John Wiley & Sons Archaic Greece Cover An introductory guide to the Archaic period in ancient Greece--the people, their society, and their .. Product #: 978-1-4051-9860-8 Regular price: $31.68 $31.68 Auf Lager

Archaic Greece

The Age of New Reckonings

Lavelle, Brian M.

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1. Auflage April 2019
280 Seiten, Softcover
Wiley & Sons Ltd

ISBN: 978-1-4051-9860-8
John Wiley & Sons

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An introductory guide to the Archaic period in ancient Greece--the people, their society, and their culture. Excerpts from literary and other texts give voice to the interests, concerns, and emotions of the Archaic Greeks themselves.

This book provides a brief but comprehensive introduction to the society and culture of the Archaic period in the Greek world from c. 750 to c. 480 BCE. It focuses on the persistent and often-conflicting themes, topics, and controversies of the Archaic Age (e.g., elite and non-elite, religion and science, tradition and humanism). It seeks to lead the reader to a broader and deeper understanding of the period by placing themes and topics in a mutually supportive contextual network that will underscore their significance.

Archaic Greece: The Age of New Reckonings begins with a chapter on how sources for the period are evaluated and deployed, and goes on to offer a concise yet thorough historical overview of the Archaic period. Subsequent chapters cover polis and politics; war and violence; religion; science; philosophy; art; literature; festivals and games; social forces, values, and behaviors; and gender and sex.

The book:
* Offers a novel approach to a very significant period that foregrounds literary evidence and the words voiced by Archaic Greeks, combining scholarship with readability;
* Conceptualizes Archaic Greek culture and society by focusing substantially on topics that supplement the history of the period;
* Combines diverse elements of society and culture, including religion, art, literature, games and festivals, gender, sexuality, and politics in order to develop a unique picture of Greece during the Archaic period;
* Includes a summarizing essay that draws chapters together, emphasizing the implications of their topics and themes.

Archaic Greece: The Age of New Reckonings should appeal to college-level instructors as a book to assign to students enrolled in courses involving Archaic Greece and to others interested in this intriguing and pivotal period in ancient Greece.

Figures and Source-Acknowledgments xiii

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xix

Abbreviations and Citations xxi

Maps xxiii

1 Sources for the Archaic Period 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Archaeology and the Material Remains 1

1.2.1 Pottery 2

1.2.2 Burials 4

1.2.3 Inscriptions 5

1.2.4 Other Types of Material Evidence 7

1.2.5 Problems of Interpretation 7

1.3 Literary Sources 8

1.3.1 Archaic Greek Poets 9

1.3.2 Prose Writers 10

1.4 Managing the Muses 11

1.4.1 Evaluating and Deploying the Evidence 11

Notes 13

Further Reading 13

2 A Brief Overview of the Archaic Period 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 The Environment and Greek Life 16

2.2.1 The Land and the Sea 16

2.2.2 The Greeks and Others 17

2.3 The Early Archaic Period 18

2.4 The Seventh Century BCE: Expansion and Change 19

2.4.1 Colonies 19

2.4.2 Law Codes 20

2.4.3 Tyranny 21

2.5 The Sixth Century BCE: Conflict and Creation 21

2.5.1 The Kingdom of Lydia 21

2.5.2 The Empire of the Persians 22

2.5.3 Greek Culture in the Sixth Century BCE 24

2.6 The Early Fifth Century BCE: The Defeat of Persia 24

2.7 Sparta and Lakonia 25

2.8 Athens and Attika 26

Notes 27

Further Reading 27

Brief Timeline for the Archaic Period 29

3 Polis and Politics in Archaic Greece 31

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Origins and Nature of the Early Polis 31

