John Wiley & Sons Thermal Systems Design Cover Thermal Systems Design Discover a project-based approach to thermal systems design In the newly re.. Product #: 978-1-119-80347-8 Regular price: $107.48 $107.48 Auf Lager

Thermal Systems Design

Fundamentals and Projects

Martin, Richard J.

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2. Auflage März 2022
560 Seiten, Hardcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-80347-8
John Wiley & Sons

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Thermal Systems Design

Discover a project-based approach to thermal systems design

In the newly revised Second Edition of Thermal Systems Design: Fundamentals and Projects, accomplished engineer and educator Dr. Richard J. Martin offers senior undergraduate and graduate students an insightful exposure to real-world design projects. The author delivers a brief review of the laws of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and combustion before moving on to a more expansive discussion of how to apply these fundamentals to design common thermal systems like boilers, combustion turbines, heat pumps, and refrigeration systems.

The book includes design prompts for 14 real-world projects, teaching students and readers how to approach tasks like preparing Process Flow Diagrams and computing the thermodynamic details necessary to describe the states designated therein. Readers will learn to size pipes, ducts, and major equipment and to prepare Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams that contain the instruments, valves, and control loops needed for automatic functioning of the system.

The Second Edition offers an updated look at the pedagogy of conservation equations, new examples of fuel-rich combustion, and a new summary of techniques to mitigate against thermal expansion and shock. Readers will also enjoy:
* Thorough introductions to thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer, including topics like the thermodynamics of state, flow in porous media, and radiant exchange
* A broad exploration of combustion fundamentals, including pollutant formation and control, combustion safety, and simple tools for computing thermochemical equilibrium when product gases contain carbon monoxide and hydrogen
* Practical discussions of process flow diagrams, including intelligent CAD, equipment, process lines, valves and instruments, and non-engineering items
* In-depth examinations of advanced thermodynamics, including customized functions to compute thermodynamic properties of air, combustion products, water/steam, and ammonia right in the user's Excel workbook

Perfect for students and instructors in capstone design courses, Thermal Systems Design: Fundamentals and Projects is also a must-read resource for mechanical and chemical engineering practitioners who are seeking to extend their engineering know-how to a wide range of unfamiliar thermal systems.

