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Artificial Intelligence for Renewable Energy and Climate Change

Vasant, Pandian / Weber, Gerhard-Wilhelm / Thomas, J. Joshua / Marmolejo-Saucedo, José Antonio / Rodriguez-Aguilar, Roman (Herausgeber)

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1. Auflage August 2022
496 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-76899-9
John Wiley & Sons

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

Written and edited by a global team of experts in the field, this groundbreaking new volume presents the concepts and fundamentals of using artificial intelligence in renewable energy and climate change, while also covering the practical applications that can be utilized across multiple disciplines and industries, for the engineer, the student, and other professionals and scientists.

Renewable energy and climate change are two of the most important and difficult issues facing the world today. The state of the art in these areas is changing rapidly, with new techniques and theories coming online seemingly every day. It is important for scientists, engineers, and other professionals working in these areas to stay abreast of developments, advances, and practical applications, and this volume is an outstanding reference and tool for this purpose.

The paradigm in renewable energy and climate change shifts constantly. In today's international and competitive environment, lean and green practices are important determinants to increase performance. Corresponding production philosophies and techniques help companies diminish lead times and costs of manufacturing, improve delivery on time and quality, and at the same time become more ecological by reducing material use and waste, and by recycling and reusing. Those lean and green activities enhance productivity, lower carbon footprint and improve consumer satisfaction, which in reverse makes firms competitive and sustainable.

This practical, new groundbreaking volume:
* Features coverage on a wide range of topics such as classical and nature-inspired optimization and optimal control, hybrid and stochastic systems
* Is ideally designed for engineers, scientists, industrialist, academicians, researchers, computer and information technologists, sustainable developers, managers, environmentalists, government leaders, research officers, policy makers, business leaders and students
* Is useful as a practical tool for practitioners in the fields of sustainable and renewable energy sustainability
* Includes wide coverage of how artificial intelligence can be used to impact the struggle against global warming and climate change

Preface xv

Section I: Renewable Energy 1

1 Artificial Intelligence for Sustainability: Opportunities and Challenges 3
Amany Alshawi

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 History of AI for Sustainability and Smart Energy Practices 4

