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Sexual Offending in Asia

A Psycho-Criminological Perspective

Chan, Heng Choon (Oliver)

Psycho-Criminology of Crime, Mental Health, and the Law


1. Auflage Januar 2023
416 Seiten, Softcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-119-85333-6
John Wiley & Sons

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Sexual Offending in Asia examines sexual offending from a general Asian perspective with a psycho-criminological approach (i.e., personal, social, and environmental mechanisms) to provide comprehensive coverage of different topics from both theoretical and practical (i.e., practice and policy) standpoints. This book is part of The Wiley Series in the Psycho-Criminology of Crime, Mental Health, and the Law, which aims to publish original, high-quality authored and edited collections on all aspects of crime, mental health, and the law from a psycho-criminological perspective.

Sexual Offending in Asia is divided into two main sections--i.e., Part 1: Theories of Sexual Offending and Part 2: Sexual Offending in Asia--with five chapters in each section. In the second section, each chapter concludes with two case examples to illustrate the sexual offending phenomenon of each geographical location.

Written by an award-winning author with significant experience in the field, Sexual Offending in Asia provides coverage of topics such as:
* Multi-level theories of general sexual offending, including multi-factorial (Level 1), single factor (Level ll), and micro-level or offense process (Level lll) theories of sexual offending for specific sex offender populations, including female sex offenders and sexual homicide offenders

Sexual offending in Asia is discussed based on 5 geographical regions, namely East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia, and Central Asia. Sexual offending in each geographical region is discussed comprehensively, including the prevalence and nature of sexual offending; cultural values and norms related to sexual offending; offender, victim, and offense characteristics; penal codes; and case examples

Sexual Offending in Asia will be of immense interest not only to researchers and field practitioners whose work brings them into contact with sexual offenders, but more specifically to those who wish for an informed and informative understanding of Asian sexual offending regarding prevention and intervention strategies.

List of Figures xiv

Foreword xv

Series Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxii

Endorsements xxiii

About the Author xxvi

1 Introduction: Distinguishing Nonhomicidal from Homicidal Sexual Offending 1

Introduction 1

The Structure of the Book 2

Understanding Sexual Offending: Prevalence and Nature 5

Nonhomicidal and Homicidal Sexual Offending: Similarities and Differences 8

Offenders' Age and Racial Background 9

Offenders' Intelligence, Educational Background, and Criminal History 9

Offenders' Childhood and Adolescent Development 19

Offenders' Behavioral Problems and Psychiatric Diagnoses 20

Offenders' Relationship Status at the Time of the Offense 21

Offenders' Sexual Deviation 22

Offenders' Pre-Crime Characteristics 23

Offenders' Crime Scene Characteristics 24

Victims' Characteristics 25


References 27

Part 1 Theories of Sexual Offending 35

2 Theories of Sexual Offending: Level I (Multi-Factorial) Theories 37

Introduction 37

The Precondition Model (Finkelhor, 1984) 37

The Integrated Theory (Marshall & Barbaree, 1990) 39

The Quadripartite Model (Hall & Hirschman, 1992) 41

The Confluence Model (Malamuth, 1996) 44

The Sexual Promiscuity (SP; or Impersonal Sex) Pathway 46

The Hostile Masculinity (HM) Pathway 46

The Evolutionary Theory of Rape (Thornhill & Palmer, 2000) 47

A Theory of Mind Perspective (Ward et al., 2000) 49

The Pathway Model (Ward & Siegert, 2002) 50

The Motivation-Facilitation

Model of Sexual Offending (Seto, 2019) 52

Motivation 53

Paraphilias 53

High Sex Drive 54

Intense Mating Effort 54

Facilitation 55


Problems 55

Hostile Masculinity 55

State Facilitation Factors 56

Situational Factors 56

References 57

3 Theories of Sexual Offending: Level II (Single Factor) Theories 62

Introduction 62

The Sexual Deviation Theory (McGuire et al., 1965) 62

The Cognitive Distortion Theory (Abel et al., 1984) 63

The Intimacy Deficits Theory (Marshall, 1989) 64

The Conditioning Theory (Law & Marshall, 1990) 65

Radical Feminist Perspectives on Child Sexual Abuse (Breckenridge, 1992) 67

Postmodern Feminist Perspectives on Sexual Offending (Featherstone & Fawcett, 1994; Featherstone & Lancaster, 1997; Lancaster & Lumb, 1999) 68

