# Petroleum Refining Design and Applications Handbook, Volume 4

## Heat Transfer, Pinch Analysis, and Process Safety Incidents

1. Auflage Februar 2023

1088 Seiten, Hardcover*Wiley & Sons Ltd*

**978-1-119-82752-8**

PETROLEUM REFINING

This fourth volume in the Petroleum Refining set, this book continues the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the most significant and recent changes to petroleum refining, presenting the state-of-the-art to the engineer, scientist, or student.

This book provides the design of heat exchanger equipment, crude oil fouling in pre-heat train exchangers, crude oil fouling models, fouling mitigation and monitoring, prevention and control of liquid and gas side fouling, using the Excel spreadsheet and UniSim design software for the design of shell and tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers, air-cooled exchangers, heat loss tracing for process piping, pinch analysis for hot and cold utility targets and process safety incidents involving these equipment items and pertinent industrial case studies.

Use of UniSim Design (UniSim STE) software is illustrated in further elucidation of the design of shell and tube heat exchangers, condensers, and UniSim ExchangerNet R470 for the design of heat exchanger networks using pinch analysis. This is important for determining minimum cold and hot utility requirements, composite curves of hot and cold streams, the grand composite curve, the heat exchanger network, and the relationship between operating cost index target and the capital cost index target against "Tmin.

Useful as a textbook, this is also an excellent, handy go-to reference for the veteran engineer, a volume no chemical or process engineering library should be without. Written by one of the world's foremost authorities, this book sets the standard for the industry and is an integral part of the petroleum refining renaissance. It is truly a must-have for any practicing engineer or student in this area.

This groundbreaking new volume:

* Assists engineers in rapidly analyzing problems and finding effective design methods and select mechanical specifications

* Provides improved design manuals to methods and proven fundamentals of process design with related data and charts

* Covers a complete range of basic day-to-day petroleum refining operations topics with new materials on significant industry changes

* Extensive Excel spreadsheets for the design of process vessels for mechanical separation of two-phase and three-phase fluids, double-pipe heat exchanger, air-cooled exchanger, pinch analysis for hot and cold utility targets.

* Provides UniSim (r)-based case studies for enabling simulation of key processes outlined in the book

* Helps achieve optimum operations and process conditions and shows how to translate design fundamentals into mechanical equipment specifications

* Has a related website that includes computer applications along with spreadsheets and concise applied process design flow charts and process data sheets

* Provides various case studies of process safety incidents in refineries and means of mitigating these from investigations by the US Chemical Safety Board

* Includes a vast Glossary of Petroleum and Technical Terminology

Acknowledgments xxii

21 Heat Transfer 1

21.1 Introduction 1

21.1.1 Types of Heat Transfer Equipment Terminology 2

21.2 Details of Exchange Equipment 19

Assembly and Arrangement 19

Construction Codes 19

Thermal Rating Standards 19

Details of Stationary Heads 19

Exchanger Shell Types 20

21.3 Factors Affecting Shell Selection 24

21.3.1 Details of Rear End Heads 25

21.4 Common Combinations of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers 26

AES 26

BEM 26

AEP 27

CFU 28

AKT 28

AJW 28

Tubes 29

21.5 Bending of Tubing 56

Baffles 56

Tube Side Baffles (TEMA uses Pass Partition Plates) 56

21.6 Shell-Side Baffles and Tube Supports 57

Tie Rods 67

Tubesheets 67

Tube Joints in Tubesheets 69

Seal Strips 72

Example 21.1 Determine Outside Heat Transfer Area of Heat Exchanger Bundle 73

Tubesheets Layouts 73

21.7 Tube Counts in Shells 73

Applications of Tube Pitch Arrangements 93

21.8 Exchanger Surface Area 93

Number of Tubes 93

Exact Distance Between Faces of Tubesheets 94

Net Effective Tube Length 94

Exact Baffle Spacing 94

Impingement Baffle Location 94

Effective Tube Surface 94

Effective Tube Length for U-Tube Heat Exchangers 107

21.9 Tube Vibration 107

21.9.1 Vibration Mechanisms 109

21.9.2 Treatment of Vibration Problems 110

21.9.3 Corrective Measures 110

Example 21.2 Use of U-Tube Area Chart 111

Nozzle Connections to Shell and Heads 112

21.10 Types of Heat Exchange Operations 112

21.10.1 Thermal Design 112

21.10.2 Temperature Difference: Two Fluid Transfer 116

Example 21.3 One Shell Pass, Two Tubes Passes Parallel-Counterflow Exchanger Cross, After Murty 117

