John Wiley & Sons Semiconductor Basics Cover An accessible guide to how semiconductor electronics work and how they are manufactured, for profess.. Product #: 978-1-119-70230-6 Regular price: $78.41 $78.41 Auf Lager

Semiconductor Basics

A Qualitative, Non-mathematical Explanation of How Semiconductors Work and How They are Used

Domingo, George

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1. Auflage September 2020
320 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-70230-6
John Wiley & Sons

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An accessible guide to how semiconductor electronics work and how they are manufactured, for professionals and interested readers with no electronics engineering background

Semiconductor Basics is an accessible guide to how semiconductors work. It is written for readers without an electronic engineering background. Semiconductors are the basis for almost all modern electronic devices. The author--an expert on the topic--explores the fundamental concepts of what a semiconductor is, the different types in use, and how they are different from conductors and insulators. The book has a large number of helpful and illustrative drawings, photos, and figures.

The author uses only simple arithmetic to help understand the device operation and applications. The book reviews the key devices that can be constructed using semiconductor materials such as diodes and transistors and all the large electronic systems based on these two component such as computers, memories, LCDs and related technology like Lasers LEDs and infrared detectors. The text also explores integrated circuits and explains how they are fabricated. The author concludes with some projections about what can be expected in the future. This important book:
* Offers an accessible guide to semiconductors using qualitative explanations and analogies, with minimal mathematics and equations
* Presents the material in a well-structured and logical format
* Explores topics from device physics fundamentals to transistor formation and fabrication and the operation of the circuits to build electronic devices and systems
* Includes information on practical applications of p-n junctions, transistors, and integrated circuits to link theory and practice

Written for anyone interested in the technology, working in semiconductor labs or in the semiconductor industry, Semiconductor Basics offers clear explanations about how semiconductors work and its manufacturing process.

