John Wiley & Sons Biorefinery Production of Fuels and Platform Chemicals Cover BIOREFINERY PRODUCTION OF FUELS AND PLATFORM CHEMICALS From the selection and pretreatment of raw m.. Product #: 978-1-119-72472-8 Regular price: $167.29 $167.29 Auf Lager

Biorefinery Production of Fuels and Platform Chemicals

Sarangi, Prakash Kumar (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage Juni 2023
304 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-72472-8
John Wiley & Sons

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BIOREFINERY PRODUCTION OF FUELS AND PLATFORM CHEMICALS

From the selection and pretreatment of raw materials to design of reactors, methods of conversion, selection of process parameters, optimization, and production of various types of biofuels to the industrial applications for the technology, this is the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of liquid biofuels for engineers and students.

Massive use of fossil-based fuels not only create environmental pollution, but these sources are already diminishing. Waste biomass can aid in the production of biobased energy and chemicals. This book is a complete collection of chapters on biofuel and biochemical production presented in a sustainable way. Biorefineries are the need of the day, because they have the potential to produce fuels and chemicals in an environmentally sustainable way, to eventually fully displace production based on fossil resources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas.

Algal cells are also a suitable fit for the production of both fuels and chemicals replacing conventional sources. In this book, several chapters summarize how algal biomass can be processed for the production of bioenergy and biochemicals. This volume is essentially a roadmap towards thermochemical, biochemicals, bioengineering and bioprocessing.

Written and edited by authors from leading biotechnology research groups from across the world, this exciting new volume covers all of these technologies, including the basic concepts and the problems and solutions involved with the practical applications in the real world. Whether for the veteran engineer or scientist, the student, or a manager or other technician working in the field, this volume is a must-have for any library.

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

1 Biofuels: Classification, Conversion Technologies, Optimization Techniques and Applications 1
Sakthivel R, Abbhijith H, Harshini G V, Musunuri Shanmukha Vardhan and Krushna Prasad Shadangi

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Classification of Biofuels 5

1.2.1 First-Generation Biofuels 5

1.2.2 Second-Generation Biofuels 7

1.2.3 Third-Generation Algal Biofuels 9

1.3 Commonly Used Conversion Technologies 10

1.3.1 Gasification 10

1.3.1.1 Factors Influencing Gasification 12

1.3.2 Pyrolysis 13

1.3.2.1 Production of Bio-Oil from Pyrolysis 13

1.3.3 Hydrothermal Processes 15

1.3.3.1 Hydrothermal Carbonization 16

1.3.3.2 Hydrothermal Liquefaction 16

1.3.3.3 Hydrothermal Gasification 16

1.3.4 Transesterification 17

1.4 Commonly Used Optimization Techniques 19

1.4.1 Response Surface Methodology 19

1.4.2 Genetic Algorithm 22

1.5 Application of Biofuels in Transportation Sector 24

1.5.1 Automobile Sector 24

1.5.2 Aviation Sector 25

Conclusion 27

References 27

2 Technical Challenges and Prospects of Renewable Fuel Generation and Utilization at a Global Scale 31
Rajesh K. Srivastava

2.1 Introduction 32

2.2 Biofuel Synthesis 33

2.2.1 Biomass Energy 34

2.2.2 Biofuels 36

2.2.3 Biodiesel 39

2.3 Challenges for Bioenergy Generation 44

2.3.1 Operation Challenges in Biomass Energy Process 44

2.3.2 Economic Challenges in Biomass Energy Process 48

2.3.3 Social Challenges in Biomass Energy Processes 48

2.3.3.1 Conflicting Decision on Utility of Biomass Resources 48

2.3.3.2 Land Use Issue or Problems on Biomass Cultivation or Utilization 49

2.3.3.3 Environmental Impact of Biomass Resources 49

2.3.4 Policy and Regulatory Challenges for Biomass Energy Utility 49

2.4 Conclusions 50

Abbreviations 50

References 51

3 Engineered Microbial Systems for the Production of Fuels and Industrially Important Chemicals 59
Sushma Chauhan, Balasubramanian Velramar, Sneha Kumari, Anushri Keshri, Shalini Pandey, Shivam Pandey, Tanushree Baldeo Madavi, Vargobi Mukherjee, Meenakshi Jha and Pamidimarri D. V. N. Sudheer

3.1 Introduction 60

3.2 Microbial Systems for Biofuels and Chemicals Production 62

3.2.1 Microbial Systems for Genetic Engineering and Cellular Fabrication 64

3.2.2 Engineering of Microbial Cell Systems for Biofuels Production 65

3.2.2.1 Alcohols 65

3.2.3 Engineering of Microbial Cell Systems for Chemical Synthesis 73

3.2.3.1 Organic Acids 73

3.2.3.2 Fatty Alcohols 76

3.2.3.3 Bioplastic 77

3.3 Conclusions 78

References 87

4 Production of Biomethane and Its Perspective Conversion: An Overview 93
Rajesh K. Srivastava and Prakash Kumar Sarangi

4.1 Introduction 93

4.1.1 Sources of Methane 95

4.1.2 Methane from Human Activity 96

4.1.3 Impact of Methane on Climatic Change and Future 96

4.1.4 Advancements and Challenges 97

References 100

5 Microalgal Biomass Synthesized Biodiesel: A Viable Option to Conventional Fuel Energy in Biorefinery 105
Neha Bothra, P. Maniharika and Rajesh K. Srivastava