21.10.3 Mean Temperature Difference or Log Mean Temperature Difference 120

21.10.4 Log Mean Temperature Difference Correction Factor, F 123

21.10.5 Correction for Multipass Flow Through Heat Exchangers 133

Example 21.4 Performance Examination for Exit Temperature of Fluids 134

Example 21.5 Calculation of Weighted MTD 136

Example 21.6 Calculation of LMTD and Correction 137

Example 21.7 Calculate the LMTD 140

Solution 140

Temperature for Fluid Properties Evaluation-Caloric Temperature 142

Tube Wall Temperature 142

Example 21.8 Heating of Glycerin in a Multipass Heat Exchanger 145

Solution 145

21.11 The Effectiveness--NTU Method 148

Example 21.9 Heating Water in a Counter Current Flow Heat Exchanger 148

Solution 152

Example 21.10 LMTD and epsilon-NTU Methods 154

Solution 154

Example 21.11 156

Solution 156

21.12 Pressure Drop, Deltap 158

21.12.1 Frictional Pressure Drop 164

21.12.2 Factors Affecting Pressure Drop (Deltap) 168

Tube-Side Pressure Drop, Deltapf 169

Shell-Side Pressure Drop Deltapf 170

Shell Nozzle Pressure Drop (Deltap noz) 172

Total Shell-Side Pressure Drop, Deltap total 172

21.13 Heat Balance 173

Heat Load or Duty 173

Example 21.12 Heat Duty of a Condenser with Liquid Subcooling 174

21.14 Transfer Area 174

Over Surface and Over Design 174

21.15 Fouling of Tube Surface 175

21.15.1 Crude Oil Fouling In Pre-Heat Train Exchangers 199

Crude Type 199

Crude Blending 199

Crude Oil Fouling Models 202

Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers' Association (TEMA) and Model Approach for Fouling Resistance, Rf of Crude Oil Pre-Heat Trains 208

Fouling Mitigation and Monitoring 209

HIS smartPM Software 213

Effect of Fouling on Exchanger Heat Transfer Performance 216

Example 21.13 216

Solution 216

Example 21.14 217

Solution 217

Prevention and Control of Liquid-Side Fouling 218

Prevention and Control of Gas-Side Fouling 219

UnSim Design HEX Network Digital Twin Model 219

Selecting Tube Pass Arrangement 220

Super Clean System Technology 221

21.16 Exchanger Design 223

21.16.1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Plain or Bare Tubes 224

Example 21.15 Calculation of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient from Individual Components 235

Approximate Values for Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients 235

Simplified Equations 247

Film Coefficients With Fluids Outside Tubes Forced Convection 253

Viscosity Correction Factor (mu/muw)¯0.14

Heat Transfer Coefficient for Water, hi 257

Shell-Side Equivalent Tube Diameter 258

Shell-Side Velocities 265

Design and Rating of Heat Exchangers 265

Rating of a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger 266

Design of a Heat Exchanger 270

Design Procedure for Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Exchanger Design 272

Design Programs for a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger 273

Example 21.16 Convection Heat Transfer Exchanger Design 274

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Design Procedure (S.I. units) 286

Tubes 288

Tube Side Pass Partition Plate 288

Calculations of Tube Side Heat Transfer Coefficient 288

Example 21.17 Design of a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (S.I. units) Kern's Model 291

Solution 292

Modified Design 298

Shell-Side Pressure Drop, Deltaps 298

Pressure Drop for Plain Tube Exchangers 300

Tube Size 300

Tube-Side Condensation Pressure Drop 304

Shell-Side 305

Unbaffled Shells 305

Segmental Baffles in Shell 306

Alternate: Segmental Baffles Pressure Drop 307

A Case Study Using UniSim(r) Shell-Tube Exchanger (STE) Modeler 310

Solution 311

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers: Single Phase 329

Effect of Manufacturing Clearances on the Shell-Side Flow 329

Bell-Delaware Method 331

Ideal Shell-Side Film Heat Transfer Coefficient 332

Shell-Side Film Heat Transfer Coefficient Correction Factors 333

Baffle Cut and Spacing, Jc 333

Baffle leakage Effects, JL 335

Bundle and Partition Bypass Effects, Jb 337

Variations in Baffle Spacing, Js 338

Temperature Gradient for Laminar Flow Regime, Jr 338

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U 338

Shell-Side Pressure (Deltap) 339

Tube Pattern 341

Accuracy of Correlations Between Kern's Method and the Bell-Delaware's Method 341

Specification Process Data Sheet, Design, and Construction of Heat Exchangers 341

Rapid Design Algorithms for Shell and Tube and Compact Heat Exchangers: Polley et al. [173] 344

Fluids in the Annulus of Tube-in-Pipe or Double Pipe Heat Exchanger, Forced Convection 347

Finned Tube Exchangers 348

Low Finned Tubes, 16 and 19 Fins/In. 348

Finned Surface Heat Transfer 348

Economics of Finned Tubes 353

Tubing Dimensions 353

Design for Heat Transfer Coefficients by Forced Convection Using Radial Low-Fin Tubes in Heat Exchanger Bundles 355

