John Wiley & Sons Electrical Equipment Cover ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT A FIELD GUIDE A comprehensive guide for all the electrical equipment in plants.. Product #: 978-1-119-76894-4 Regular price: $195.33 $195.33 Auf Lager

Electrical Equipment

A Field Guide

Reddy, B. Koti

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1. Auflage November 2021
480 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-76894-4
John Wiley & Sons

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ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT A FIELD GUIDE

A comprehensive guide for all the electrical equipment in plants to understand their basic theories, relevant standards, operation and maintenance, challenges, and scope for future research.

This valuable new volume is a must-have for any engineer. Covering almost all electrical equipment, such as generators, motors, transformers, cables, batteries, meters, relays, fuses, lamps, lightning arresters, circuit breakers, and so much more, it ­covers not only the basic theory, but also mathematical equations, selection guidelines, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance, and many other practical applications. Equally as importantly, also covered here are all the applicable international standards, such as IEC and IEEE.

This book is written in a simple language for easy understanding by field engineers. The rating plate of all the equipment is described in detail. The relevant details of the equipment have been taken from the reputed manufacturers' brochures and their operation manuals. This book serves as a guide for researchers to know the gaps in existing technologies and gives direction for future research. Academics can refer to this book to understand the field requirements and to prepare their curriculum accordingly.

This groundbreaking new volume presents these topics and trends, bridging the research gap, and enables wide-scale implementation of efficient and effective operations. Whether for the veteran engineer or the student, this is a must-have for any library.

This outstanding new volume:
* Is a comprehensive, "one stop shop" guidebook for electrical engineers
* Covers all the electrical machines, switchgear, meters and relays, cables, batteries, and many other types of equipment found on the shop or plant floor
* Includes all the applicable international standards such as IEEE, IEC, NEMA, NFPA, and others
* Lists out the gaps in the existing technology and opportunities for future research

Audience Electrical engineers, technicians, and other designers, engineers, and scientists who work with electrical equipment.

Foreword xiii

Preface xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Electrical Power Supply 1