1.3 Energy and Resources Scenarios on the Global Scale 5

1.4 Statistical Basis of AI in Sustainability Practices 6

1.4.1 General Statistics 6

1.4.2 Environmental Stress-Based Statistics 8

1.4.2.1 Climate Change 9

1.4.2.2 Biodiversity 10

1.4.2.3 Deforestation 10

1.4.2.4 Changes in Chemistry of Oceans 10

1.4.2.5 Nitrogen Cycle 10

1.4.2.6 Water Crisis 11

1.4.2.7 Air Pollution 11

1.5 Major Challenges Faced by AI in Sustainability 11

1.5.1 Concentration of Wealth 11

1.5.2 Talent-Related and Business-Related Challenges of AI 12

1.5.3 Dependence on Machine Learning 14

1.5.4 Cybersecurity Risks 15

1.5.5 Carbon Footprint of AI 16

1.5.6 Issues in Performance Measurement 16

1.6 Major Opportunities of AI in Sustainability 17

1.6.1 AI and Water-Related Hazards Management 17

1.6.2 AI and Smart Cities 18

1.6.3 AI and Climate Change 21

1.6.4 AI and Environmental Sustainability 23

1.6.5 Impacts of AI in Transportation 24

1.6.6 Opportunities in Disaster Forecasting and Deforestation Forecasting 25

1.6.7 Opportunities in the Energy Sector 26

1.7 Conclusion and Future Direction 26

References 27

2 Recent Applications of Machine Learning in Solar Energy Prediction 33
N. Kapilan, R.P. Reddy and Vidhya P.

2.1 Introduction 34

2.2 Solar Energy 34

2.3 AI, ML and DL 36

2.4 Data Preprocessing Techniques 38

2.5 Solar Radiation Estimation 38

2.6 Solar Power Prediction 43

2.7 Challenges and Opportunities 45

2.8 Future Research Directions 46

2.9 Conclusion 46

Acknowledgement 47

References 47

3 Mathematical Analysis on Power Generation - Part I 53
G. Udhaya Sankar, C. Ganesa Moorthy and C.T. Ramasamy

3.1 Introduction 54

3.2 Methodology for Derivations 55

3.3 Energy Discussions 59

3.4 Data Analysis 63

Acknowledgement 67

References 67

Supplementary 69

4 Mathematical Analysis on Power Generation - Part II 87
G. Udhaya Sankar, C. Ganesa Moorthy and C.T. Ramasamy

4.1 Energy Analysis 88

4.2 Power Efficiency Method 89

4.3 Data Analysis 91

Acknowledgement 96

References 97

Supplementary - II 100

5 Sustainable Energy Materials 117
G. Udhaya Sankar

5.1 Introduction 117

5.2 Different Methods 119

5.2.1 Co-Precipitation Method 119

5.2.2 Microwave-Assisted Solvothermal Method 120

5.2.3 Sol-Gel Method 120

5.3 X-R ay Diffraction Analysis 120

5.4 FTIR Analysis 122

5.5 Raman Analysis 124

5.6 UV Analysis 125

5.7 SEM Analysis 127

5.8 Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis 127

5.9 Thermoelectric Application 129

5.9.1 Thermal Conductivity 129

5.9.2 Electrical Conductivity 131

5.9.3 Seebeck Coefficient 131

5.9.4 Power Factor 132

5.9.5 Figure of Merit 133

5.10 Limitations and Future Direction 133

5.11 Conclusion 133

Acknowledgement 134

References 134

6 Soft Computing Techniques for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Wind Energy Harvesting System: A Survey 137
TigiluMitikuDinku, Mukhdeep Singh Manshahia and Karanvir Singh Chahal

6.1 Introduction 137

6.1.1 Conventional MPPT Control Techniques 138

6.2 Other MPPT Control Methods 142

6.2.1 Proportional Integral Derivative Controllers 142

6.2.2 Fuzzy Logic Controller 144

6.2.2.1 Fuzzy Inference System 150

6.2.2.2 Advantage and Disadvantages of Fuzzy Logic Controller 151

6.2.3 Artificial Neural Network 151

6.2.3.1 Biological Neural Networks 152

6.2.3.2 Architectures of Artificial Neural Networks 155

6.2.3.3 Training of Artificial Neural Networks 157

6.2.3.4 Radial Basis Function 158

6.2.4 Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Approach 158

6.2.4.1 Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Approach 161

6.2.4.2 Hybrid Training Algorithm 161

6.3 Conclusion 167

References 167

Section II: Climate Change 171

7 The Contribution of AI-Based Approaches in the Determination of CO2 Emission Gas Amounts of Vehicles, Determination of CO2 Emission Rates Yearly of Countries, Air Quality Measurement and Determination of Smart Electric Grids' Stability 173
Mesut Toaçar

7.1 Introduction 174

7.2 Materials 177

7.2.1 Classification of Air Quality Condition in Gas Concentration Measurement 177

7.2.2 CO2 Emission of Vehicles 178

7.2.3 Countries' CO2 Emission Amount 179

7.2.4 Stability Level in Electric Grids 179

7.3 Artificial Intelligence Approaches 181

7.3.1 Machine Learning Methods 182

7.3.1.1 Support Vector Machine 183

7.3.1.2 eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XG Boost) 184

7.3.1.3 Gradient Boost 185

7.3.1.4 Decision Tree 186

7.3.1.5 Random Forest 186

7.3.2 Deep Learning Methods 188

7.3.2.1 Convolutional Neural Networks 189

7.3.2.2 Long Short-Term Memory 191

7.3.2.3 Bi-Directional LSTM and CNN 192

7.3.2.4 Recurrent Neural Network 193

7.3.3 Activation Functions 195

7.3.3.1 Rectified Linear Unit 195

7.3.3.2 Softmax Function 196

7.4 Experimental Analysis 196

7.5 Discussion 210

7.6 Conclusion 211

Funding 212

Ethical Approval 212

Conflicts of Interest 212

References 212

8 Performance Analysis and Effects of Dust & Temperature on Solar PV Module System by Using Multivariate Linear Regression Model 217
Sumit Sharma, J. Joshua Thomas and Pandian Vasant