Preface to the First Edition (A Most Practical Guidebook) xi

Acknowledgments xi

Preface to the Second Edition (Fundamentals and Projects) xiii

Acknowledgments xv

About the Author and the Textbook xvii

About the Companion Website xix

1 Thermodynamics 1

1.1 Units of Measure 1

1.2 Mass/Force Unit Conversion 2

1.3 Standard Temperature and Pressure 3

1.4 Control Mass, Control Volume 3

1.5 Laws of Thermodynamics 5

1.6 Conservation Laws 6

1.7 Thermodynamic Variable Categories 7

1.8 Ideal Gas Law 10

1.9 History of Temperature 11

1.10 Thermodynamic States 12

1.11 Internal Energy, Enthalpy, Entropy 13

1.12 Availability (Exergy) 15

1.13 Homework Problems 16

Cited References 17

2 Fluid Mechanics 19

2.1 Viscosity, Shear, Velocity 19

2.2 Hydrostatics, Buoyancy 20

2.3 The Continuity Equation 21

2.4 Mass, Volume, Mole Flows 22

2.5 Reynolds Number, Velocity Profiles 23

2.6 The Momentum Equation 27

2.7 Bernoulli's Equation 27

2.8 Stagnation, Static, Dynamic Pressure 28

2.9 Friction Factor, Hydraulic Diameter 29

2.10 Moody Chart, Chen Equation 31

2.11 Modified Bernoulli Equation 33

2.12 Alternate Moody Charts 33

2.13 Entry Effects, Minor Losses 35

2.14 Porous Media Pressure Drop 36

2.15 Homework Problems 37

Cited References 38

3 Heat Transfer 41

3.1 Fourier's Law 41

3.2 Newton's Law of Cooling 43

3.3 The Stefan-Boltzmann Law 43

3.4 The Energy Equation 44

3.5 The Entropy Equation 45

3.6 Electricity Analogy for Heat 45

3.7 Film, Mean Temperature 47

3.8 Nusselt, Prandtl Numbers 48

3.9 Flows Across Tube Banks 49

3.10 "Gotcha" Variables 52

3.11 Radiation and Natural Convection 53

3.12 Radiant Exchange 54

3.13 Types of Heat Exchangers 58

3.14 Heat Exchanger Fundamentals 59

3.15 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 59

3.16 LMTD Method 60

3.17 Effectiveness-NTU Method 61

3.18 Porous Media Heat Transfer 63

3.19 External Convection to Individual Spheres and Cylinders 65

3.20 Homework Problems 67

Cited References 68

4 Introduction to Combustion 71

4.1 Fuels for Combustion 71

4.2 Air for Combustion 72

4.3 Atomic and Molar Mass 73

4.4 Balancing Chemical Equations 73

4.5 Stoichiometry and Equivalence Ratio 74

4.6 The Atom Equations 76

4.7 Sensible and Chemical Enthalpies 78

4.8 Thermochemical Property Tables 82

4.9 Enthalpy of Combustion 83

4.10 Enthalpy Datum States 85

4.11 Adiabatic Combustion Temperature 86

4.12 Equilibrium and Kinetics 88

4.13 Pollutant Formation and Control 93

4.14 Combustion Safety Fundamentals 95

4.15 Other Topics in Combustion 96

4.16 Homework Problems 97

Cited References 98

5 Process Flow Diagrams 101

5.1 Intelligent CAD 101

5.2 Equipment 102

5.3 Process Lines 105

5.4 Valves and Instruments 105

5.5 Nonengineering Items 105

5.6 Heat and Material Balance 106

5.7 PFD Techniques 107

5.8 Homework Problems 111

Cited References 113

6 Advanced Thermodynamics 115

6.1 Equations of State 115

6.2 Thermodynamic Property Diagrams 117

6.3 Gibbs, Helmholtz, and Maxwell 118

6.4 Equations of State 121

6.5 Boiling and Condensation 124

6.6 Psychrometry 126

6.7 Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium for NH3 + H2O Mixtures 133

