70

Insurance Spares 71

Analyzing Spare Part Inventories Using Monte Carlo Simulations 72

Closing 72

Some Definitions Related to Spare Parts 73

5 Switch-Over Methodology and Frequency Optimization for Plant Machinery 75
By Abdulrahman Alkhowaiter

Machinery Switchover Frequency Optimization Benefits 76

Time-Dependent Issues Involved in Setting Switchover Frequency for Standby Machines 76

Frequent Switchover Introduces the Following Negative Impact to Rotating Equipment 79

Calculation of Start-Stop Damaging Cycles for A, B

Configured Equipment: See Definitions Below for More Information 81

Definitions 82

Examples of Short Start-Stop Intervals in Process Machinery 83

Philosophy of Reliability-Centered Switchover Strategy 84

Part II: Design Audits and Improvement Ideas 87

6 Evaluating Centrifugal Pumps in Petrochemical Applications 89
By Robert X. Perez

Crude Oil Processing 92

Desalting 94

Crude Oil Distillation 94

Properties of Distillation and Fractionator Fractions 98

Defining NPSHr, NPSH3, and NPSH Margin 101

Natural Gas Processing: NGL Processing 101

Centrifugal Pump Design Audits 104

Design Standards 105

The Materials of Construction 107

The Hydraulic Fit 108

The NPSH Margin 110

Seal and Seal Flush Design 111

Challenging Pump Applications 113

Pumps Operating in Parallel 114

Pump Liquids with Low Densities 117

Low NPSH Services 120

How an Impeller's Suction Specific Speed Affects the Required NPSH 122

Pumps Handling a Liquid with Varying Densities 124

Slurry Pumps 125

FCC Slurry Pumps 127

Bottoms Pumps 127

Hot Pumps with Galling Tendencies 130

Starting Hot Pumps 131

High Temperature Concerns 132

Gaskets 132

O-Rings 135

How Processing Issues Can Affect Pump Reliability 136

Summary 138

Acknowledgement 139

References 139

7 Practical Ways to Improve Mechanical Seal Reliability 141
By Robert X. Perez

Seal Reliability Tracking 142

MTBR Data from Across the Industry 143

Reliability Tracking Tools 144

Bad Actors 145

Mechanical Seal Best Practices 150

Improved Mechanical Seal Support System Designs 153

Reducing Potential Leak Points 154

Simplifying Operation and Maintenance 155

Building Better Seal Support Systems 157

Common Mechanical Sealing Design Challenges 157

Sealing Light Hydrocarbon Liquids 157

Sealing Hazardous Organic NESHAP Liquids 159

Buffer Gas Absorption 160

Excessive Solids 160

Seal Cooler Issues in Hot Applications 162

Piping Plan 21 162

Advantages 163

Disadvantages 163

Piping Plan 23 164

Advantages 165

Disadvantages 165

Common Considerations for Flush Plans 165

General Seal Piping Plan Recommendations 166

Ways to Improve Seal Reliability Performance 167

Seal Failure Analysis 167

Common Seal Failure Modes 168

Seal Failure Inspection Notes 174

Possible Causes 175

Meeting with Manufacturer 175

Writing the Seal Failure Report with Recommendations 175

Post-Analysis Activities 175

Justifying Seal Upgrades 175

Closing Thoughts 179

References 180

8 Proven Ways to Improve Steam Turbine Reliability 181
By Robert X. Perez and David W. Lawhon

Repairs versus Overhauls 181

Expected Lifetimes of Steam Turbines and Their

Components 181

Common Failure Modes 184

Steam Turbine Leaks 184

Bearing and Lubrication Failures 184

Governor Failures and Sticking T&T Valves 184

Improvement Reliability by Design 185

Acknowledgements 187

9 General Purpose Steam Turbine Reliability Improvement Case Studies 189
By Abdulrahman Alkhowaiter

Governor Valve Packing Gland Leakage: Sealing & Reliability Improvements 190

Steam Turbines Carbon Seals Upgrade to Mechanical Seals 192

Typical Benefits of Dry Gas Seal in a 1500 HP Turbine 193

Modification of GP Turbines for Fast Start without Slow Rolling 195

How the GP Turbine Fast Startup Modification Works 195

Dry Flexible Metal Coupling Upgrade with Split Spacer, for Short Coupled Turbines with Insufficient ength Coupling Spacers 196

General Purpose Lube Oil System Upgrade for Self-Contained Bearing Housings to Eliminate Overheating & Bearing Failures 198

Governor and Trip System Upgrade from Hydraulic to Electronic-Pneumatic 198

Governor Requirements 198

Electronic Governor with Pneumatic Actuator & Pneumatic Trip System 199

Governor and Trip Requirements 200

Overview of All-Electronic Trip and Overspeed Protection System 201

Outboard Bearing Improved Flex Foot: Higher Turbine Reliability & Lower Vibration 201

Results 203

Part III: Maintenance Best Practices 205

10 Rotating Machinery Repair Best Practices 207
By Robert X. Perez

World-Class Reliability Performance Should be the Goal of Every Repair Facility 207

