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Biofuel Cells

Materials and Challenges

Inamuddin / Ahamed, Mohd Imran / Boddula, Rajender / Rezakazemi, Mashallah (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage August 2021
528 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-72469-8
John Wiley & Sons

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Rapid industrialization and urbanization associated with the environment changes calls for reduced pollution and thereby least use of fossil fuels. Biofuel cells are bioenergy resources and biocompatible alternatives to conventional fuel cells. Biofuel cells are one of the new sustainable renewable energy sources that are based on the direct conversion of chemical matters to electricity with the aid of microorganisms or enzymes as biocatalysts. The gradual depletion of fossil fuels, increasing energy needs, and the pressing problem of environmental pollution have stimulated a wide range of research and development efforts for renewable and environmentally friendly energy. Energy generation from biomass resources by employing biofuel cells is crucial for sustainable development. Biofuel cells have attracted considerable attention as micro- or even nano-power sources for implantable biomedical devices, such as cardiac pacemakers, implantable self-powered sensors, and biosensors for monitoring physiological parameters.

This book covers the most recent developments and offers a detailed overview of fundamentals, principles, mechanisms, properties, optimizing parameters, analytical characterization tools, various types of biofuel cells, all-category of materials, catalysts, engineering architectures, implantable biofuel cells, applications and novel innovations and challenges in this sector. This book is a reference guide for anyone working in the areas of energy and the environment.

