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Polymer Composites for Electrical Engineering

Huang, Xingyi / Tanaka, Toshikatsu (Herausgeber)

Wiley - IEEE

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1. Auflage Dezember 2021
448 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-71960-1
John Wiley & Sons

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Explore the diverse electrical engineering application of polymer composite materials with this in-depth collection edited by leaders in the field

Polymer Composites for Electrical Engineering delivers a comprehensive exploration of the fundamental principles, state-of-the-art research, and future challenges of polymer composites. Written from the perspective of electrical engineering applications, like electrical and thermal energy storage, high temperature applications, fire retardance, power cables, electric stress control, and others, the book covers all major application branches of these widely used materials.

Rather than focus on polymer composite materials themselves, the distinguished editors have chosen to collect contributions from industry leaders in the area of real and practical electrical engineering applications of polymer composites. The book?s relevance will only increase as advanced polymer composites receive more attention and interest in the area of advanced electronic devices and electric power equipment.

Unique amongst its peers, Polymer Composites for Electrical Engineering offers readers a collection of practical and insightful materials that will be of great interest to both academic and industrial audiences. Those resources include:
* A comprehensive discussion of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites for power equipment, including GIS, bushing, transformers, and more)
* Explorations of polymer composites for capacitors, outdoor insulation, electric stress control, power cable insulation, electrical and thermal energy storage, and high temperature applications
* A treatment of semi-conductive polymer composites for power cables
* In-depth analysis of fire-retardant polymer composites for electrical engineering
* An examination of polymer composite conductors

Perfect for postgraduate students and researchers working in the fields of electrical, electronic, and polymer engineering, Polymer Composites for Electrical Engineering will also earn a place in the libraries of those working in the areas of composite materials, energy science and technology, and nanotechnology.

List of Contributors xv

Preface xix

1 Polymer Composites for Electrical Energy Storage 1
Yao Zhou

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 General Considerations 1

1.3 Effect of Nanofiller Dimension 3

1.4 Orientation of Nanofillers 7

1.5 Surface Modification of Nanofillers 11

1.6 Polymer Composites with Multiple Nanofillers 13

1.7 Multilayer-structured Polymer Composites 16

1.8 Conclusion 19

References 21

2 Polymer Composites for Thermal Energy Storage 29
Jie Yang, Chang-Ping Feng, Lu Bai, Rui-Ying Bao, Ming-Bo Yang, and Wei Yang

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Shape-stabilized Polymeric Phase Change Composites 32