1.3 Classification of Voltages or Voltage Bands 2

1.4 Standards Agencies 2

1.5 Electrical Standards 12

1.6 Abbreviations 15

1.7 Constants 19

1.8 Types of Maintenance 19

1.9 Useful Life of Equipment 22

2 Transformers 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Types of Transformers 27

2.3 Transformer on No Load 27

2.4 Transformer on Load 28

2.5 Total Equivalent Circuit of Transformer (Referred to Primary Side) 29

2.6 Losses in a Transformer 29

2.7 Efficiency of Transformer 30

2.8 Parallel Operation of Transformers 31

2.9 Rating Plate of Transformer 32

2.10 Information to Be Given to Purchase a Transformer 49

2.11 Tests on Transformer 52

2.12 Maintenance of Transformers 54

2.13 Troubleshooting Chart for Transformers 65

2.14 Latest Trends Opportunities in Transformer Technology 65

3 Generators 73

3.1 Introduction 73

3.2 Alternator 73

3.3 Field Poles 74

3.4 Construction of Field Poles 74

3.5 EMF Equation of Alternator 75

3.6 Capability Curve 76

3.7 Design of Alternator 80

3.8 Rating Plates 80

3.9 Voltage Regulation of Synchronous Generator 85

3.10 Excitation 86

3.11 Connections 87

3.12 Neutral Grounding 88

3.13 Cooling 88

3.14 Short-Circuit Ratio (SCR) 89

3.15 Pitch Factor (Kp) or Chording Factor (Kc) 90

3.16 Distribution Factor (Kd) 91

3.17 Leakage Reactance (Xl) 92

3.18 Armature Reaction 92

3.19 Operation of Generator When Connected to an Infinite Bus 93

3.20 Load Sharing of Grid-Connected Alternator 94

3.21 Typical Values of Various Reactances and Time-Constants 94

3.22 Load Characteristics of Alternators 94

3.23 Salient Pole Machine with Two Reaction Theory 97

3.24 Hunting 98

3.25 Stability and Swing Equation 98

3.26 Prime-Mover Rating Plates 99

3.27 Effect of Unbalanced Loads and External Faults 100

3.28 Voltage Regulators 101

3.29 Parallel Operation of Alternators Under Different Conditions 101

3.30 Induction Generator 103

3.31 Doubly Fed Induction Generator 105

3.32 Latest Trends in TG Technology 105

3.33 Maintenance 107

3.34 Fault Finding 107

3.35 Generator Failure Modes 107

3.36 Tests on a Turbo-Generator 107

3.37 Tests on Engine-Driven Generator 110

3.38 Gaps and Research Opportunities 111

4 Induction Motors 113

4.1 Introduction 113

4.2 Comparison Between Various Types of Motors 113

4.3 Working Principle of 3-Phase Induction Motor 114

4.4 Construction of SCIM 115

4.5 Equivalent Circuit of SCIM 118

4.6 Torque-Speed Curve of SCIM 119

4.7 T-S Curve for SRIM 121

4.8 Torque-Speed Curve of Single-Phase Motor (Split Phase) 122

4.9 Name Plate or Rating Plate of SCIM 122

4.10 Power Stages of Induction Motor 140

4.11 Abnormal Conditions 140

4.12 Starting of Induction Motors 143

4.13 Speed Control of Induction Motors 143

4.14 Deep Cage Induction Motor 143

4.15 Double Cage SCIM 145

4.16 Selection of Motor Power for an Application 146

4.17 Design of Induction Motors 146

4.18 Characteristics of Loads 149

4.19 Circle Diagram 149

4.20 Alignment of Motor with Driven Equipment 152

4.21 Shaft and Bearing Currents in Large Motors 153

4.22 Special Motors for Hazardous/Explosive Areas 154

4.23 Identification of 3-Phase Winding Leads 155

4.24 Tests on Induction Motor 156

4.25 Maintenance 158

4.26 Trouble-Shooting 170

4.27 Heating and Cooling Curves of Induction Motor 170

4.28 Smart Motors 178

4.29 Single-Phase Induction Motors 179

4.30 Information to Be Given to Purchase a 3-Phase Induction Motor 181

4.31 Protection Against Faults 183

4.32 Motors for Electrical Vehicles 183

4.33 Future Scope 184

5 Circuit Breakers and Contactors 185

5.1 Introduction 185

5.2 Arcing Phenomenon 185

5.3 Types of Circuit Breakers 186

5.4 AC and DC CBs 186

5.5 DCCB 186

5.6 CB Contacts 189

5.7 Selection of CB 189

5.8 Operation of CBs 192

5.9 Name Plate of CBs 199

5.10 Tests on CB 203

5.11 Information to Be Given to Purchase a CB 204

5.12 Maintenance of CB 205

5.13 Contactors 207

5.14 MCB, MCCB and RCCB 215

6 Protection and Measurement Systems 225

6.1 Introduction 225

6.2 Desirable Characteristics of Protective Device 225

6.3 Current Transformer 226

6.4 Voltage Transformer 242

6.5 Measuring Instruments 249

6.6 Multi-Function Meter 253

6.7 Desirable Characteristics of Meters 253

6.8 Meter Symbols and Codes 254

6.9 AVO or Multimeter 254

6.10 Meter Calibration Reports 255

7 Earthing and Lightning 257

7.1 Earthing 257

7.2 Earthing, Grounding and Bonding 257

7.3 System Neutral Grounding 259

7.4 LV Neutral Earthing 260