Preface xvii

1 Bioelectrocatalysis for Biofuel Cells 1
Casanova-Moreno Jannu, Arjona Noé and Cercado Bibiana

1.1 Introduction: Generalities of the Bioelectrocatalysis 2

1.2 Reactions of Interest in Bioelectrocatalysis 3

1.2.1 Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions 3

1.2.2 Reactions Catalyzed by Microorganisms 8

1.3 Immobilization of Biocatalyst 9

1.3.1 Immobilization of Enzymes on Electrodes 9

1.3.2 Preparation of Microbial Bioelectrodes 15

1.4 Supports for Immobilization of Enzymes and Microorganisms for Biofuel Cells 17

1.4.1 Buckypaper Bioelectrodes for BFCs 20

1.4.2 Carbon Paper Bioelectrodes for BFCs 21

1.4.3 Nitrogen-Doped Carbonaceous Materials as Bioelectrodes for BFCs 22

1.4.4 Metal-Organic Framework (MOF)-Based Carbonaceous Materials as Bioelectrodes for BFCs 23

1.4.5 Flexible Bioelectrodes for Flexible BFCs 24

1.5 Electron Transfer Phenomena 25

1.5.1 Enzyme-Electrode Electron Transfer 25

1.5.2 Microorganism-Electrode Electron Transfer 31

1.6 Bioelectrocatalysis Control 34

1.6.1 Control of Enzymatic Bioelectrocatalysis 34

1.6.2 Microbiological Catalysis Control 35

1.7 Recent Applications of Bioelectrocatalysis 36

1.7.1 Biosensors 36

1.7.2 Microbial Catalyzed CO2 Reduction 37

References 39

2 Novel Innovations in Biofuel Cells 53
Muhammet Samet Kilic and Seyda Korkut

2.1 Introduction to Biological Fuel Cells 53

2.1.1 Implantable BFCs 55

2.1.2 Wearable BFCs 59

2.2 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 63

Acknowledgment 64

References 64

3 Implantable Biofuel Cells for Biomedical Applications 69
Arushi Chauhan and Pramod Avti

3.1 Introduction 70

3.2 Biofuel Cells 72

3.2.1 Microbial Biofuel Cells 72

3.2.1.1 Design and Configuration 73

3.3 Enzymatic Biofuel Cells 75

3.3.1 Design and Configurations 75

3.3.2 Factors Affecting 77

3.4 Mechanism of Electron Transfer 80

3.5 Energy Sources in the Human Body 81

3.6 Biomedical Applications 83

3.6.1 Glucose-Based Biofuels Cells 84

3.6.2 Pacemakers 85

3.6.3 Implanted Brain-Machine Interface 86

3.6.4 Biomarkers 87

3.7 Limitations 87

3.8 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 88

References 88

Abbreviations 95

4 Enzymatic Biofuel Cells 97
Rabisa Zia, Ayesha Taj, Sumaira Younis, Haq Nawaz Bhatti, Waheed S. Khan and Sadia Z. Bajwa

4.1 Introduction 98

4.2 Enzyme Used in EBFCs 99

4.3 Enzyme Immobilization Materials 103

4.3.1 Physical Adsorption Onto a Solid Surface 105

4.3.2 Entrapment in a Matrix 106

4.3.3 Sol-Gel Entrapment 106

4.3.4 Nanomaterials as Matrices for Enzyme Immobilization 107

4.3.5 Covalent Bonding 109

4.3.6 Cross-Linking With Bifunctional or Multifunctional Reagents 110

4.4 Applications of EBFCs 111

4.4.1 Self-Powered Biosensors 111

4.4.2 EBFCs Into Implantable Bioelectronics 111

4.4.3 EBFCs Powering Portable Devices 112

4.5 Challenges 114

4.6 Conclusion 116

References 116

5 Introduction to Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC): Waste Matter to Electricity 123
Rustiana Yuliasni, Abudukeremu Kadier, Nanik Indah Setianingsih, Junying Wang, Nani Harihastuti and Peng-Cheng Ma