2.2.1 Micro/Nanoencapsulated Method 33

2.2.2 Physical Blending 35

2.2.3 Porous Supporting Scaffolds 36

2.2.4 Solid-Solid Composite PCMs 37

2.3 Thermally Conductive Polymeric Phase Change Composites 39

2.3.1 Metals 40

2.3.2 Carbon Materials 41

2.3.3 Ceramics 41

2.4 Energy Conversion and Storage Based on Polymeric Phase Change Composites 42

2.4.1 Electro-to-Heat Conversion 42

2.4.2 Light-to-Heat Conversion 45

2.4.3 Magnetism-to-Heat Conversion 47

2.4.4 Heat-to-Electricity Conversion 48

2.5 Emerging Applications of Polymeric Phase Change Composites 48

2.5.1 Thermal Management of Electronics 49

2.5.2 Smart Textiles 50

2.5.3 Shape Memory Devices 51

2.6 Conclusions and Outlook 51

Acknowledgments 52

References 52

3 Polymer Composites for High-Temperature Applications 63
Sen Niu, Lixue Zhu, Qiannan Cai, and Yunhe Zhang

3.1 Application of Polymer Composite Materials in High-Temperature Electrical Insulation 63

3.1.1 High-Temperature-Resistant Electrical Insulating Resin Matrix 63

3.1.1.1 Silicone Resins 64

3.1.1.2 Polyimide 64

3.1.1.3 Polyether Ether Ketone 65

3.1.1.4 Polybenzimidazole 65

3.1.1.5 Polyphenylquinoxaline 65

3.1.1.6 Benzoxazine 66

3.1.2 Modification of Resin Matrix with Reinforcements 66

3.1.2.1 Mica 66

3.1.2.2 Glass Fiber 66

3.1.2.3 Inorganic Nanoparticles 67

3.1.3 Modifications in the Thermal Conductivity of Resin Matrix 67

3.1.3.1 Mechanism of Thermal Conductivity 68

3.1.3.2 Intrinsic High Thermal Conductivity Insulating Material 68

3.1.3.3 Filled High Thermal Conductivity Insulating Material 69

3.2 High-Temperature Applications for Electrical Energy Storage 70

3.2.1 General Considerations for High-Temperature Dielectrics 70

3.2.2 High-Temperature-Resistant Polymer Matrix 71

3.2.3 Polymer Composites for High-Temperature Energy Storage Applications 71

3.2.4 Surface Modification of Nanocomposite for High-Temperature Applications 72

3.2.5 Sandwich Structure of Nanoparticles for High-Temperature Applications 75

3.3 Application of High-Temperature Polymer in Electronic Packaging 77

3.3.1 Synthesis of Low Dielectric Constant Polymer Materials Through Molecular Structure Design 80

3.3.1.1 Fluorine-Containing Low Dielectric Constant Polymer 80

3.3.1.2 Low Dielectric Constant Polymer Material Containing Nonpolar Rigid Bulk Group 81

3.3.2 High-Temperature-Resistant Low Dielectric Constant Polymer Composite Material 82

3.3.2.1 Low Dielectric Constant Polyoxometalates/Polymer Composite 83

3.3.2.2 Low Dielectric Constant POSS/Polymer Composite 85

3.4 Application of Polymer Composite Materials in the Field of High-Temperature Wave-Transmitting and Wave-Absorbing Electrical Fields 86