7.5 Types of Earth Electrodes 264

7.6 Measurement of Earth Resistance 264

7.7 General Guidelines on Earthing 269

7.8 Lightning Arrester 269

7.9 Protection Against Lightning 269

7.10 Definitions 271

7.11 Name Plate of LA 273

7.12 Protective Devices Against Lightning Surges 274

7.13 Surge Protective Device (SPD) 274

7.14 Lightning Conductor Size 277

7.15 Inspection and Maintenance of Lightning Protection System 277

7.16 Testing of LA 278

8 Fuses 281

8.1 Introduction 281

8.2 Terms Used in the Fuse Field 281

8.3 Cut-Off Characteristic of Fuse 282

8.4 Fuse Law (Prece's Law) 283

8.5 Types of Fuses 284

8.6 Application Categories and TCC of Fuses 288

8.7 Discrimination between an Over Current Relay and Fuse 289

8.8 Semi-Conductor Fuse 290

8.9 Examples of Selection of Fuse 291

8.10 Symbols of Fuse Letter Code 293

8.11 Desirable Characteristics of Fuse 293

8.12 Tests Recommended on Fuses 294

8.13 Market Models of Fuses 294

9 Protective Relays 301

9.1 Introduction 301

9.2 Terms Used in Relaying 301

9.3 Types of Protection 302

9.4 Types of Relays 302

9.5 Relay Block Diagrams of Three Generations 304

9.6 IDMT Relay Calculations 305

9.7 Inverse - Time Over-Current Relays 306

9.8 Comparison between Three Generation Relays 308

9.9 Thermal Overload Relays 308

9.10 Protections of Various Electrical Equipment 310

9.11 Relay Settings 312

9.12 Protection System Failure Modes 313

9.13 Maintenance of Relays 315

9.14 Field Testing 315

9.15 Relay Co-Ordination 317

9.16 Protective Device Numbers 323

9.17 Challenges and Opportunities 323

10 Cables and Overhead Conductors 329

10.1 Introduction 329

10.2 Conducting Materials 329

10.3 Cable Insulating Material 330

10.4 Construction of Cables 330

10.5 Overhead Conductor versus Cable 332

10.6 Comparison between PVC and XLPE Cables 332

10.7 De-Rating Factors 333

10.8 Special Cables 333

10.9 FRLS Cable Properties 335

10.10 Methods of Cable Laying 336

10.11 Identification Codes of Cables 336

10.12 Selection of Cable 337

10.13 Rule of Thumb for Industrial Work 338

10.14 Fault Location Methods 339

10.15 Maintenance on Cables 340

10.16 Cable Jointing 341

10.17 Tests on PVC Cables 341

10.18 Tests on XLPE Cables 343

10.19 Overhead Lines 345

10.20 FACTS 347

11 Solar Photovoltaics 353

11.1 Introduction 353

11.2 Solar Energy 353

11.3 Forms of Energy Resources 354

11.4 Solar Spectrum 354

11.5 Solar Energy Fundamentals 357

11.6 I-V and P-V Curves 362

11.7 Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants 363

11.8 Modelling of PV Modules 365

11.9 Performance Indicators 366

11.10 Maximum Power Point Tracking 368

11.11 Rating Plates of SPP 369

11.12 Opportunities and Future Scope 369

12 Storage Batteries 375

12.1 Introduction 375

12.2 Faraday's Law of Electrolysis 375

12.3 Types of Batteries 376

12.4 Dry Cell 376

12.5 Technical Terms 379

12.6 Secondary Batteries 381

12.7 Lead - Acid Battery 383

12.8 Nickel-Cadmium Batteries 391

12.9 Lithium Batteries 393

12.10 Latest Trends in Energy Storage Field 395

12.11 Maintenance 397

12.12 Some Other Notable Points on Battery 399

12.13 Batteries for Electric Vehicles 400

12.14 Smart Battery 402

12.15 Future Outlook 402

13 Computer Aided Studies in Power Systems (CASiPS) 405

13.1 Introduction 405

13.2 E-TAP 406

13.3 EDSA 408

13.4 PV Syst 409

13.5 Power Factory 410

13.6 Matlab-Simulink 412

14 Lighting 413

14.1 Introduction 413

14.2 Definitions 414

14.3 Type of Lighting Technologies 419

14.4 Estimation of Illumination 419

14.5 Recommended Illumination Levels 421

14.6 Lamps Rating Plate 421

14.7 Fluorescent Lamp Colour Temperatures 430

15 Electrical Safety 439

15.1 Introduction 439

15.2 Hazards and Effects of Electric Current 439

15.3 Electric Shock 440

15.4 Permit to Work System and Qualification and Training 442

15.5 Personnel Protective Equipment and Devices 446

Index 449
B. Koti Reddy is a scientific officer in the Department of Atomic Energy in India. His more than 30 years of experience in electrical power systems includes selection, procurement, commissioning, operation, and maintenance with various HV and LV switchgears, machines, drives, solar photovoltaics, electric vehicles, batteries, cables, measuring instruments, and protective relays. His work includes power system analysis with software tools such as E-Tap, PVSyst, Matlab and Homer Pro. He is a member of IEEE, ISTE, IAE and a Fellow of the Institution of Engineers(India).