5.1 Introduction 124

5.2 Operating Principles of MFC 125

5.3 Main Components and Materials of MFCs 126

5.3.1 Anode Materials 126

5.3.2 Cathode Materials 134

5.3.3 Substrates or Fed-Stocks 135

5.3.4 MFC Cell Configurations 135

5.4 Current and Prospective Applications of MFC Technology 136

5.5 Conclusion and Future Prospects 138

Acknowledgement 138

References 138

6 Flexible Biofuel Cells: An Overview 145
Gayatri Konwar and Debajyoti Mahanta

6.1 Introduction 145

6.1.1 Working Principle of Fuel Cell 146

6.1.2 Types of Fuel Cells 148

6.2 Biofuel Cells (BFCs) 149

6.2.1 Working Principle 149

6.2.1.1 Microbial Fuel Cell 150

6.2.1.2 Photomicrobial Fuel Cell 151

6.2.1.3 Enzymatic Fuel Cell 151

6.2.2 Applications of Biofuel Cells 152

6.3 Needs for Flexible Biofuel Cell 153

6.3.1 Fuel Diversity 153

6.3.2 Materials for Flexible Biofuel Cells 154

6.3.3 Fabrication of Bioelectrodes 156

6.3.4 Recent Advances and New Progress for the Development of Flexible Biofuel Cell 156

6.3.4.1 Carbon-Based Electrode Materials for Flexible Biofuel Cells 157

6.3.4.2 Textile and Polymer-Based Electrode Materials for Flexible Biofuel Cells 160

6.3.4.3 Metal-Based Electrode Materials 162

6.3.5 Challenges Faced by Flexible Biofuel Cell 162

6.4 Conclusion 164

References 164

7 Carbon Nanomaterials for Biofuel Cells 171
Udaya Bhat K. and Devadas Bhat P.

List of Abbreviations 172

7.1 Introduction 173

7.2 Types of Biofuel Cells 174

7.2.1 Enzyme-Based Biofuel Cell (EBFC) 175

7.2.2 Microbial-Based Biofuel Cells (MBFCs) 176

7.3 Carbon-Based Materials for Biofuel Cells 176

7.3.1 Cellulose-Based Biomass Fuel Cells 176

7.3.2 Starch and Glucose-Based Fuel Cells 177

7.3.3 Carbon Nanoparticles (NPs) 178

7.3.4 Graphite 179

7.3.5 Nanographene 179

7.3.5.1 N-Doped Graphene 182

7.3.6 Carbon Nanotubes 182

7.3.6.1 Buckypapers 187

7.3.6.2 Hydrogenases 188

7.3.6.3 N-Doped CNTs 189

7.3.6.4 Biphenylated CNTs 189

7.3.7 Nanohorns 189

7.3.8 Nanorods 190

7.3.9 Carbon Nanofibers 191

7.3.10 Nanoballs 191

7.3.11 Nanosheets 192

7.3.12 Reticulated Vitreous Carbon (RVC) 192

7.3.13 Porous Carbon 192

7.4 Applications of Biofuel Cells Using Carbon-Based Nanomaterials 193

7.4.1 Living Batteries/Implantable Fuel Cells 193

7.4.1.1 Animal In Vivo Implantation 194

7.4.1.2 Energy Extraction From Body Fluids 195

7.4.2 Energy Extraction From Fruits 197

7.5 Conclusion 197

References 198

8 Glucose Biofuel Cells 219
Srijita Basumallick

8.1 Introduction 219

8.2 Merits of BFC Over FC 220

8.3 Glucose Oxidize (GOs) as Enzyme Catalyst in Glucose Biofuel Cells 221

8.4 General Experimental Technique for Fabrication of Enzyme GOs Immobilized Electrodes for Glucose Oxidation 222

8.5 General Method of Characterization of Fabricated Enzyme Immobilized Working Electrode 223

8.6 Determination of Electron Transfer Rate Constant (ks) 224

8.7 Denaturation of Enzymes 225

8.8 Conclusions 225

Acknowledgments 226

References 226

9 Photochemical Biofuel Cells 229
Mohd Nur Ikhmal Salehmin, Rosmahani Mohd Shah, Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed, Ibdal Satar and Siti Mariam Daud