3.4.1 Wave-Transmitting Materials 88

3.4.1.1 The High-Temperature Resin Matrix 88

3.4.1.2 Reinforced Materials 89

3.4.2 Absorbing Material 89

3.4.2.1 The High-Temperature Resin Matrix 90

3.4.2.2 Inorganic Filler 90

3.5 Summary 91

References 92

4 Fire-Retardant Polymer Composites for Electrical Engineering 99
Zhi Li, En Tang, and Xue-Meng Cao

4.1 Introduction 99

4.2 Fire-Retardant Cables and Wires 100

4.2.1 Fundamental Overview 100

4.2.2 Understanding of Fire-Retardant Cables and Wires 101

4.2.2.1 Polyethylene Composites 101

4.2.2.2 Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Copolymer 103

4.2.2.3 Polyvinyl Chloride Composites 105

4.2.2.4 Other Polymers 108

4.3 Fire-Retardant Polymer Composites for Electrical Equipment 109

4.3.1 Fundamental Overview 109

4.3.2 Understanding of Fire-Retardant Polymer Composites for Electrical Equipment 110

4.3.2.1 HIPS and ABS Composites 110

4.3.2.2 PC/ABS Composites 112

4.3.2.3 PC Composites 115

4.3.2.4 PBT Composites 116

4.4 Fire-Retardant Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites 117

4.4.1 Fundamental Overview 117

4.4.2 Understanding of Fire-Retardant Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites 118

4.4.2.1 Reinforced PBT and PET Composites 118

4.5 Conclusion and Outlook 118

References 119

5 Polymer Composites for Power Cable Insulation 123
Yoitsu Sekiguchi

5.1 Introduction 123

5.2 Trend in Nanocomposite Materials for Cable Insulation 125

5.2.1 Overview 125

5.2.2 Polymer Materials as Matrix Resin 125

5.2.3 Fillers 128

5.2.4 Nanocomposites 130

5.2.4.1 XLPE Nanocomposites 131

5.2.4.2 PP Nanocomposites 131

5.2.4.3 Nanocomposite with Cluster/Cage Molecule 131

5.2.4.4 Copolymer and Polymer Blend 131

5.3 Factors Influencing Properties 138

5.4 Issues in Nanocomposite Insulation Materials Research 139

5.5 Understanding Dielectric and Insulation Phenomena 140

5.5.1 Electromagnetic Understanding 140

5.5.2 Understanding Space Charge Behavior by Q(t) Method 141

References 146

6 Semi-conductive Polymer Composites for Power Cables 153
Zhonglei Li, Boxue Du, Yutong Zhao, and Tao Han

6.1 Introduction 153

6.1.1 Function of Semi-conductive Composites 153

6.1.2 Development of Semi-conductive Composites 154

6.2 Conductive Mechanism of Semi-conductive Polymer Composites 155

6.2.1 Percolation Theory 157

6.2.2 Tunneling Conduction Theory 157

6.2.3 Mechanism of Positive Temperature Coefficient 158

6.3 Effect of Polymer Matrix on Semi-conductivity 159

6.3.1 Thermoset Polymer Matrix 159

6.3.2 Thermoplastic Polymer Matrix 162

6.3.3 Blended Polymer Matrix 163

6.4 Effect of Conductive Fillers on Semi-conductivity 165

6.4.1 Carbon Black 165

6.4.2 Carbonaceous Fillers with One- and Two-Dimensions 166

6.4.3 Secondary Filler for Carbon Black Filled Composites 167

6.5 Effect of Semi-conductive Composites on Space Charge Injection 169

6.6 Conclusions 172

References 173

7 Polymer Composites for Electric Stress Control 179
Muneaki Kurimoto

7.1 Introduction 179

7.2 Functionally Graded Solid Insulators and Their Effect on Reducing Electric Field Stress 179

7.3 Practical Application of epsilon-FGMs to GIS Spacer 181

7.4 Application to Power Apparatus 182

References 188

8 Composite Materials Used in Outdoor Insulation 191
Wang Xilin, Jia Zhidong, and Wang Liming

8.1 Introduction 191

8.2 Overview of SIR Materials 192

8.2.1 RTV Coatings 193

8.2.2 Composite Insulators 195

8.2.3 Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR) 196

8.2.4 Aging Mechanism and Condition Assessment of SIR Materials 197

8.3 New External Insulation Materials 198

8.3.1 Anti-icing Semiconductor Materials 199

8.3.2 Hydrophobic CEP 201

8.4 Summary 202

References 203

9 Polymer Composites for Embedded Capacitors 207
Shuhui Yu, Suibin Luo, Riming Wang, and Rong Sun

9.1 Introduction 207

9.1.1 Development of Embedded Technology 207

9.1.2 Dielectric Materials for Commercial Embedded Capacitors 210

9.2 Researches on the Polymer-Based Dielectric Nanocomposites 213

9.2.1 Filler Particles 213

9.2.2 Epoxy Matrix 216

9.2.2.1 Modification to Improve Dielectric Properties 219

9.2.2.2 Modification to Improve Mechanical Properties 221

9.3 Fabrication Process of Embedded Capacitors 224