The Four-Stage Model of the Empathy Process (Marshall et al., 1995) 69

The Monoamine Hypothesis (Kafka, 1997, 2003) 71

The Implicit Theory of Sexual Offenders (Ward, 2000) 72

The Power/Powerlessness Theory (Cossins, 2000) 75

The Schema-Based

Model of Sexual Assault (Mann & Beech, 2003) 76

References 77

4 Theories of Sexual Offending: Level III (Micro-Level) Theories 82

Introduction 82

The Substance Abuse-Based Relapse Model (Marlatt Relapse Model) (Marlatt & Gordon, 1985) 82

The Pithers-Marques Relapse Model of Sexual Offending (Pithers et al., 1983) 83

Wolf's Addiction Cycle of Sexual Offending (Wolf, 1985) 84

Freeman-Longo's Four-Stage Model (Bays & Freeman-Longo, 1990; Freeman-Longo & Pithers, 1992) 87

Carich's Six-Stage Sexual Assault Cycle (Carich, 1994; Carich & Stone, 1995) 87

Lane's Sexual Abuse Cycle (Lane, 1991, 1997) 88

Salter's Deviant Cycle (Salter, 1995) 90

The Child Molester Offense Chain Model of Ward et al. (Ward et al., 1995b) 91

The Self-Regulation Process Model of Sexual Offending (Ward & Hudson, 1998a) 95

The Rape Model of Polaschek et al. (Polaschek et al., 2001) 99

The Integrated Theory of Sexual Offending (Ward & Beech, 2006) 105

Brain Development 106

Ecological Niche: Proximal and Distal Factors 108

Neuropsychological Functioning 109

Clinical Phenomena 110

The Expertise-Related Competency Model of Child Sexual Offending (Bourke et al., 2012) 112

Phase 1: Primary Skill Acquisition 114

Phase 2: Lifestyle 115

Phase 3: Offense-Related Competencies 115

Phase 4: Offense-Related Behaviors 116

Mediating Categories: Internal Moderators and Contextual Features 116

Phase 5: Masking 117

Phase 6: Reflection 117

References 118

5 Theories of Female Sexual Offending 124

Introduction 124

The Descriptive Model of Female Sexual Offending (Gannon et al., 2008) 124

Phase 1: Background Factors 124

Phase 2: The Pre-offense Period 125

Phase 3: The Offense and Post-offense Period 128

Pathway Identification 131

Trauma-Informed Perspective of Female Sexual Offending (McLeod et al., 2015) 134

References 137

6 Theories of Sexual Homicide Offending 140

Introduction 140

The Motivational Model (Burgess et al., 1986) 140

Ineffective Social Environment 140

Formative Events in Childhood and Adolescence 142

Patterned Responses to Formative Events 143

Actions toward Others and Self 144

Feedback Filter 144

The Trauma-Control Model (Hickey, 1997, 2002) 145

Predispositional Factors 146

Traumatic Events 146

Low Self-Esteem and Fantasies 146

Dissociation 147

Trauma Reinforcers 147

Facilitators 148

Increasingly Violent Fantasies 148

Homicidal Behavior 148

The Paraphilic Model (Arrigo & Purcell, 2001) 149

Formative Development 150

Predispositional Factors 150

Traumatic Events 150

Low Self-Esteem 151

Early Fantasy and Paraphilic Development 151

Paraphilic Process 152

Paraphilic Stimuli and Fantasy 152

Orgasmic Conditioning Process 152

Facilitators 153

Stressors 153

Behavioral Manifestations 153

Increasingly Violent Fantasies 154

The Social Learning-Routine Activity Integrated Theory (Chan, 2015; Chan et al., 2011) 154