3.3 Transformations of Leadership and Governance in the Archaic Polis 34

3.3.1 Basileis and Aristoi 35

3.3.2 Archaic Greek Tyrants and Tyranny 38

3.3.3 Lawgivers and Law Codes 40

3.4 Demokratia

3.4.1 Background 42

3.4.2 Kleisthenes and His Reforms 43

3.5 The Evolution of Politics and Government in Archaic Greece: A Summary 45

3.6 Politics and the Archaic Greek Farmer 46

Notes 47

Further Reading 48

4 War and Violence in Archaic Greece 51

4.1 Introduction 51

4.1.1 "Homeric" Warfare 51

4.2 Land Warfare in the Early Archaic Period 53

4.2.1 "Servant of the War-God" 53

4.2.2 Hoplites and the Phalanx 56

4.3 Land Warfare in the Later Archaic Period 61

4.3.1 Sparta, the Polis of War 61

4.4 Epilogue: The Causes of War 64

4.5 Summary 64

4.5.1 The Land War Experience in the Archaic Period 64

4.6 Conflict at Sea 66

4.6.1 Early Sea Travel and Piracy 66

4.6.2 Archaic Greek Ship-Guilds 66

4.6.3 Archaic Greek Ships 68

4.6.4 The Archaic Greeks and the Sea: A Summary 70

Notes 71

Further Reading 71

5 Archaic Greek Myth and Religion 73

5.1 Introduction 73

5.2 The Gods of Hesiod and Homer 76

5.2.1 Hesiod 76

5.2.2 Homer 79

5.2.3 Xenophanes' Complaint 81

5.3 Sanctuaries and Seers 82

5.3.1 Sacred Space 82

5.3.2 Seers, Prophets, and Sibyls 84

5.3.3 Dodona and Delphi 85

5.4 Gods and Poleis 86

5.4.1 Cult and Identity 86

5.5 The Archaic Greeks and Their Gods: A Summary 87

5.5.1 Law, Order, and Justice in the Kosmos 87

5.6 The Olympians 89

Notes 91

Further Reading 91

6 Early Greek Science 93

6.1 Darkness and Lumination 93

6.2 A Farmer's Handbook: Hesiod's Works and Days 94

6.3 The Near East, Miletos, and Science 95

6.3.1 Thales, Physikos kai Astronomikos 97

6.3.2 Anaximandros, Hekataios, and the World Imagined 100

6.3.3 Milesian Science: A Summary 102

6.4 "Wonders" 102

6.4.1 The Evolution of Archaic Greek Temples 102

6.4.2 Tunnels, Moles, and Bridges 104

6.5 Medicine 106

6.6 "Civilians," Science, and Technology 107

Notes 108

Further Reading 109

7 Archaic Greek Philosophy 111

7.1 Introduction 111

7.2 Hesiod and Zeus 112

7.3 Ionian Philosophy 114

7.3.1 The Milesians and the Kosmos 114

7.4 Skeptics, Critics, and Epistemology 116

7.4.1 Xenophanes 116

7.4.2 Herakleitos 118

7.5 Mathematics and the Mystical 120

7.5.1 Pythagoras 120

7.6 Summary 123

7.6.1 Early Philosophers and the Archaic Greeks 123

Notes 124

Further Reading 124

8 The Art of the Archaic Greeks 127

8.1 Introduction 127

8.2 Archaic Pottery-Painting 128

8.2.1 Later Geometric Pottery 128

8.2.2 Early Archaic Pottery: Orientalizing, Proto-Corinthian, and Proto-Attic 129

8.2.3 Later Archaic Pottery: Black-Figure and Red-Figure Ware 131

8.3 Archaic Greek Sculpture 137

8.3.1 Introduction 137

8.3.2 Later Geometric Sculpture 137

8.3.3 Archaic Architectural Sculpture 138

8.3.4 Kouroi 142

8.3.5 Korai 145

8.4 Summary 149

8.4.1 Archaic Greek Art and Archaic Greeks 149

Notes 149

Further Reading 150

9 Archaic Greek Literature 151

9.1 Introduction 151

9.2 Homer 151

9.2.1 Iliad 153

9.2.2 Odyssey 155

9.3 Hesiod 157

9.4 Early Greek Lyric and Elegaic Poets 157

9.4.1 Archilochos 158

9.4.2 Semonides 160

9.4.3 Tyrtaios 160

9.4.4 Mimnermos 162

9.5 Later Lyric and Elegaic Poets 163

9.5.1 Sappho 163

9.5.2 Solon 165

9.5.3 Anakreon 167

9.5.4 Simonides 169

9.5.5 Pindar 173

9.6 Summary 174

Notes 175

Further Reading 176

10 Festivals and Games of the Archaic Greeks 179

10.1 Introduction 179

10.1.1 Pre-Olympic Festivals and Games 179

10.2 The Olympic Festival and Games 181

10.2.1 Origins and Arrangements 181

10.2.2 Agones 182

10.2.3 Nike ("Victory") 188

10.2.4 The Panhellenic Ideal 191

10.3 Other Games and Festivals 191

10.3.1 The Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian Games 191

10.4 Local and Regional Festivals 194

10.4.1 Panathenaia 194

10.4.2 Other Local and Regional Festivals 196

10.5 Festivals and Culture 197

10.5.1 Dionysia and Drama at Athens 197

10.5.2 The Dithyramb, Thespis, and Attic Tragedy 197

10.6 Summary 199

Notes 199

Further Reading 200

11 Cultural Identity, Social Forces, Values, and Behaviors 203

11.1 Introduction 203

11.1.1 Philochoria 204

11.2 Honor, Fame, and Good Repute 205

11.2.1 Kleos and Arete: Old Standards and New Benchmarks 205

11.2.2 Adjustments and Modifications to Standards and Expectations 207

11.2.3 Right Conduct: Constructive and Destructive 209

11.2.4 Philia 211

11.3 Excess and Moderation 212

11.3.1 The Seven Sages and the Delphic Maxims 213

11.4 Competition 214

11.4.1 The Pursuit of Wealth 215

11.4.2 The Agon of Politics and Display 216

11.5 Old Allegiances and New Realities 217

11.5.1 Aristos and Demos 217

11.6 Summary 218

Notes 219

Further Reading 219

12 Gender and Sexuality in Archaic Greece 221

12.1 Introduction 221

12.2 Archaic Greek Females 221

12.2.1 The Problem of Male Sources: Pandora, Helen, Clytemnestra, Penelope 221

12.2.2 Voices of Archaic Greek Women 224

12.2.3 Childhood and Maidenhood 229

12.2.4 Marriage and Family 231

12.2.5 Ritual and Religion 233

12.2.6 Summary 234

12.3 Archaic Greek Males 236

12.3.1 Childhood and Youth 236

12.3.2 Marriage and Family 237

12.3.3 Ritual and Religion 238

12.3.4 Social Life: Philia and Symposia 238

12.3.5 Summary 239

12.4 Sex, Gender, and Archaic Greek Society 239

12.4.1 Introduction: "Secret Sex" and Open Encounters 239

12.4.2 Eros 240

12.4.3 Same-Sex Relationships 241

12.5 Summary 243

Notes 243

Further Reading 244

13 Epilogue: The Common and the Extraordinary 247

Notes 253

Glossary of Greek Terms 255

Index: Literary Citations 259

Index 265