John Wiley & Sons Essentials of Supersonic Commercial Aircraft Conceptual Design Cover Provides comprehensive coverage of how supersonic commercial aircraft are designed This must-have g.. Product #: 978-1-119-66700-1 Regular price: $106.67 $106.67 Auf Lager

Essentials of Supersonic Commercial Aircraft Conceptual Design

Torenbeek, Egbert

Aerospace Series (PEP)

Cover

1. Auflage Juni 2020
184 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-66700-1
John Wiley & Sons

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Provides comprehensive coverage of how supersonic commercial aircraft are designed

This must-have guide to conceptual supersonic aircraft design provides a state-of-the art overview of the subject, along with expert analysis and discussion. It examines the challenges of high-speed flight, covers aerodynamic phenomena in supersonic flow and aerodynamic drag in cruising flight, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of oblique wing aircraft.

Essentials of Supersonic Commercial Aircraft Conceptual Design is intended for members of a team producing an initial design concept of an airliner with the capability of making supersonic cruising flights. It begins with a synopsis of the history of supersonic transport aircraft development and continues with a chapter on the challenges of high-speed flight, which discusses everything from top level requirements and cruise speed requirements to fuel efficiency and cruise altitude. It then covers weight sensitivity; aerodynamic phenomena in supersonic flow; thin wings in two-dimensional flow; flat wings in inviscid supersonic flow; aerodynamic drag in cruising flight, and aerodynamic efficiency of SCV configurations. The book finishes with a chapter that examines oblique wing aircraft.
* Provides supersonic aircraft designers with everything they need to know about developing current and future high speed commercial jet planes
* Examines the many challenges of high-speed flight
* Covers aerodynamic phenomena in supersonic flow and aerodynamic drag in cruising flight
* Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of oblique wing aircraft

Essentials of Supersonic Commercial Aircraft Conceptual Design is an ideal book for researchers and practitioners in the aerospace industry, as well as for graduate students in aerospace engineering.