Predispositional Factors: A Motivated Offender 155

Situational Factors: An Attractive and Suitable Target, and the Absence of a Capable Guardian 157

Additional Motivating Factors: Precrime Precipitators 158

References 158

Part 2 Sexual Offending in Asia 163

7 Sexual Offending in East Asia 165

Introduction 165

Prevalence and Nature of Sexual Offending 165

Mainland China 166

Hong Kong 167

Japan 168

South Korea 169

North Korea 169

Taiwan 170

Cultural Values and Norms Related to Sexual Offending 170

Offender, Victim, and Offense Characteristics 174

Intervention and Prevention Strategies 182

Penal Codes 187

Case Examples 187

The "Chinese Jack the Ripper" 188

The Serial Kidnapping Murder of Little Girls in Japan 189

Conclusion 191

References 192

References on the Cases 212

8 Sexual Offending in Southeast Asia 213

Introduction 213

Prevalence and Nature of Sexual Offending 213

Indonesia 214

The Philippines 215

Vietnam 216

Myanmar 216

Malaysia and Singapore 217

Thailand 217

Cambodia 218

Sexual Violence in Political Conflict Areas 219

Cultural Values and Norms Related to Sexual Offending 219

Offender, Victim, and Offense Characteristics 223

Intervention and Prevention Strategies 228

Penal Codes 230

Case Examples 231

The Indonesian Serial Child Murderer 231

The Malaysian Serial Sexual Offender in Singapore 233

Conclusion 235

References 236

References on the Cases 250

9 Sexual Offending in South Asia 252

Introduction 252

Prevalence and Nature of Sexual Offending 252

India 252

Bangladesh 253

Nepal 253

Pakistan 254

Cultural Values and Norms Related to Sexual Offending 254

Offender, Victim, and Offense Characteristics 258

Intervention and Prevention Strategies 264

Penal Codes 266

Case Examples 266

The Delhi Gang Rape in India 266

The Rape and Murder of Zainab Amin Ansari in Pakistan 268

Conclusion 269

References 270

References on the Cases 283

10 Sexual Offending in West Asia 284

Introduction 284

Prevalence and Nature of Sexual Offending 284

Saudi Arabia 285

Turkey 286

Egypt 286

Cyprus 286

Israel 287

Iran 287

Jordan 288

Iraq 289

Palestine 289

Cultural Values and Norms Related to Sexual Offending 290

Offender, Victim, and Offense Characteristics 293

Intervention and Prevention Strategies 299

Penal Codes 302

Case Examples 303

The Iranian "Spider Killer" 303

The Rape and Murder of Azra Gülendam Haytaoglu in Turkey 305

Conclusion 306

References 307

References on the Cases 320

11 Sexual Offending in Central Asia 322

Introduction 322

Prevalence and Nature of Sexual Offending 322

Kyrgyzstan 323

Tajikistan 323

Kazakhstan 324

Cultural Values and Norms Related to Sexual Offending 324

Offender, Victim, and Offense Characteristics 326

Intervention and Prevention Strategies 327

Penal Codes 328

Case Examples 328

The Murder and Dismemberment of Ayazhan Yedilova in Kazakhstan 329

The Bride Kidnapping and Murder of Aizada Kanatbekova in Kyrgyzstan 330

Conclusion 331

References 332

References on the Cases 337

12 Conclusion 339

Introduction 339

Prevalence and Nature of Sexual Offending in Asia 340

Distinguishing Sexual Offending in Asia from Sexual Offending in Other Regions 347

Concluding Remarks 350

References 354

Index 368
HENG CHOON (OLIVER) CHAN, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Criminology at City University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, SAR. He received his Ph.D. in Criminology from the University of South Florida, USA. Over the years, Dr. Chan has been awarded a number of awards to recognize his outstanding research performance and contributions to professional education. Dr. Chan's research focuses on sexual homicide, sexual offending, stalking, psycho-criminology, and Asian criminology.