John Wiley & Sons Semiconductor Basics Cover An accessible guide to how semiconductor electronics work and how they are manufactured, for profess.. Product #: 978-1-119-70230-6 Regular price: $79.90 $79.90 Auf Lager

Semiconductor Basics

A Qualitative, Non-mathematical Explanation of How Semiconductors Work and How They are Used

Domingo, George

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1. Auflage September 2020
320 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-70230-6
John Wiley & Sons

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An accessible guide to how semiconductor electronics work and how they are manufactured, for professionals and interested readers with no electronics engineering background

Semiconductor Basics is an accessible guide to how semiconductors work. It is written for readers without an electronic engineering background. Semiconductors are the basis for almost all modern electronic devices. The author--an expert on the topic--explores the fundamental concepts of what a semiconductor is, the different types in use, and how they are different from conductors and insulators. The book has a large number of helpful and illustrative drawings, photos, and figures.

The author uses only simple arithmetic to help understand the device operation and applications. The book reviews the key devices that can be constructed using semiconductor materials such as diodes and transistors and all the large electronic systems based on these two component such as computers, memories, LCDs and related technology like Lasers LEDs and infrared detectors. The text also explores integrated circuits and explains how they are fabricated. The author concludes with some projections about what can be expected in the future. This important book:
* Offers an accessible guide to semiconductors using qualitative explanations and analogies, with minimal mathematics and equations
* Presents the material in a well-structured and logical format
* Explores topics from device physics fundamentals to transistor formation and fabrication and the operation of the circuits to build electronic devices and systems
* Includes information on practical applications of p-n junctions, transistors, and integrated circuits to link theory and practice

Written for anyone interested in the technology, working in semiconductor labs or in the semiconductor industry, Semiconductor Basics offers clear explanations about how semiconductors work and its manufacturing process.

Introduction

Chapter 1 - The Bohr Atom

Objective of this chapter

1.1- Sinusoidal waves

1.2- The case of the missing lines

1.3- The spectra from gasses and metals

1.4- The elements

1.5- The hydrogen spectrum

1.6- Light is a particle

1.7- The atom's structure

1.8- The Bohr atom

1.9- Summary/Review

Appendix 1.1 - Some details of the Bohr model

Appendix 1.2 - Semiconductor materials

Chapter 2 - Energy Bands

Objective of this chapter

2.1 - Bringing atoms together

2.2 - The insulator

2.3 - The Conductor

2.4 - The semiconductor

2.5 - Digression - A water analogy

2.6 - The mobility of charges

Summary and conclusions

Appendix 2.1 - Energy gap in Semiconductors

Appendix 2.2 - Number of electrons and the Fermi function

Chapter 3 - Types of Semiconductor

Objectives of this chapter

3.1 - Semiconductor Materials

3.2 - Short summary of semiconductor materials

3.2.1 - Silicon

3.2.2 - Germanium

3.2.3 - Gallium Arsenide

3.3 - Intrinsic Semiconductors

3.4 - Doped Semiconductors - n-type

3.5 - Doped Semiconductors - p-type

3.6 - Additional considerations

Conclusion and summary

Appendix 3.1 - The Fermi levels in doped semiconductors

Appendix 3.2 - Why all donor electrons go to the conduction band

Chapter 4 - Infrared detectors

Objectives of this chapter

4.1 - What is infrared radiation

4.2 - What our eyes can see

4.3 - infrared Applications

4.4- Types of infrared radiation

4.5 - Extrinsic silicon infrared detectors

4.6 - Intrinsic infrared detectors.