Pressure Drop in Exchanger Shells Using Bundles of Low Fin Tubes 357

Tube-Side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop 358

Design Procedure for Shell-Side Condensers and Shell-Side Condensation With Gas Cooling of Condensables, Fluid-Fluid Convection Heat Exchange 358

Vertical Condensation on Low Fin Tubes 358

Nucleate Boiling Outside Horizontal or Vertical Tubes 358

Design Procedure for Boiling, Using Experimental Data 360

Double Pipe Finned Tube Heat Exchangers 362

Finned Side-Heat Transfer 364

Tube Wall Resistance 370

Tube-Side Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop 370

Fouling Factor 371

Finned Side Pressure Drop 371

Design Equations for The Rating of A Double Pipe Heat Exchanger 372

Inner Pipe 374

Annulus 375

Vapor Service 376

Shell-Side Bare Tube 376

Shell-Side (Finned Tube) 377

Tube Side Pressure Drop, Deltapt 378

Annulus 378

Calculation of the Pressure Drop 379

Effect of Pressure Drop (Deltap) on the Original Design 380

Nomenclature 381

Example 21.19 382

Solution 383

Heat Balance 383

Pressure Drop Calculations 389

Tube-Side Deltap 390

Shell-Side Deltap 390

Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers 393

Design Charts for Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers 397

Selection 400

Advantages 400

Disadvantages 400

Example 21.20 401

Solution 401

Pressure Drop Calculations 408

Cooling Water Side Pressure Drop 410

Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers 412

Induced Draft 412

Forced Draft 413

General Application 422

Advantages-Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers 422

Disadvantages 423

Bid Evaluation 424

Design Consideration (Continuous Service) 428

Mean Temperature Difference 433

Design Procedure for Approximation 435

Tube Side Fluid Temperature Control 440

Rating Method for Air Cooler Exchangers 441

The Equations 441

The Air Side Pressure Drop, Deltapa (in. H 2 O) 447

Example 21.26 448

Solution 448

Operations of Air Cooled Heat Exchangers 448

Monitoring of Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers 450

Boiling and Vaporization 450

Boiling 450

Vaporization 455

Vaporization During Flow 455

Vaporization in Horizontal Shell; Natural Circulation 470

Pool and Nucleate Boiling--General Correlation for Heat Flux and Critical Temperature Difference 472

Example 21.27 474

Solution 475

Reboiler Heat Balance 480

Example 21.28 Reboiler Heat Duty after Kern 480

Solution 481

Kettle Horizontal Reboilers 482

Maximum Bundle Heat Flux 483

Nucleate or Alternate Designs Procedure 489

Kettle Reboiler--Horizontal Shells 490

Horizontal Kettle Reboiler Disengaging Space 491

Kettle Horizontal Reboilers, Alternate Design 491

Boiling: Nucleate Natural Circulation (Thermosyphon) Inside Vertical Tubes or Outside Horizontal Tubes 493

Gilmour Method Modified 493

Suggested Procedure for Vaporization with Sensible Heat Transfer 496

Procedure for Horizontal Natural Circulation Thermosyphon Reboiler 499

Kern Method 499

Vaporization Inside Vertical Tubes; Natural Thermosyphon Action 499

Fair's Method 500

Process Requirements 505

Preliminary Design 506

Circulation Rate 506

Heat Transfer--Stepwise Method 507

Circulation Rate 510

Heat Transfer: Simplified Method 516

Design Comments 516

Example 21.29 C3 Splitter Reboiler 518

Solution 519

Preliminary Design 519

Circulation Rate 519

Heat Transfer Rate--Stepwise Method 520

Heat Transfer Rate--Simplified Method 522

Example 21.30 Cyclohexane Column Reboiler 522

Solution 523

Preliminary Design 523

Circulation Rate 523

Heat Transfer Rate--Simplified Method 524

Kern's Method Stepwise 525

Design Considerations 527

Other Design Methods 530

Example 21.31 Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler, Kern's Method 530

Solution 531

Calculation of Tube Side Film Coefficient 538

Simplified Hajek Method--Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler 539

