Comparative anatomy helps to define among surgical procedures, those that are able to restore early walking function using really useful structures, without necessarily respecting the normal anatomy.This book proposes an original vision based on the following ideas : The cure is complete only if it occurs quickly, which is vital for vulnerable patients. The surgical goal isn t the anatomical restitution ad integrum, but to resore the fonction, that of the permanent terrestrial human bipedalism. To identify it, put it back into its evolutionary context and compare it to the anatomo-functional models of our closest relatives, the great apes. Achieving this dual objective through new surgical techniques (percutaneous and minimally invaseve), associated with biomechanical data for immediate and total support.
2-1 Transverse stabilisation factors of the ankle2-2 Antero-posterior stabilization factors2-2-1 Factors limiting the flexion2-2-2 Factors limiting the extension2-2-2-1 Bone factors2-2-2-2 Capsulolabral factors2-2-2-3 Muscular factors3-1 Dinosaurs3-2 Birds3-3 Primates3-3-1 Human model3-3-2 Australopithecus3-3-3 Great apes1 From the beginning of the heel strike phase to the point X2-2 From the point X to the heel off phase4-1 The beginning of the support phase4-2 At point X4-3 The end of phase C after point X4-4 End of the midstance phase and beginning of the swing phase2-1 Convergence towards normality and utility2-2 Deviation from normality1-1 Introductioin1-2 Anatomical reminder1-3 Clinical aspect1-4 Surgical treatment2- The first metatarsophalangeal joint2-1 Biomecanics2-2 Pathophysiology2-3 Surgical treatment4-1 Passive structures4-2 An active structure : Flexor digitorum longus (FDL)4-3 In total3-1 Comparative anatomy3-2 Mecanism of the extension3-2-1 Anatomy3-2-2 Biomecanics3-2-3 Conclusion3-3 Surgical consequences3-3-1 Selective section of the Extensor digitorum longus muscle3-3-2 Technique4-1 Anatomo-functional reminder4-2 What can we theoretically sacrifice ?5-1 Introduction5-2 Anatomo-functional comparison betweel human and non-human foot5-3 Robustness of the metatarsals and the second metatarsal5-4 Indentation or embedding of the second metatarsal5-5 Metatarsal-ground angle5-6 Consequences5-7 Metatarsal torsion and plantar arch2-1 The gravitational force2-1-1 Seniority2-1-2 Intricacy between rigid bone skeleton and calcium homeostasis2-1-3 Dissemination through the whole organism2-1-3-1 Plant tissue2-1-3-2 Bone tissue2-1-3-3 Heart, circulatory system and lungs2-1-3-4 Muscular tissue2-1-3-5 Nervous and vestibular systems2-1-3-6 Genetics2-1-3-7 Stem cells2-1-4 Spread to the whole plant kingdom2-2 Associated forces2-2-1 Animal2-2-2 Plant3-1 Animal3-1-1 Otocyst and otoliths3-2-2 Osteocyte3-2 Plant4-1 Among the animals4-1-1 Cytoskeleton4-1-2 Extracellular matrix4-2 Among the plants4-2-1 Cytoskeleton4-2-2 Extracellular matrix4-2-3 In total5-1 On the animal side5-2 On the plant side5-3 In total6-1 Physical data used6-1-1 Young s modulus (E)6-1-2 Second moment of area (Iz)6-1-3 Calculation of the bending moment6-2 Elements modifying the Young s modulus6-2-1 Hydroxyapatite and animal collagen6-2-2 Plant elaboration of a composite material6-2-3 Changing trabecular bone orientation6-2-4 Orientation change by curvature of the branch: reaction wood6-3 Elements modifying the second moment of area6-3-1 Increase in diameter6-3-2 Compromise between hollow and solid tubes 6-3-3 Curvature change6-3-4 Ovalization of the section slice6-4 Elements changing both parameters6-5 Influence of the frequency of the application of the constraints6-6 In total
Cyrille CAZEAU, M.D. : Foot and ankle surgeon