Foreword xi

Series Preface xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgements xix

1 History of Supersonic Transport Aircraft Development 1

1.1 Concorde's Development and Service 2

1.2 SST Development Program 4

1.3 Transonic Transport Configuration Studies 7

1.4 US High Speed Research and Development Programs 8

1.5 European Supersonic Research Program 9

1.6 A Market for a Supersonic Commercial Aircraft? 11

1.6.1 Why Fly Supersonically? 11

1.6.2 Requirements and Operations 12

1.6.3 Block Speed, Productivity, and Complexity 13

Bibliography 15

2 The Challenges of High-speed Flight 17

2.1 Top Level Requirements (TLR) 18

2.2 The Need for Speed 19

2.3 Cruise Speed Selection 20

2.4 Aerodynamic Design Considerations 23

2.4.1 Fuel and Flight Efficiency 23

2.4.2 Aerodynamic Efficiency 24

2.4.3 Power Plant Efficiency 25

2.4.4 Flight Efficiency 26

2.4.5 Cruise Altitude 27

Bibliography 28

3 Weight Prediction, Optimization, and Energy Efficiency 29

3.1 The Unity Equation 29

3.2 Early Weight Prediction 30

3.2.1 Empty Weight 30

3.3 Fuel Weight 32

3.3.1 Mission Fuel 33

3.3.2 Reserve Fuel 34

3.4 Take-off Weight and the Weight Growth Factor 34

3.5 Example of an Early Weight Prediction 35

3.5.1 MTOW Sensitivity 36

3.6 Productivity and Energy Efficiency 38

3.6.1 Range for Maximum Productivity 39

3.6.2 Energy Efficiency 40

3.6.3 Conclusion 41

Bibliography 42

4 Aerodynamic Phenomena in Supersonic Flow 45

4.1 Compressibility of Atmospheric Air 45

4.1.1 Speed of Sound and Mach Number 46

4.1.2 Compressible and Incompressible Flows 47

4.2 Streamlines and Mach Waves 47

4.2.1 SoundWaves 48

4.3 Shock Waves 50

4.4 Normal Shock Waves 51

4.4.1 Effects of Normal Shock Waves 52

4.5 Planar Oblique Shock Waves 53

4.6 Curved and Detached Shock waves 56

4.7 Expansion Flows 57

4.8 Shock-expansion Technique 59

4.9 Leading-edge Delta Vortices 60

4.10 Sonic Boom 61

Bibliography 62

5 Thin Wings in Two-dimensional Flow 65

5.1 Small Perturbation Flow 65

5.1.1 Linearized Velocity Potential Equation 66

5.1.2 Pressure Coefficient 67

5.1.3 Lift Gradient 68

5.1.4 Pressure Drag 69

5.1.5 Symmetric Airfoils with Minimum Pressure Drag 70

5.1.6 Total Drag 71

5.1.7 Center of Pressure 72

5.1.8 Concluding Remarks 72

Bibliography 73

6 Flat Wings in Inviscid Supersonic Flow 75

6.1 Classification of Edge Flows 76

6.2 Linear Theory for Three-dimensional Inviscid Flow 76

6.2.1 Flow Reversal Theorems 77

6.2.2 Constant-chord Straight Wings 77

6.2.3 Constant-chord Swept Wings 79

6.3 Slender Wings 80

6.4 Delta Wing 81

6.4.1 Supersonic Leading Edge 82

6.4.2 Subsonic Leading Edge 83

6.5 Arrow Wings 86

6.6 Slender Delta and Arrow Wing Varieties 87

Bibliography 88

7 Aerodynamic Drag in Cruising Flight 91

7.1 Categories of Drag Contributions 91

7.1.1 Miscellaneous Drag Terms and the Concept Drag Area 93

7.1.2 Analysis Methods 93

7.2 Skin Friction Drag 94

7.2.1 Friction Coefficient 95

7.2.2 Flat-plate Analogy 96

7.2.3 Form Drag 97

7.3 Slender Body Wave Drag 97

7.3.1 Conical Forebody Pressure Drag 97

7.3.2 Von Kármán's Ogive 98

7.3.3 Sear-Haack Body 99

7.4 Zero-lift Drag of Flat Delta Wings 101

7.4.1 Drag due to Lift 102

7.4.2 Vortex-induced Drag 103

7.4.3 Wave Drag Due to Lift 104

7.5 Wing-alone Glide Ratio 105

7.5.1 Notched Trailing Edges 105

7.5.2 Zero-lift Drag 106

7.5.3 Induced Drag 106

7.5.4 Minimum Glide Ratio 107

7.6 Fuselage-alone Drag 109

7.6.1 Pressure Drag 109

7.6.2 Skin Friction Drag 110

7.6.3 Fuselage Slenderness Ratio 111

Bibliography 112

8 Aerodynamic Efficiency of SCV Configurations 115

8.1 Interaction Between Configuration Shape and Drag 115

8.2 Configuration (A) 117

8.2.1 Slenderness ratio and lift coefficient for minimum drag 119

8.2.2 Cruise Altitude for Minimum Drag 120

8.3 Configuration B 121

8.3.1 Glide Ratio 122

8.3.2 Cruise Altitude and Wing Loading 123

8.4 Full-configuration Drag 124

8.4.1 Configuration Glide Ratio 125

8.4.2 Notch Ratio Selection 126

8.5 Selection of the General Arrangement 127

8.5.1 Fore-plane Versus After-tail 127

8.5.2 Application of the Area Rule 128

Bibliography 130

9 Aerodynamics of Cambered Wings 133

9.1 Flat Delta Wing Lift Gradient and Induced Drag 134

9.1.1 Achievable Leading-edge Thrust 138

9.2 Warped Wings 138

Bibliography 140

10 Oblique Wing Aircraft 143

10.1 Advantages of the Oblique Wing 144

10.2 Practical Advantages of the Oblique Wing 145

10.3 Oblique Wing Transport Aircraft 146

10.4 Oblique Flying Wing (OFW) 147

10.4.1 OFW Flying Qualities and Disadvantages 148

10.5 Conventional and OWB Configurations Compared 149

10.5.1 Practical Side-effects 150

10.6 Conclusion 152

Bibliography 153

Index 155
Egbert Torenbeek, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Aircraft Design at Delft University of Technology. He graduated as an engineer in 1961 at TU Delft and in 1964 he became responsible for teaching the Aircraft Preliminary Design course at the department of Aerospace Engineering. After a sabbatical at Lockheed Georgia Company, he became a senior lecturer and full professor of the Aircraft Design chair at TU Delft, initiating research and teaching in computer-assisted aircraft design.

E. Torenbeek, Delft University of Technology