Summary and conclusions

Appendix 4.1 - Light Diffraction

Appendix 4.2 - Black Body Radiation

Chapter 5 - The pn-junction

Objectives of this chapter

5.1 - The pn-junction

5.2 - The Semiconductor Diode

5.3 - The Schottky Diode

5.4 - The Zener or Tunnel Diode

Conclusions and Summary

Appendix 5.1 - Fermi levels of a pn junction

Appendix 5.2 - Diffusion and drift currents

Appendix 5.3 - The thickness of the transition region

Appendix 5.4 - Work Function and the Shockley diode

Chapter 6 - Other Electrical Components

Objective of this chapter

6.1 - Voltage and Current

6.2 - The Resistance

6.3 - The Capacitor

6.4 - The Inductor

6.5 - Sinusoidal Voltages

6.6 - Inductor application

Conclusions and summary

Appendix 6.1 - Impedance and phase changes

Chapter 7 - Diode Applications

7.1 - Solar Cells

7.2 - Rectifiers

7.3 - Current Protection

7.4 - Clamping Circuit

7.5 - Voltage Clipper

7.6 - Half-Wave Voltage Doubler

7.7 - Solar Cells Bypass diodes

7.8 - Applications of Shockley Diodes

7.9 - Application of Zener Diodes

Conclusion and summary

Appendix 7.1 - Details on the voltage doubler

Chapter 8 - The Transistors

OBCETIVE OF THIS CHAPTER

8.1 - The concept of the transistor

8.2 - The Bipolar Junction Transistor, BJT

8.3 - The Junction Field Effect Transistor, JFET

8.4 - The MOSFET

Conclusions and summary

Chapter 9 - Transistor Biasing Circuits

Objective of this chapter

9.1 - Introduction

9.2 - Emitter Feedback Bias

9.3 - A simple transistor amplifier

9.4 - A fixed bias circuit

9.5 - The Collector bias circuit

9.6 - Power considerations

9.7 - Multi-stage transistor amplifiers

9.8 - Operational amplifier, OpAmp

9.9 - The ideal OpAmp

Summary and Conclusions

Appendix 9.1 - Derivation of the stability of Collector feedback

Chapter 10 - Integrated circuit (IC) fabrication

Objective of this chapter

10.1 - The basic material

10.2 - The Boule

10.2.1 - The Czochralski method

10.2.2 - The Flow-Zone method

10.3 - The wafers and epitaxial growth

10.4 - Photolithography

10.5 - The fabrication of a pnp transistor on a silicon waver

10.6 - A digression on doping

10.6.1 - Thermal diffusion

10.6.2 - Implantation

10.7 - Resume our transistor processing

10.7.1 - The contacts

10.7.2 - Metallization

10.7.3 - Multiple interconnects

10.8 - Fabrication of other components

10.8.1 The integrated resistor

10.8.2 The integrated capacitor

10.8.3 Integrated inductor

10.9 - Testing and Packaging

10.10 - Clean rooms

10.11 - Additional thoughts about processing

Appendix 10.1 - Miller indices in the diamond structure

Chapter 11 - Logic circuits

Objectives of this chapter

11.1 - Boolean algebra

11.2 - The logic symbols

11.3 - The electronic inside the symbols

11.3.1 - Diode implementation

11.3.2 - CMOS implementation

11.4- The inverter of NOT circuit

11.5 - The NOR circuit

11.6 - The NAND circuit

11.7 - The XNOR or the exclusive NOR

11.8 - The half adder

11.9 - The full adder

11.10 - Adding more than two digital numbers

11.11 - The subtractor

11.12 - Digression; flip-flops, latches and shifters

11.13 - Multiplication and division of binary numbers

11.14 - Additional comments, speed and power

Conclusion and summary

Appendix 11.1 - Algebraic formulation of logic modules

Appendix 11.2 - Detailed analysis of the full adder

Appendix 11.3 - Complementary numbers

Appendix 11.4 - Dividing digital numbers

Chapter 12 - VLSI components

Objectives of this chapter

12.1 - Multiplexers, MUX

12.2 - De-multiplexer, DEMUX

12.3 - Registers

12.4 - Timing and Waveforms

12.5 - Memories

12.5.1 - The Static Random-Access Memory, SRAM

12.5.2 - The Dynamic Random-Access memory, DRAM

12.5.3 - Read Only Memory, ROM

12.5.4 - Programable Read only Memory, PROM

12.6 - Gate arrays

Conclusions and summary

Appendix 12.1 - A NAND implementation of a 2 to 1 MUX

Chapter 13 - Opto-Electronics

Objective of this chapter

13.1 - Photoconductors

13.2- PIN diodes

13.3 - Lasers

13.3.1 - The laser action

13.3.2 - Solid State lasers

13.3.3 - Semiconductor Lasers

13.3.4 - Laser applications

13.4 - Light Emitting Diodes, LEDs

Summary and Conclusions

Appendix 13.1 - The detector readout

Chapter 14 - Microprocessors and computers

14.1 - The computer

14.1.1 - The computer architecture

14.1.2 - The Memories

14.1.3 - Input and output units

14.1.4 - The central processing unit, CPU

14.2 - Microcontrollers

14.3 - Liquid Crystal Displays, LCDs

14.3.1 - Liquid Crystal materials

14.3.2 - The contacts

14.3.3 - The color Filters

14.3.4 - Thin film transistors

14.3.5 - The glass

14.3.6 - The polarizers

14.3.7 - The source of light

14.3.8 - The entire operation

Summary and conclusions

Appendix 1 - Keyboard code

Chapter 15 - The future

15.1 - The past

15.2 - Problems with the silicon-based technology

15.3 - New Technologies

15.3.1 - Nanotubes

15.3.2 - Quantum Computing

15.3.3 - Bio-computing

15.4 - Silicon Technology

15.4.1 - Process improvements

15.4.2 - Vertical integration

15.4.3 - The FinFET

15.4.4 -The Tunnel FET

Summary and Conclusions

Last Words (Epilogue?)

Appendix A - Useful Constants

Appendix B - Properties of Silicon

Appendix C - List of acronyms used in this book

Index

Bibliography
George Domingo, PhD, has worked in consulting and management, and as a teacher. He was Professor of Electrical Engineering - Solid State, Networks and Electronics at Northrop University, USA, for 11 years and spent 31 years in various roles in infrared systems for industry and for NASA's astronomical observatories.