8.1 Introduction 218

8.1.1 Indian Scenario of Renewable Energy 218

8.1.2 Solar Radiation at Earth 220

8.1.3 Solar Photovoltaic Technologies 220

8.1.3.1 Types of SPV Systems 221

8.1.3.2 Types of Solar Photovoltaic Cells 222

8.1.3.3 Effects of Temperature 223

8.1.3.4 Conversion Efficiency 223

8.1.4 Losses in PV Systems 224

8.1.5 Performance of Solar Power Plants 224

8.2 Literature Review 225

8.3 Experimental Setup 228

8.3.1 Selection of Site and Development of Experimental Facilities 229

8.3.2 Methodology 229

8.3.3 Experimental Instrumentation 230

8.3.3.1 Solar Photovoltaic Modules 230

8.3.3.2 PV Grid-Connected Inverter 232

8.3.3.3 Pyranometer 232

8.3.3.4 Digital Thermometer 234

8.3.3.5 Lightning Arrester 235

8.3.3.6 Data Acquisition System 236

8.3.4 Formula Used and Sample Calculations 236

8.3.5 Assumptions and Limitations 237

8.4 Results Discussion 238

8.4.1 Phases of Data Collection 238

8.4.2 Variation in Responses Evaluated During Phase I (From 1 Jan. to 27 Feb.) of Study 238

8.4.2.1 Effect of Dust and Ambient Temperature on Conversion Efficiency 238

8.4.2.2 Capacity Utilization Factor and Performance Ratio 241

8.4.2.3 Evaluation of MLR Model 242

8.4.3 Variation in Responses Evaluated During Phase II (From 1 March to 5 April) 246

8.4.3.1 Influence of Dust and Ambient Temperature on Conversion Efficiency 246

8.4.3.2 Capacity Utilization Factor and Performance Ratio 246

8.4.3.3 Evaluation of MLR Model 246

8.4.4 Variation in Responses Evaluated During Phase III (18 May to 25 June) 252

8.4.4.1 Effect of Dust and Ambient Temperature on Conversion Efficiency 252

8.4.4.2 Capacity Utilization Factor and Performance Ratio 255

8.4.4.3 Evaluation of MLR Model 256

8.4.5 Regression Analysis for the Whole Period 258

8.4.6 Best Subsets Regression: Conversion Efficiency v/s Exposure Day, Ambient Temperature 267

8.4.7 Regression Outputs Summary 268

8.4.8 Comparison Between Measured Efficiency and Predicted Efficiency 268

8.4.9 Losses Due to Dust Accumulation 270

8.4.10 Economic Analysis 270

8.5 Future Research Directions 271

8.6 Conclusion 271

References 272

9 Evaluation of In-House Compact Biogas Plant Thereby Testing Four-Stroke Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine 277
Pradeep Kumar Meena, Sumit Sharma, Amit Pal and Samsher

9.1 Introduction 278

9.1.1 Benefits of the Use of Biogas as a Fuel in India 278

9.1.2 Biogas Generators in India 279

9.1.3 Biogas 279

9.1.3.1 Process of Biogas Production 280

9.2 Literature Review 281

9.2.1 Wastes and Environment 281

9.2.2 Economic and Environmental Considerations 283

9.2.3 Factor Affecting Yield and Production of Biogas 285

9.2.3.1 The Temperature 285

9.2.3.2 PH and Buffering Systems 287

9.2.3.3 C/N Ratio 287

9.2.3.4 Substrate Type 289

9.2.3.5 Retention Time 289

9.2.3.6 Total Solids 289

9.2.4 Advantages of Anaerobic Digestion to Society 290

9.2.4.1 Electricity Generation 290

9.2.4.2 Fertilizer Production 290

9.2.4.3 Pathogen Reduction 290

9.3 Methodology 290

9.3.1 Set Up of Compact Biogas Plant and Equipments 290

9.3.2 Assembling and Fabrication of Biogas Plant 292

9.3.3 Design and Technology of Compact Biogas Plant 294

9.3.4 Gas Quantity and Quality 295

9.3.5 Calculation of Gas Quantity in Gas Holder 295

9.4 Analysis of Compact Biogas Plant 299

9.4.1 Experiment Result 299

9.4.1.1 Testing on 50 Kg Animal Dung Along With 500 Ltrs Water 299

9.4.1.2 Testing on Kitchen Waste 300

9.4.1.3 Testing on Fruits Waste 302

9.4.2 Comparison of Biogas by Different Substrate 304

9.4.3 Production of Biogas Per Day at Different Waste 304

9.4.4 Variation of PH Value 307

9.4.5 Variation of Average pH Value 307

9.4.6 Variation of Temperature 308

9.4.7 Variation of Average Temperature With Respect to No. of Days for Animal Dung, Kitchen Waste, Fruits Waste and Sugar 309