9.1 Introduction 230

9.1.1 Various Configuration of PBEC-FC 231

9.2 Photosynthetic Biofuel Cell (PS-BFC) 233

9.2.1 Various Configurations of PS-BFC 234

9.3 Photovoltaic-Biofuel Cell (PV-BFC) 238

9.4 Photoelectrode Integrated-Biofuel Cell (PE-BFC) 240

9.4.1 The Basic Mechanism of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Reaction 241

9.4.2 Photoelectrode-Integrated BFC 242

9.4.3 Various Configuration of PE-BFC 243

9.4.4 Materials Used in PE-BFC 245

9.5 Potential Fuels Generation and Their Performance From PEC-BFC 247

9.5.1 Hydrogen Generation 247

9.5.2 Contaminants Removal and Waste Remediation 249

9.5.3 Sustainable Power Generation 251

9.6 Conclusion 252

References 253

10 Engineering Architectures for Biofuel Cells 261
Udaya Bhat K. and Devadas Bhat P.

Abbreviations 261

10.1 Introduction 263

10.1.1 Biofuel Cell 263

10.1.2 General Configuration of a Biofuel Cell 263

10.2 Role as Miniaturized Ones 264

10.3 Attractiveness 266

10.3.1 Biological Sensors 266

10.3.2 Implantable Medical Devices 267

10.3.2.1 Invertebrates 268

10.3.2.2 Vertebrates 269

10.3.3 Electronics 269

10.3.4 Building Materials 270

10.4 Architecture 270

10.4.1 Fabrication and Design 270

10.4.1.1 Modeling 271

10.4.1.2 Sol-Gel Encapsulation 272

10.4.1.3 3D Electrode Architecture 272

10.4.1.4 Multi-Enzyme Systems (Enzyme Cascades) 273

10.4.1.5 Linear Cascades 273

10.4.1.6 Cyclic Cascades 274

10.4.1.7 Parallel Cascades 274

10.4.1.8 Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) 274

10.4.2 Single Compartment Layout 275

10.4.3 Two-Compartment Layout 275

10.4.4 Mechanisms 275

10.4.4.1 Direct Electron Transfer 275

10.4.4.2 Mediated Electron Transfer 276

10.4.5 Materials 277

10.4.5.1 Carbon Nanomaterials 277

10.4.5.2 H2/O2 Biofuel Cells 277

10.4.5.3 Hydrogenases 278

10.4.5.4 Fungal Cellulases 279

10.4.6 Characterization 279

10.4.6.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 279

10.4.6.2 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 279

10.4.6.3 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 280

10.4.6.4 Fluorescence Microscopy 280

10.4.7 Metagenomic Techniques 280

10.4.7.1 Pre-Treatment of Environmental Samples 281

10.4.7.2 Nucleic Acid Extraction 281

10.4.8 Integrated Devices 282

10.5 Issues and Perspectives 282

10.6 Future Challenges in the Architectural Engineering 283

10.7 Conclusions 283

References 284

11 Biofuel Cells for Commercial Applications 299
Mohan Kumar Anand Raj, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Moganapriya Chinnasamy and Sathish Kumar Palaniappan

Abbreviations 299

11.1 Introduction 300

11.1.1 History of Biofuel Cell 300

11.2 Classification of Electrochemical Devices Based on Fuel Confinement 303

11.2.1 Process of Electron Shift From Response Site to Electrode 303

11.2.2 Bioelectrochemical Cells Including an Entire Organism 303

11.2.3 Entire Organism Product Biofuel Cells Producing Hydrogen Gas 304

11.2.4 Entire Organism Non-Diffusive Biofuel Cells 305

11.3 Application of Biofuel Cells 307

11.3.1 Micro- and Nanotechnology 308

11.3.2 Self-Powered Biofuel Sensor 309

11.3.3 Switchable Biofuel Cells and Logic Gates 310

11.3.4 Microbial Energy Production 310

11.3.5 Transport and Energy Generation 311

11.3.6 Infixable Power Sources 312

11.3.7 Aqua Treatment 312

11.3.8 Robots 312

11.4 Conclusion 312

References 313

12 Development of Suitable Cathode Catalyst for Biofuel Cells 317
Mehak Munjal, Deepak Kumar Yadav, Raj Kishore Sharma and Gurmeet Singh

12.1 Introduction 317

12.2 Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxygen Reduction Reaction 321