9.4 Reliability Tested of Embedded Capacitor Materials 229

9.5 Conclusions and Perspectives 230

References 230

10 Polymer Composites for Generators and Motors 235
Hirotaka Muto, Takahiro Umemoto, and Takahiro Mabuchi

10.1 Introduction 235

10.2 Polymer Composite in High-Voltage Rotating Machines 236

10.3 Ground Wall Insulation 237

10.3.1 Mica/Epoxy Insulation 237

10.3.2 Electrical Defect in the Insulation of Rotating Machines and Degradation Mechanism 238

10.3.3 Insulation Design and V-t Curve 239

10.4 Polymer Nanocomposite for Rotating Machine 240

10.4.1 Partial Discharge Resistance and a Treeing Lifetime of Nanocomposite as Material Property 241

10.4.1.1 PD Resistance 241

10.4.1.2 Electrical Treeing Lifetime 242

10.4.2 Breakdown Lifetime Properties of Realistic Insulation Defect in Rotating Machine 244

10.4.2.1 Voltage Endurance Test of Void Defect 245

10.4.2.2 Voltage Endurance Test in Mica/Epoxy Nanocomposite-Layered Structure 247

10.4.2.3 V-t Curves in Coil Bar Model with Mica/Epoxy Nanocomposite Insulation 248

10.5 Stress-Grading System of Rotating Machines 252

10.5.1 Silicon Carbide Particle-Loaded Nonlinear-Resistive Materials 252

10.5.2 End-turn Stress-Grading System of High-Voltage Rotating Machines 253

References 255

11 Polymer Composite Conductors and Lightning Damage 259
Xueling Yao

11.1 Lightning Environment and Lightning Damage Threat to Composite-Based Aircraft 259

11.1.1 The Lightning Environment 259

11.1.1.1 Formation of Lightning 259

11.1.2 Lightning Test Environment of Aircrafts 261

11.1.2.1 Zone 1 262

11.1.2.2 Zone 2 263

11.1.2.3 Zone 3 263

11.1.2.4 Current Component A - First Return Strike 264

11.1.2.5 Current Component Ah - Transition Zone First Return Strike 264

11.1.2.6 Current Component B - Intermediate Current 264

11.1.2.7 Current Component C - Continuing Current 264

11.1.2.8 Component C* - Modified Component C 264

11.1.2.9 Current Component D - Subsequent Strike Current 266

11.1.3 Waveform Combination in Different Lightning Zones for Lightning Direct Effect Testing 269

11.1.4 Application of CFRP Composites in Aircraft 269

11.2 The Dynamic Conductive Characteristics of CFRP 271

11.2.1 A Review of the Research on the Conductivity of CFRP 271

11.2.2 The Testing Methods 272

11.2.2.1 Specimens 272

11.2.2.2 The Test Fixture 273

11.2.2.3 Lightning Impulse Generator and Lightning Waveforms 274

11.2.3 The Experimental Results of the Dynamic Impedance of CFRP 275

11.2.3.1 The Nondestructive Lightning Current Test 275

11.2.3.2 The Applied Lightning Current Impulse and the Response Voltage Impulse 278

11.2.3.3 Equivalent Conductivity of CFRP Laminates Under Different Lightning Impulses 280

11.2.3.4 Equivalent Conductivity of CFRP Laminates with Different Laminated Structures 282

11.2.4 The Discussion of the Dynamic Conductive Characteristics of CFRP 282

11.2.4.1 The Conduction Path of the CFRP Laminate Under a Lightning Current Impulse 282

11.2.4.2 Dynamic Conductance of CFRP Laminate 284

11.2.4.3 The Inductive Properties of CFRP Laminates 286

11.2.4.4 Equivalent Conductivity of CFRP Laminates Subjected to Lightning Current Impulses with Higher Intensity 288

11.3 The Lightning Strike-Induced Damage of CFRP Strike 289

11.3.1 Introduction of the Lightning Damage of CFRP 289

11.3.2 Single Lightning Strike-Induced Damage 290

11.3.2.1 Experimental Setup for Single Lightning Strike Test 290

11.3.2.2 Experimental Results of Single Lightning Strike-Induced Damage 292

11.3.2.3 Evaluation for Single Lightning Strike-Induced Damage 297

11.3.3 Multiple Lightning Strikes-Induced Damage 300

11.3.3.1 Experimental Method for Multiple Consecutive Lightning Strike Tests 300

11.3.3.2 Experimental Results of Multiple Lightning Damage 303

11.3.3.3 Multiple Lightning Damage Areas and Depths of CFRP Laminates 308

11.3.3.4 Analysis for Multiple Lightning Damage of CFRP Laminates 309

11.3.3.5 Evaluation for Multiple Lightning Damage of CFRP Laminates 313

11.4 The Simulation of Lightning Strike-Induced Damage of CFRP 319

11.4.1 Overview of Lightning Damage Simulation Researches 319

11.4.2 Establishment of the Coupled Thermal-Electrical Model 321

11.4.2.1 Finite Element Model 321

11.4.2.2 Simulated Lightning Component A 322