General Guides for Vertical Thermosyphon Reboilers Design 540

Example 21.32 Hajek's Method--Vertical Thermosyphon Reboiler 542

Physical Data Required 542

Variables to be Determined 542

Determine Overall Coefficient at Maximum Flux 543

Determine Overall DeltaT at Maximum Flux 543

Maximum Flat 545

Flux at Operating Levels Below Maximum 545

Fouled DeltaT at Maximum Flux 547

Fouled DeltaT, To Maintain Plus for 10°F Clean DeltaT 548

Analysis of Data in Figure 21.225 548

Surface Area Required 548

Vapor Nozzle Diameter 549

Liquid Inlet Nozzle Diameter 549

Design Notes 549

Reboiling Piping 550

Film Boiling 550

Vertical Tubes, Boiling Outside, Submerged 550

Horizontal Tubes: Boiling Outside, Submerged 550

Common Reboiler Problems 554

Heat Exchanger Design with Computers 555

Functionality 557

Physical Properties 558

UniSim Heat Exchanger Model Formulations 559

Case Study 1: Kettle Reboiler Simulation Using UniSim STE 559

Nozzle Data 564

Process Data 564

Case Study 2: Thermosyphon Reboiler Simulation Using UniSim STE 572

Process Data (SI Units) 574

Solution 580

Troubleshooting of Shell and Tube Exchanger 580

Maintenance of Heat Exchangers 580

Disassembly for Inspection or Cleaning 580

Locating Tube Leaks 580

Hydrocarbon Leaks 596

Pass Partition Failure 596

Water Hammer 596

General Symptoms in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers 598

Case Studies of Heat Exchanger Explosion Hazard Incidents 599

A Case Study (Courtesy of U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board) 599

TESORO ANACORTES REFINERY, ANACORTES, WASHINGTON 599

Process Conditions of the B and E Heat Exchangers 602

US Chemical Safety Board (CBS) Findings 602

Recommendations 606

Maintenance Procedures 607

References 612

22 Energy Management and Pinch Technology 621

22.1 Introduction 621

22.2 Waste Heat Recovery 624

22.2.1 Steam Distribution 625

22.2.2 Design for Energy Efficiency 626

22.2.3 Energy Management Opportunities 628

22.3 Process Integration and Heat Exchanger Networks 631

22.3.1 Application of Process Integration 638

22.4 Pinch Technology 639

22.4.1 Heat Exchanger Network Design 640

22.4.2 Energy and Capital Targeting and Optimization 643

22.4.3 Optimization Variables 643

22.4.4 Optimization of the Use of Utilities (Utility Placement) 645

22.4.5 Heat Exchanger Network Revamp 645

22.5 Energy Targets 649

22.5.1 Heat Recovery for Multiple Systems 650

Example 22.1: Setting Energy Targets and Heat Exchanger Network 650

Solution 650

22.6 The Heat Recovery Pinch and Its Significance 655

22.7 The Significance of the Pinch 656

22.8 A Targeting Procedure: The Problem Table Algorithm 658

22.9 The Grand Composite Curve 661

22.9.1 Placing Utilities Using the Grand Composite Curve 663

22.10 Stream Matching at the Pinch 665

22.10.1 The Pinch Design Approach to Inventing a Network 666

22.11 Heat Exchanger Network Design 666

Example 22.2 673

Solution 673

22.11.1 Stream Splitting 678

Example 22.3 (Source: Seider et al., Product and Process Design Principles--Synthesis, Analysis, and Evaluation 3rd Ed. Wiley 2009 [26]) 679

Solution 680

Example 22.4 [Source: Manufacture of cellulose acetate fiber by Robins Smith (Chemical Process Design and Integration, John Wiley 2007 [34])] 681

Solution 687

22.12 Heat Exchanger Area Targets 693

Example 22.5 (Source: R. Smith, Chemical Process Design, Mc Graw-Hill, 1995 [20]) 695

Solution 696

Example 22.6 703

Solution 703

22.13 HEN Simplification 703

Example 22.7: Test Case 3, TC3 Linnhoff and Hindmarch 703

Solution 704

22.13.1 Heat Load Paths 709

22.14 Number of Shell Target 710

22.14.1 Implications for HEN Design 711

22.15 Capital Cost Targets 712

22.16 Energy Targeting 714

22.16.1 Supertargeting or deltaTmin Optimization 714

Example 22.8: Cost Targeting 714

Solution 715

Example 22.9: HEN for Maximum Energy Recovery (Warren D. Seider et al. [26]) 722

Solution 722

22.17 Targeting and Design for Constrained Matches 725

22.18 Heat Engines and Heat Pumps for Optimum Integration 726

22.18.1 Appropriate Integration of Heat Engines 729

22.18.2 Appropriate Integration of Heat Pumps 731

22.18.3 Opportunities for Placement of Heat Pumps 731

22.18.4 Appropriate Placement of Compression and Expansion in Heat Recovery Systems 732

22.19 Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in Process Integration 732

22.20 Total Site Analysis 732

22.21 Applications of Process Integration 736

22.22 Sitewide Integration 741

22.23 Flue Gas Emissions 741

22.24 Pitfalls in Process Integration 744

Glossary of Terms 789

Summary and Heuristics 795

Nomenclature 796

References 796

Bibliography 800

Appendix D 801

Appendix G 877

Appendix H 919

Glossary of Petroleum and Petrochemical Technical Terminologies 927

About the Author 1053

Index 1055