12.3 Techniques for Evaluating ORR Catalyst 322

12.4 Cathode Catalyst in BFCs 326

12.5 Chemical Catalyst 327

12.5.1 Metals-Based Catalyst 327

12.5.1.1 Metals and Alloys 327

12.5.1.2 Metal Oxide 328

12.5.2 Carbon Materials 331

12.6 Microbial Catalyst 332

12.7 Enzymatic Catalyst for Biofuel Cell 333

12.8 Conclusion 334

Acknowledgements 335

References 335

13 Biofuel Cells for Water Desalination 345
Somakraj Banerjee, Ranjana Das and Chiranjib Bhattacharjee

13.1 Introduction 345

13.2 Biofuel Cell 347

13.2.1 Basic Mechanism 347

13.2.2 Types of Biofuel Cells 348

13.2.2.1 Enzymatic Fuel Cell 349

13.2.2.2 Microbial Fuel Cell 349

13.3 Biofuel Cells for Desalination: Microbial Desalination Cell 350

13.3.1 Working Mechanism 351

13.3.2 Microbial Desalination Cell Configurations 353

13.3.2.1 Air Cathode MDC 353

13.3.2.2 Biocathode MDC 354

13.3.2.3 Stacked MDC (sMDC) 355

13.3.2.4 Recirculation MDC (rMDC) 357

13.3.2.5 Microbial Electrolysis Desalination and Chemical Production Cell (MEDCC) 358

13.3.2.6 Capacitive MDC (cMDC) 359

13.3.2.7 Upflow MDC (UMDC) 360

13.3.2.8 Osmotic MDC (OMDC) 361

13.3.2.9 Bipolar Membrane Microbial Desalination Cell 362

13.3.2.10 Decoupled MDC 363

13.3.2.11 Separator Coupled Stacked Circulation MDC (c-SMDC-S) 364

13.3.2.12 Ion-Exchange Resin Coupled Microbial Desalination Cell 365

13.4 Factors Affecting the Performance and Efficiency of Desalination Cells 366

13.4.1 Effect of External Resistance 366

13.4.2 Effect of Internal Resistance 367

13.4.3 Effect of pH 367

13.4.4 Effect of Microorganisms 368

13.4.5 Effect of Operating Conditions 369

13.4.6 Effect of Membrane Scaling and Fouling 370

13.4.7 Effect of Desalinated Water Contamination 370

13.5 Current Challenges and Further Prospects 370

Acknowledgment 371

References 372

14 Conventional Fuel Cells vs Biofuel Cells 377
Naila Yamin, Wajeeha Khalid, Muhammad Altaf, Raja Shahid Ashraf, Munazza Shahid and Amna Zulfiqar

14.1 Bioelectrochemical Cell 378

14.2 Types 378

14.2.1 Fuel Cells 378

14.2.1.1 Conventional Fuel Cell (FC) 378

14.2.1.2 History 378

14.2.1.3 Principle of FC 380

14.2.1.4 Construction/Designs 380

14.2.1.5 Stacking of Fuel Cell 383

14.2.1.6 Importance of Conventional FC 384

14.2.2 Types of FC 384

14.2.2.1 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) 385

14.2.2.2 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) 386

14.2.2.3 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) 388

14.2.2.4 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) 389

14.2.2.5 Alkaline FC (AFC) 390

14.2.2.6 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) 391

14.2.3 Advantages of Fuel Cells 394

14.2.3.1 Efficiency 394

14.2.3.2 Low Emissions 394

14.2.3.3 Noiseless 394

14.2.4 Applications 394

14.3 Biofuel Cells 395

14.3.1 Introduction 395

14.3.2 Categories of Biofuel 395

14.3.2.1 First-Generation Biofuel 395

14.3.2.2 Second-Generation Biofuel 399

14.3.2.3 Third-Generation Biofuel 399

14.3.2.4 Fourth-Generation Biofuel 399

14.3.3 Advantages of Biofuels 399

14.4 Types of Biofuel Cells 399

14.4.1 Microbial Fuel Cell 399

14.4.1.1 Basic Principles of MFC 401

14.4.1.2 Types of MFCs 403

14.4.1.3 Mechanism of Electron Transfer 404

14.4.1.4 Uses of MFCs 405

14.4.1.5 Advantages of MFCs 406

14.4.1.6 Disadvantage of MFCs 407

14.4.2 Enzymatic Biofuel Cells (EBCs) 407

14.4.2.1 Principle/Mechanism 407

14.4.2.2 Working of EBCs 407

14.4.2.3 Immobilization of an Enzyme 408

14.4.3 Glucose Biofuel Cells (GBFCs) 409

14.4.4 Photochemical Biofuel Cell 411

14.4.5 Flexible or Stretchable Biofuel Cell 412

14.5 Conclusion 413

References 413

15 State-of-the-Art and Prospective in Biofuel Cells: A Roadmap Towards Sustainability 423
Biswajit Debnath, Moumita Sardar, Khushbu K. Birawat, Indrashis Saha and Ankita Das

15.1 Introduction 423

15.2 Membrane-Based and Membrane-Less Biofuel Cells 425

15.3 Enzymatic Biofuel Cells 429

15.4 Wearable Biofuel Cells 432

15.5 Fuels for Biofuel Cells 434

15.6 Roadmap to Sustainability 434

15.7 Conclusion and Future Direction 438

Acknowledgement 439

References 439

16 Anodes for Biofuel Cells 449
Naveen Patel, Dibyajyoti Mukherjee, Ishu Vansal, Rama Pati Mishra and Vinod Kumar Chaudhary