9.4.8 Variation of Biogas Production W.R.T. Quantity of Kitchen Waste and Fruits Waste 311

9.5 Analysis of Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine on Dual Fuel 313

9.5.1 Testing on 4-Stroke Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine 313

9.5.2 Calculation 316

9.5.3 Heat Balance Sheet 322

9.5.4 Testing Result With Dual Fuel (Biogas and Diesel) on 4-Stroke Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine 326

9.5.5 Calculation 330

9.5.6 Heat Balance Sheet 335

9.6 General Comments 336

9.7 Conclusion 339

9.8 Future Scope 340

References 340

10 Low-Temperature Combustion Technologies for Emission Reduction in Diesel Engines 345
Amit Jhalani, Sumit Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar Sharma and Digambar Singh

Abbreviations 346

10.1 Introduction 346

10.1.1 Global Scenario of Energy and Emissions 347

10.1.2 Diesel Engine Emissions 348

10.1.3 Mitigation of NOx and Particulate Matter 350

10.1.4 Low-Temperature Combustion Engine Fuels 350

10.2 Scope of the Current Article 351

10.3 HCCI Technology 352

10.3.1 Principle of HCCI 353

10.3.2 Performance and Emissions with HCCI 354

10.4 Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) 354

10.5 Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) 355

10.6 Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) 356

10.7 LTC Through Fuel Additives 357

10.8 Emulsified Fuels (Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Fuel) 358

10.8.1 Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) 359

10.8.2 Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) 359

10.8.3 Soot and Particulate Matter (PM) 360

10.9 Conclusion and Future Scope 361

Acknowledgement 361

References 361

11 Efficiency Optimization of Indoor Air Disinfection by Radiation Exposure for Poultry Breeding Rational for Microclimate Systems Modernization for Livestock Premises 371
Dovlatov Igor Mamedjarevich and Yurochka Sergey Sergeevich

11.1 Introduction 372

11.2 Materials and Methods 374

11.3 Results 379

11.4 Discussion 382

11.5 Conclusions 385

References 386

12 Improving the Efficiency of Photovoltaic Installations for Sustainable Development of the Urban Environment 389
Pavel Kuznetsov, Leonid Yuferev and Dmitry Voronin

12.1 Introduction 390

12.2 Background 392

12.3 Main Focus of the Chapter 402

12.4 Solutions and Recommendations 417

Acknowledgements 417

References 418

13 Monitoring System Based Micro-Controller for Biogas Digester 423
Ahmed Abdelouareth and Mohamed Tamali

13.1 Introduction 423

13.2 Related Work 424

13.3 Methods and Material 425

13.3.1 Identification of Needs 425

13.3.2 ADOLMS Software Setup 425

13.3.3 ADOLMS Sensors 426

13.3.4 ADOLMS Hardware Architecture 428

13.4 Results 430

13.5 Conclusion 432

Acknowledgements 433

References 433

14 Greenhouse Gas Statistics and Methods of Combating Climate Change 435
Tatyana G. Krotova

Introduction 435

Methodology 436

Findings 436

Conclusion 454

References 455

About the Editors 457

Index 459
Pandian Vasant, PhD, is Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering and senior research associate at MERLIN Research Centre of Ton Duc Thang University, HCMC, Vietnam. He has 31 years of teaching experience and has co-authored over 300 publications, including research articles in journals, conference proceedings, presentations and book chapters. He has also been a guest editor for various scientific and technical journals.

Gerhard-Wilhelm Weber, PhD, is a professor at Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland. He received his PhD in mathematics, and economics / business administration, from RWTH Aachen. He held professorships by proxy at University of Cologne, and TU Chemnitz, Germany.

J. Joshua Thomas, PhD, has been a senior lecturer at KDU Penang University College, Malaysia since 2008. He obtained his PhD in intelligent systems techniques in 2015 from University Sains Malaysia, Penang, and is an editorial board member for the International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering. He has also published more than 30 papers in leading international conference proceedings and peer reviewed journals.

Jose A. Marmolejo Saucedo, PhD, is a professor at Pan-American University, Mexico. He received his PhD in operations research at the National Autonomous University of Mexico and has co-authored numerous research articles in scientific and scholarly journals, conference proceedings, presentations, books, and book chapters.

Roman Rodriguez-Aguilar, PhD, is a professor in the School of Economic and Business Sciences of the "Universidad Panamericana" in Mexico. He received his PhD at the School of Economics at the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico and has co-authored multiple research articles in scientific and scholarly journals, conference proceedings, presentations, and book chapters.