Acknowledgements xiii

Introduction xv

1 The Bohr Atom 1

Objectives of This Chapter 1

1.1 Sinusoidal Waves 1

1.2 The Case of the Missing Lines 3

1.3 The Strange Behavior of Spectra from Gases and Metals 4

1.4 The Classifications of Basic Elements 5

1.5 The Hydrogen Spectrum Lines 5

1.6 Light is a Particle 7

1.7 The Atom's Structure 8

1.8 The Bohr Atom 10

1.9 Summary and Conclusions 13

Appendix 1.1 Some Details of the Bohr Model 14

Appendix 1.2 Semiconductor Materials 16

Appendix 1.3 Calculating the Rydberg Constant 16

2 Energy Bands 19

Objectives of This Chapter 19

2.1 Bringing Atoms Together 19

2.2 The Insulator 22

2.3 The Conductor 23

2.4 The Semiconductor 24

2.5 Digression: Water Analogy 27

2.6 The Mobility of Charges 27

2.7 Summary and Conclusions 28

Appendix 2.1 Energy Gap in Semiconductors 29

Appendix 2.2 Number of Electrons and the Fermi Function 29

3 Types of Semiconductors 35

Objectives of This Chapter 35

3.1 Semiconductor Materials 35

3.2 Short Summary of Semiconductor Materials 36

3.2.1 Silicon 36

3.2.2 Germanium 37

3.2.3 Gallium Arsenide 39

3.3 Intrinsic Semiconductors 39

3.4 Doped Semiconductors: n-Type 40

3.5 Doped Semiconductors: p-Type 43

3.6 Additional Considerations 45

3.7 Summary and Conclusions 47

Appendix 3.1 The Fermi Levels in Doped Semiconductors 48

Appendix 3.2 Why All Donor Electrons go to the Conduction Band 50

4 Infrared Detectors 51

Objectives of This Chapter 51

4.1 What is Infrared Radiation? 51

4.2 What Our Eyes Can See 54

4.3 Infrared Applications 55

4.4 Types of Infrared Radiation 58

4.5 Extrinsic Silicon Infrared Detectors 58

4.6 Intrinsic Infrared Detectors 62

4.7 Summary and Conclusions 63

Appendix 4.1 Light Diffraction 64

Appendix 4.2 Blackbody Radiation 66

5 The pn-Junction 69

Objectives of This Chapter 69

5.1 The pn-Junction 69

5.2 The Semiconductor Diode 72

5.3 The Schottky Diode 76

5.4 The Zener or Tunnel Diode 77

5.5 Summary and Conclusions 81

Appendix 5.1 Fermi Levels of a pn-Junction 81

Appendix 5.2 Diffusion and Drift Currents 82

Appendix 5.3 The Thickness of the Transition Region 83

Appendix 5.4 Work Function and the Schottky Diode 85

6 Other Electrical Components 89

Objectives of This Chapter 89

6.1 Voltage and Current 89

6.2 Resistance 90

6.3 The Capacitor 93

6.4 The Inductor 96

6.5 Sinusoidal Voltage 98

6.6 Inductor Applications 99

6.7 Summary and Conclusions 102

Appendix 6.1 Impedance and Phase Changes 102

7 Diode Applications 105

Objectives of This Chapter 105

7.1 Solar Cells 105

7.2 Rectifiers 106

7.3 Current Protection Circuit 109

7.4 Clamping Circuit 109

7.5 Voltage Clipper 110

7.6 Half-wave Voltage Doubler 111

7.7 Solar Cells Bypass Diodes 113

7.8 Applications of Schottky Diodes 113

7.9 Applications of Zener Diodes 114

7.10 Summary and Conclusions 115

Appendix 7.1 Calculation of the Current Through an RC Circuit 115

8 Transistors 117

Objectives of This Chapter 117

8.1 The Concept of the Transistor 117

8.2 The Bipolar Junction Transistor 118

8.3 The Junction Field-effect Transistor 124

8.4 The Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET 128

8.5 Summary and Conclusions 132

Appendix 8.1 Punch Trough 134

9 Transistor Biasing Circuits 135

Objectives of This Chapter 135

9.1 Introduction 135

9.2 Emitter Feedback Bias 136

9.3 Sinusoidal Operation of a Transistor with Emitter Bias 140

9.4 The Fixed Bias Circuit 144

9.5 The Collector Feedback Bias Circuit 147

9.6 Power Considerations 148

9.7 Multistage Transistor Amplifiers 149

9.8 Operational Amplifiers 150

9.9 The Ideal OpAmp 153

9.10 Summary and Conclusions 155

Appendix 9.1 Derivation of the Stability of the Collector Feedback Circuit 156

10 Integrated Circuit Fabrication 159

Objectives of This Chapter 159

10.1 The Basic Material 159

10.2 The Boule 160

10.2.1 The Czochralski Method 160

10.2.2 The Flow-zone Method 161

10.3 Wafers and Epitaxial Growth 162

10.4 Photolithography 162

10.5 The Fabrication of a pnp Transistor on a Silicon Wafer 163

10.6 A Digression on Doping 166

10.6.1 Thermal Diffusion 166

10.6.2 Implantation 167

10.7 Resume the Transistor Processing 170

10.7.1 The Contacts 170

10.7.2 Metallization 170

10.7.3 Multiple Interconnects 171

10.8 Fabrication of Other Components 172

10.8.1 The Integrated Resistor 172

10.8.2 The Integrated Capacitor 173

10.8.3 The Integrated Inductor 173

10.9 Testing and Packaging 174

10.10 Clean Rooms 178

10.11 Additional Thoughts About Processing 180

10.12 Summary and Conclusions 181

Appendix 10.1 Miller Indices in the Diamond Structure 183

11 Logic Circuits 187

Objectives of This Chapter 187

11.1 Boolean Algebra 187

11.2 Logic Symbols and Relay Circuits 188

11.3 The Electronics Inside the Symbols 190

11.3.1 Diode Implementation 191

11.3.2 CMOS Implementation 192

11.4 The Inverter or NOT Circuit 192

11.5 The NOR Circuit 193

11.6 The NAND Circuit 195

11.7 The XNOR or Exclusive NOR 196

11.8 The Half Adder 197

11.9 The Full Adder 198

11.10 Adding More than Two Digital Numbers 198

11.11 The Subtractor 199

11.12 Digression: Flip-flops, Latches, and Shifters 201

11.13 Multiplication and Division of Binary Numbers 203

11.14 Additional Comments: Speed and Power 204

11.15 Summary and Conclusions 206

Appendix 11.1 Algebraic Formulation of Logic Modules 206

Appendix 11.2 Detailed Analysis of the Full Adder 207

Appendix 11.3 Complementary Numbers 208

Appendix 11.4 Dividing Digital Numbers 209

Appendix 11.5 The Author's Symbolic Logic Machine Using Relays 210

12 VLSI Components 211

Objectives of This Chapter 211

12.1 Multiplexers 211

12.2 Demultiplexers 213

12.3 Registers 214

12.4 Timing and Waveforms 216

12.5 Memories 218

12.5.1 Static Random-access Memory 219

12.5.2 Dynamic Random-access Memory 222

12.5.3 Read-only Memory 224

12.5.4 Programable Read-only Memory 225

12.6 Gate Arrays 227

12.7 Summary and Conclusions 227

Appendix 12.1 A NAND implementation of a 2 to 1 MUX 228

13 Optoelectronics 229

Objectives of This Chapter 229

13.1 Photoconductors 229

13.2 PIN Diodes 230

13.3 LASERs 231

13.3.1 Laser Action 231

13.3.2 Solid-state Lasers 234

13.3.3 Semiconductor LASERs 234

13.3.4 LASER Applications 237

13.4 Light-emitting Diodes 238

13.5 Summary and Conclusions 240

Appendix 13.1 The Detector Readout 240

14 Microprocessors and Modern Electronics 243

Objectives of This Chapter 243

14.1 The Computer 243

14.1.1 Computer Architecture 243

14.1.2 Memories 244

14.1.3 Input and Output Units 246

14.1.4 The Central Processing Unit 246

14.2 Microcontrollers 248

14.3 Liquid Crystal Displays 249

14.3.1 Liquid Crystal Materials 249

14.3.2 Contacts 251

14.3.3 Color Filters 251

14.3.4 Thin-film Transistors 251

14.3.5 The Glass 253

14.3.6 Polarizers 253

14.3.7 The Source of Light 254

14.3.8 The Entire Operation 254

14.4 Summary and Conclusions 255

Appendix 14.1 Keyboard Codes 256

15 The Future 257

Objectives of This Chapter 257

15.1 The Past 257

15.2 Problems with Silicon-based Technology 262

15.3 New Technologies 265

15.3.1 Nanotubes 265

15.3.2 Quantum Computing 266

15.3.3 Biocomputing 268

15.4 Silicon Technology Innovations 268

15.4.1 Process Improvements 269

15.4.2 Vertical Integration 269

15.4.3 The FinFET 271

15.4.4 The Tunnel FET 271

15.5 Summary and Conclusions 272

Epilogue 273

Appendix A Useful Constants 275

Appendix B Properties of Silicon 277

Appendix C List of Acronyms 279

Additional Reading and Sources 285

Index 289
George Domingo, PhD, has worked in consulting and management, and as a teacher. He was Professor of Electrical Engineering - Solid State, Networks and Electronics at Northrop University, USA, for 11 years and spent 31 years in various roles in infrared systems for industry and for NASA's astronomical observatories.