16.1 Introduction 450

16.2 Anode Material Properties 451

16.3 Anode 452

16.3.1 Non-Carbon Anode Materials 452

16.3.2 Carbon Anode Materials 453

16.4 Anode Modification 453

16.4.1 Anode Modification With Carbon Nanotube (CNT) 453

16.4.2 Graphite-Based Material for Anode Electrode Modification 454

16.4.3 Anode Modification With Nanocomposite of Metal Oxides 454

16.4.4 Anode Modification With Conducting Polymer 455

16.4.5 Chemical and Electrochemical Anode Modifications 456

16.5 Challenge and Future Perspectives 456

16.6 Conclusion 457

Acknowledgements 457

References 457

17 Applications of Biofuel Cells 465
Joel Joseph, Muthamilselvi Ponnuchamy, Ashish Kapoor and Prabhakar Sivaraman

17.1 Introduction 465

17.2 Fuel Cell 467

17.3 Biofuel Cells 468

17.3.1 Microbial Biofuel Cell 469

17.3.1.1 At Anode Chamber 470

17.3.1.2 At Cathode Chamber 471

17.3.2 Enzymatic Biofuel Cell 471

17.3.3 Mammalian Biofuel Cell 472

17.4 Implantable Devices Powered by Using Biofuel Cell 473

17.4.1 Implantable Biofuel Cell for Pacemakers or Artificial Urinary Sphincter 473

17.4.2 Implantable Medical Devices Powered by Mammalian Biofuel Cells 474

17.4.3 Medical Devices Using PEM Fuel Cell 475

17.4.4 Implantable Brain Machine Interface Using Glucose Fuel Cell 475

17.5 Single Compartment EBFCs 476

17.6 Extracting Energy from Human Perspiration Through Epidermal Biofuel Cell 476

17.7 Mammalian Body Fluid as an Energy Source 477

17.8 Implantation of Enzymatic Biofuel Cell in Living Lobsters 477

17.9 Biofuel Cell Implanted in Snail 477

17.10 Application of Biofuel Cell 478

17.11 Conclusion 479

References 479

Index 483
Inamuddin, PhD, is an assistant professor at the Department of Applied Chemistry, Zakir Husain College of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has extensive research experience in analytical chemistry, materials chemistry, electrochemistry, renewable energy, and environmental science. He has worked on different research projects funded by various government agencies and universities and is the recipient of multiple awards, including the Fast Track Young Scientist Award and the Young Researcher of the Year Award for 2020, from Aligarh Muslim University. He has published almost 200 research articles in various international scientific journals, 18 book chapters, and 120 edited books with multiple well-known publishers.

Mohd Imran Ahamed, PhD, is a research associate in the Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has published several research and review articles in various international scientific journals and has co-edited multiple books. His research work includes ion-exchange chromatography, wastewater treatment, and analysis, bending actuator and electrospinning.

Rajender Boddula, PhD, is currently working for the Chinese Academy of Sciences President's International Fellowship Initiative (CAS-PIFI) at the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing). His academic honors include multiple fellowships and scholarships, and he has published many scientific articles in international peer-reviewed journals. He is also serving as an editorial board member and a referee for several reputed international peer-reviewed journals. He has published edited books with numerous publishers and has authored over 20 book chapters.

Mashallah Rezakazemi, PhD, received his doctorate from the University of Tehran (UT) in 2015. In his first appointment, he served as associate professor in the Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering at Shahrood University of Technology. He has co-authored in more than 140 highly cited journal publications, conference articles and book chapters. He has received numerous major awards and grants from various funding agencies in recognition of his research. Notable among these are Khwarizmi Youth Award from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), and the Outstanding Young Researcher Award in Chemical Engineering from the Academy of Sciences of Iran. He was named a top 1% most Highly Cited Researcher by Web of Science (ESI).

Inamuddin, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; M. I. Ahamed, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India; R. Boddula, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing); M. Rezakazemi, University of Tehran (UT)