6.8 Efficiency vs Effectiveness 137

6.9 Space vs Time 139

6.10 Homework Problems 141

Cited References 142

7 Burners and Heat Recovery 145

7.1 Burners 145

7.2 Combustion Safeguarding 147

7.3 Thermal Oxidizers 149

7.4 Destruction Efficiency 151

7.5 Recuperators and Regenerators 152

7.6 Packed-bed Heat Storage 156

7.7 Heat Exchanger Discretization 157

7.8 Thermal Destruction of Airborne Pathogens 159

7.9 Special Atmosphere Heat Treating 160

7.10 Burner and Heat Exchanger Failures 161

7.11 Homework Problems 163

References 166

8 Boilers and Power Cycles 169

8.1 Rankine Cycle 169

8.2 Boiler Terminology 171

8.3 Efficiency Improvement 174

8.4 Controls and Safeguards 177

8.5 Blowdown and Water Treatment 179

8.6 Air Pollutant Reduction 181

8.7 Organic Rankine Cycle 185

8.8 Boiler Failure Analysis 186

8.9 Homework Problems 189

Cited References 191

9 Combustion Turbines 193

9.1 Turbomachinery 193

9.2 Brayton Cycle 194

9.3 Polytropic Processes 196

9.4 Isentropic Efficiency 197

9.5 Gas Property Relationships 200

9.6 Reheating, Intercooling 201

9.7 Recuperation 202

9.8 Homework Problems 204

Cited References 206

10 Refrigeration and Heat Pumps 207

10.1 Vapor Refrigeration Cycle 207

10.2 Gas Refrigeration Cycle 210

10.3 Heat Pump Efficiency 211

10.4 Sizing and Energy Usage 212

10.5 Refrigerants 214

10.6 Compressors 217

10.7 Air Handlers 219

10.8 Refrigeration Control 222

10.9 Coil Defrost 224

10.10 Compressorless Refrigeration 225

10.11 Thermoelectric Coolers 234

10.12 Refrigeration System Failures 235

10.13 Homework Problems 238

Cited References 242

11 Other Thermal Systems 245

11.1 Solar Fluid Heating 245

11.2 Fluid Heaters 248

11.3 Evaporative Cooling 251

11.4 Geothermal Heat Sink 252

11.5 Thermal Energy Storage 254

11.6 Thick-layer Product Dehydration 257

11.7 Desalination 259

11.8 Steam Sterilization 261

11.9 Espresso Machine 262

11.10 Hot Air Balloon 266

11.11 Homework Problems 269

Cited References 272

12 Pipe and Fluid Mover Analysis 275

12.1 Fluid Mover Categories 275

12.2 Conveying Means Categories 277

12.3 Leak Prevention 278

12.4 Pressure Rise and Drop 279

12.5 Electricity Analogy for Flow 280

12.6 Piping Network Rules 282

12.7 Blower and System Curves 283

12.8 Pump and Blower Work 287

12.9 Compressibility in Long Pipes 291

12.10 Chimney Effect 292

12.11 Homework Problems 295

Cited References 297

13 Thermal Protection 299

13.1 Refractory Ceramics 299

13.2 Refractory Metals 301

13.3 Thermal Insulation 301

13.4 Radiative-Convective Insulation Systems 304

13.5 Skin Contact Burns 304

13.6 Protection Against Thermal Expansion 305

13.7 Protection Against Thermal Shock 308

13.8 Homework Problems 309

Cited References 310

14 Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams 311

14.1 Design Packages 311

14.2 Temperature Sensors 313

14.3 Pressure Sensors 315

14.4 Flow Sensors 317

14.5 Level Sensors 319

14.6 Exhaust Gas Analyzers 321

14.7 Combustion Safety Instruments 323

14.8 Valves and Actuators 325

14.9 ISA Tag Glossary 329

14.10 P&ID Techniques 331

14.11 Homework Problems 332

Cited References 333

15 Control of Thermal Systems 335

15.1 Control Nomenclature 335

15.2 Thermostatic Control 335

15.3 PID Control 338

15.4 Safety Controls and Interlocks 341

15.5 Sequencing Control 342

15.6 Ladder Logic 343

15.7 Homework Problems 345

Cited References 346

16 Process Safety 347

16.1 Safety Terminology 347

16.2 Safety Hierarchy 349

16.3 Safeguards and Warnings 350

16.4 History of Safety Standards 351

16.5 Process Hazard Analysis 352

16.6 Homework Problems 354

Cited References 355

17 Process Quality Methods 357

17.1 Quality Terminology 357

17.2 Advanced Statistical Methods for Quality in Thermal Processes 358

17.3 Management of Change for Quality, Stewardship, and Safety 362

17.4 Homework Problems 364

Cited References 366

18 Procurement, Operation, and Maintenance 367

18.1 Engineering Design Deliverable 367

18.2 Engineering Data Sheets 367

18.3 Construction and Commissioning 368

18.4 Inspection, Maintenance, and Training 371

18.5 Operation and Maintenance Manual 373

18.6 Homework Problems 375

Cited References 375

Appendix A Property Tables 377

Appendix B Excel (VBA) Custom Functions 449

Index 511
Richard J. Martin, PhD, PE, is the President and Principal Engineer of Martin Thermal Engineering, a mechanical and thermal consulting firm that specializes in system failure analysis and engineering safety, and is an Adjunct Lecturer at California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo where he teaches Air Pollution and Programming Methods in Engineering and an Adjunct Lecturer at Santa Clara University where he teaches Thermal Systems Design and Heat Transfer. He has previously taught at the University of Southern California, California Polytechnic State University - Pomona, and California Baptist University.