5.1 Introduction 106

5.2 Diesel 109

5.2.1 Biodiesel 112

5.3 Production of Biodiesel 113

5.3.1 Origin of Biofuels 113

5.3.2 Biodiesel Production from Algae 114

5.3.3 Intensity of Radiant Light 116

5.3.4 Lipid Content 117

5.3.5 Biomass Culturing Conditions 117

5.3.5.1 Temperature of Cultivation 118

5.3.5.2 pH of Cultivation 119

5.3.5.3 Duration Period of Light of Cultivation 119

5.3.5.4 Carbon Uptake of Cultivation 119

5.3.5.5 Oxygen Generation in Cultivation 119

5.3.5.6 Mixing Rates of Cultivation 120

5.3.5.7 Nutrient Uptake of Cultivation 120

5.4 Harvesting of Microalgae 120

5.4.1 Extraction of Oil 120

5.4.1.1 Varying n-Hexane to Algae Ratio 122

5.4.1.2 Varying the Algal Biomass Size 123

5.4.1.3 Varying Contact Time between n-Hexane and Algae Biomass 123

5.4.2 Transesterification 125

5.5 Conclusion 125

Abbreviations 125

References 126

6 Algae Biofuel Production Techniques: Recent Advancements 131
Trinath Biswal, Krushna Prasad Shadangi and Prakash Kumar Sarangi

6.1 Introduction 131

6.2 Technologies for Conversion if Algal Biofuels 133

6.2.1 Thermochemical Conversion of Microalgae Biomass into Biofuel 133

6.2.1.1 Gasification 133

6.2.1.2 Thermochemical Liquefaction 134

6.2.1.3 Pyrolysis 134

6.2.1.4 Direct Combustion 136

6.2.2 Biochemical Conversion 136

6.2.2.1 Anaerobic Digestion 138

6.2.2.2 Alcoholic Fermentation 139

6.2.2.3 Photobiological Hydrogen Production 139

6.3 Production of Biodiesel from Algal Biomass 140

6.3.1 Transesterification 141

6.4 Genetic Engineering Toward Biofuels Production 142

6.5 Summary 143

References 144

7 Technologies of Microalgae Biomass Cultivation for Bio-Fuel Production: Challenges and Benefits 147
Trinath Biswal, Krushna Prasad Shadangi and Prakash Kumar Sarangi

7.1 Introduction 148

7.2 Challenges Towards Algae Biofuel Technology 149

7.3 Biology Related with Algae 150

7.4 Algae Biofuels 153

7.5 Benefits of Microalgal Biofuels 154

7.6 Technologies for Production of Microalgae Biomass 160

7.6.1 Photoautotrophic Production 161

7.6.1.1 Open Pond Production Systems 161

7.6.1.2 Closed Photobioreactor Systems 163

7.6.1.3 Hybrid Production Systems 165

7.6.2 Heterotrophic Method Production 166

7.6.3 Mixotrophic Production 166

7.6.4 Photoheterotrophic Cultivation 168

7.7 Impact of Microalgae on the Environment 169

7.8 Advantages of Utilizing Microalgae Biomass for Biofuels 171

7.9 Conclusion 172

References 172

8 Agrowaste Lignin as Source of High Calorific Fuel and Fuel Additive 179
Harit Jha and Neha Namdeo

8.1 Agrowaste 179

8.2 Lignin 180

8.2.1 Structure of Lignin 181

8.2.2 Types of Lignin 183

8.2.3 Applications of Lignin 184

8.3 Lignin as Fuel 186

8.3.1 Bioethanol Production 189

8.3.2 Bio-Oil Production 191

8.3.3 Syngas Production 192

8.4 As Fuel Additive 192

8.5 Conclusion 193

References 194

9 Fly Ash Derived Catalyst for Biodiesel Production 203
Trinath Biswal, Krushna Prasad Shadangi and Prakash Kumar Sarangi

9.1 Introduction 204

9.2 Coal Fly Ash: Resources and Utilization 205

9.3 Composition of Coal Fly Ash 209

9.4 Economic Perspective of Biodiesel 212

9.5 Biodiesel from Fly Ash Derived Catalyst 214

9.5.1 Coal Fly Ash-Derived Sodalite as a Heterogeneous Catalyst 214

9.5.1.1 Zeolite Synthesis from Coal Fly Ash 215

9.5.1.2 Production of Biodiesel through Heterogeneous Transesterification 215

9.5.2 CaO/Fly Ash Catalyst for Transesterification of Palm Oil in Production of Biodiesel 216

9.5.2.1 Production of Biodiesel 217

9.5.2.2 Transesterification Reaction 218

9.5.3 Biodiesel Production Catalysed by Sulphated Fly-Ash 218

9.5.4 Composite Catalyst of Palm Mill Fly Ash-Supported Calcium Oxide (Eggshell Powder) 220

9.5.4.1 Preparation of the CaO/PMFA Catalyst 221

9.5.5 Kaliophilite-Fly Ash Based Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel 221

9.5.5.1 Synthesis of Kaliophilite 223

9.5.6 Fly-Ash Derived Zeolites for Production of Biodiesel 223

Conclusion 225

References 226

10 Emerging Biomaterials for Bone Joints Repairing in Knee Joint Arthroplasty: An Overview 233
Shankar Swarup Das

10.1 Introduction 234

10.2 Resources and Selecting Criteria 234

10.3 Reasons for Bone Defects of Tibia Plateau 235

10.4 Classification of Bone Defects of Medial Tibia Plateau 236

10.5 Different Biomaterials for Tibial Plateau Bone Defects 237

10.6 New Biomaterials to Repair Bone Defects in Tibia Plateau 243

10.7 Conclusion 244

References 245

About the Editor 253

Index 255
Prakash Kumar Sarangi, PhD, is a scientist with specialization in microbiology at the Central Agricultural University, Imphal, Manipur, India. He has more than 12 years of teaching and research experience in biochemical engineering, microbial biotechnology, downstream processing, food microbiology, and molecular biology. He has served on the editorial boards for many international journals and has authored more than 60 peer-reviewed research articles and 45 book chapters.