Cutting Corners = Unreliability 208

The Importance of Alignment 209

Alignment Tolerances 210

Alternative Alignment Guidelines 210

Alignment Calculation Example 211

Rotor Balance 211

Imperial Units 212

Metric Units 213

Static Unbalance 213

Dynamic Unbalance 213

Balancing 213

Common Causes of Rotor Unbalance 214

Balancing Grades 215

The Importance of Fit, Clearance & Tolerance 217

Fits, Clearances and Tolerances 217

Tolerance 217

Clearance 218

Coupling Hub Fits 219

Keyed Interference Fits 219

Keyless Interference Fits 219

Effects of Excessive Looseness 220

Rotating Element Looseness 221

Effects of Internal Looseness 222

Structural Looseness 223

As Found and As Left Measurements 223

Closing Thoughts 225

References 225

11 Procedures + Precision = Reliability 227
By Drew Troyer

12 The Top 10 Behaviors of Precision-Maintenance Technicians 231
By Drew Troyer

13 Optimizing Machinery Life Cycle Costs through Precision and Proactive Maintenance 235
By Drew Troyer

Precision Maintenance 101 235

Life-Extension Equations 237

Worked Example 238

Life Cycle Costs 239

Considering Energy Consumption 239

Life Cycle Inventory Analysis 242

Justifying Precision Maintenance 242

Estimating the Benefits 242

Now for the Cost-Benefit Analysis 245

14 Optimum Reference States for Precision Maintenance 253
By Drew Troyer

Fasteners 254

Lubrication 255

Alignment 257

Balance 258

Flab Management 260

Conclusion 261

15 Writing Effective Machinery Work Order Requests 263
By Drew Troyer

Part IV: Analyzing Failures 269

16 Improving Machinery Reliability by Using Root Cause Failure Analysis Methods 271
By Robert X. Perez

Introduction 271

What Is a Root Cause Failure Analysis? 272

Root Cause Failure Analysis Example #1: Ill-Advised Bearing Replacement 273

History 273

Corrective Measures 273

Comments 273

Root Cause Failure Analysis Example #2: Reciprocating Compressor Rod Failure 274

Background 274

Physical Root Cause 274

Latent Root Causes 274

Comments 275

RCFA Steps 275

Step 1: Define the Problem 275

Step 2: Gather Data/Evidence 276

Identifying the Physical Root Cause of the Primary Failure 276

Fatigue Example: Fin-Fan Cooler Shaft Failures 279

Preserving Machine Data 282

Step 3: Ask Why and Identify the Causal Relationships Associated with the Defined Problem 283

Causal Chains 283

Bearing Failure Sequence of Events with Descriptions 284

Five Why RCFA Example 286

Cause Mapping 287

Cause Map Example #2 289

Single Root Cause versus Multiple Causes 290

Cause Mapping Steps 290

Inhibitors to Effective Problem Solving 297

When Is a Root Cause Failure Analysis Justified? 297

RCFA Levels 300

Closing Thoughts 301

Appendix A 301

No Magic Allowed 301

Identifying Sequence of Events and Causal Chains 301

5-Why Method of Investigation 304

Advice on Failure Sequences 306

Appendix B 307

Analyzing Component Failure Mechanisms 307

Common Mechanical Failure Modes 309

Foreign Object Damage (FOD) 309

Stress Corrosion Cracking 309

Erosion 310

Cavitation 310

Hydrogen Embrittlement 310

Galling 311

Fretting 311

Hot Corrosion (Gas Turbines) 312

Common Hydrodynamic Bearing Failure Modes 313

Rolling Element Bearing Failure Characteristics 318

Tips for Analyzing Mechanical Seal Failures 320

Common Seal Failure Modes 321

Appendix C 323

Common Machinery Failure Modes 323

Pluggage 325

Erosive Wear 326

Fatigue 326

Compressor Blade Fatigue Example 327

Hydrodynamic Bearing Failure Examples 328

Rubbing 329

Unique Failure Modes 330

References 331

17 Investigation and Resolution of Repetitive Fractionator Bottom Pump Failures 333
By Abdulrahman Alkhowaiter

Introduction 333

List of Additional Failure Inherent Causes to Be Rectified 334

Key Shop and Field Pump Measurements 336

Conclusion 340

Actual Findings 340

Effect of Improvements on Pump Radial Shaft Vibration 342

Reference 342

18 Reliability Improvements Made to 6000 KW Water Injection Pumps Experiencing Wear Ring Failures 343
By Abdulrahman Alkhowaiter

Summary 343

Sequence of Events 344

New Design Proposal of Eliminating Grub Screws or Flash Butt Welding 346

Example: Wear ring ID = 8.0 inches. Apply Taper Fit Principle 346

Upgrade Options 347

Detailed Analysis of Problem & Solution Related to All Pump Wear Rings 348

Discussion on Reliability Improvements Added to Achieve High Reliability 349

The Five Root Causes of Machinery Failure 350

Design Errors 350

Manufacturing Errors: None Found 351

User Specification Errors 351

User Maintenance Errors: None Found 351

About the Editor 353

About the Contributors 355

Index 357
Robert X. Perez is a mechanical engineer with more than 40 years of rotating equipment experience in the petrochemical industry. He has worked in petroleum refineries, chemical facilities, and gas processing plants. He earned a BSME degree from Texas A&M University at College Station, an MSME degree from the University of Texas at Austin and holds a Texas PE license. Mr. Perez has written numerous technical articles for magazines and conferences proceedings and has authored five books and coauthored four books covering machinery reliability, including several books also available from Wiley-Scrivener.