11.4.2.3 Pyrolysis Degree Calculation 322

11.4.2.4 Dynamic Conductive Properties 322

11.4.2.5 Pyrolysis-Dependent Material Parameters 323

11.4.3 Simulation Physical Fields of Lightning Current on CFRP Laminates 323

11.4.3.1 Temperature and Pyrolysis Fields 323

11.4.3.2 Mechanical Analysis 325

11.4.4 Simulated Lightning Damage Results 325

11.4.4.1 Numerical Criterion for Lightning Damage 325

11.4.4.2 In-Plane Lightning Damage Evaluation 327

11.4.4.3 In-Depth Lightning Damage Evaluation 331

References 331

12 Polymer Composites for Switchgears 339
Takahiro Imai

12.1 Introduction 339

12.2 History of Switchgear 340

12.3 Typical Insulators in Switchgears 342

12.3.1 Epoxy-based Composite Insulators 342

12.3.2 Insulator-Manufacturing Process 343

12.3.2.1 Vacuum Casting Method 344

12.3.2.2 Automatic Pressure Gelation Method 344

12.3.2.3 Vacuum Pressure Impregnation Method 345

12.4 Materials for Epoxy-based Composites 345

12.4.1 Epoxy Resins 345

12.4.2 Hardeners 346

12.4.3 Inorganic Fillers and Fibers 347

12.4.4 Silane Coupling Agents 348

12.4.5 Fabrication of Epoxy-based Composites 349

12.5 Properties of Epoxy-based Composites 351

12.5.1 Necessary Properties of Epoxy-based Composites for Switchgears 351

12.5.2 Resistance to Thermal Stresses 352

12.5.2.1 Glass Transition Temperature 352

12.5.2.2 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) 354

12.5.3 Resistances to Electrical Stresses 356

12.5.3.1 Short-term Insulation Breakdown 356

12.5.3.2 Long-term Insulation Breakdown (V-t Characteristics) 357

12.5.3.3 Relative Permittivity and Resistivity 359

12.5.4 Resistances to Ambient Stresses 360

12.5.4.1 Resistance to SF6 Decomposition Gas 360

12.5.4.2 Water Absorption 361

12.5.5 Resistances to Mechanical Stresses 362

12.5.5.1 Flexural and Tensile Strength 362

12.5.5.2 Creep 363

12.5.6 International Standards for Evaluation of Composites 363

12.6 Advances of Epoxy-based Composites for Switchgear 365

12.6.1 Nanocomposites 365

12.6.2 High Thermal Conductive Composites 366

12.6.3 Biomass Material-Based Composites 367

12.6.4 Functionally Graded Materials 368

12.6.5 Estimate of Remaining Life of Composites 370

12.7 Conclusion 372

References 373

13 Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites for Power Equipment 377
Yu Chen

13.1 Overview 377

13.2 Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 378

13.2.1 Fibers 378

13.2.1.1 Chemical Description 378

13.2.1.2 Classification of Glass Fibers 380

13.2.1.3 Properties of Glass Fiber 380

13.2.1.4 Glass Fabrics 380

13.2.1.5 Advantages and Disadvantages 381

13.2.1.6 Common Manufacturing Methods 383

13.2.1.7 Applications of Glass Fiber in Various Industries 384

13.2.2 Polymers 386

13.2.2.1 Epoxy 386

13.2.2.2 Polyester (Thermosetting) 386

13.2.2.3 Phenolic 387

13.2.3 Manufacturing Methods 388

13.2.4 Specifications of Several Kinds of GFRP Materials 393

13.2.4.1 Rigid Laminated Sheets 393

13.2.4.2 Industrial Rigid Round Laminated Rolled Tubes 394

13.2.4.3 Insulated Pipe 394

13.2.4.4 Insulated Pull Rod 394

13.3 Application of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 396

13.3.1 Laminated Sheets 396

13.3.2 Composite Long Rod Insulators 398

13.3.3 UHV-Insulated Pull Rod for GIS 400

13.3.4 Composite Pole 403

13.3.5 Aluminum Conductor Composite Core in an Overhead Conductor 404

13.3.6 Composite Station Post Insulators 405

13.3.7 Composite Hollow Insulators 407

13.3.8 Composite Crossarms 407

Bibliography 414

Index 419
Xingyi Huang, PhD, is Professor and Deputy Director of the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Thermal Aging at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China. He is an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Dielectric and Electrical Insulation, as well as an Associate Editor of IEEE High Voltage.

Toshikatsu Tanaka, PhD, is Chairman of the IEEJ Committee on New Dielectric Materials. He is Vice President of the Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry and is a recipient of the Japanese Ministry of Science and Technology Prize.

X. Huang, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; T. Tanaka, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan